Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two-Wheeled Vehicles.

By: Tanelli, MaraContributor(s): Corno, Matteo | Saveresi, SergioSeries: Automotive SerPublisher: New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2014Copyright date: ©2013Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (370 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118536377Subject(s): Motorcycles - DynamicsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two-Wheeled VehiclesDDC classification: 629.231 LOC classification: TL243 -- .T36 2014ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- About the Editors -- List of Contributors -- Series Preface -- Introduction -- Part 1 Two-Wheeled Vehicles Modelling and Simulation -- Chapter 1 Motorcycle Dynamics -- 1.1 Kinematics -- 1.1.1 Basics of Motorcycle Kinematics -- 1.1.2 Handlebar Steering Angle and Kinematic Steering Angle -- 1.2 Tyres -- 1.2.1 Contact Forces and Torques -- 1.2.2 Steady-State Behaviour -- 1.2.3 Dynamic Behaviour -- 1.3 Suspensions -- 1.3.1 Suspension Forces -- 1.3.2 Suspensions Layout -- 1.3.3 Equivalent Stiffness and Damping -- 1.4 In-Plane Dynamics -- 1.4.1 Pitch, Bounce and Hops Modes -- 1.4.2 Powertrain -- 1.4.3 Engine-to-Slip Dynamics -- 1.4.4 Chatter -- 1.5 Out-of-Plane Dynamics -- 1.5.1 Roll Equilibrium -- 1.5.2 Motorcycle Countersteering -- 1.5.3 Weave, Wobble and Capsize -- 1.6 In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Coupled Dynamics -- References -- Chapter 2 Dynamic Modelling of Riderless Motorcycles for Agile Manoeuvres -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Related Work -- 2.3 Motorcycle Dynamics -- 2.3.1 Geometry and Kinematics Relationships -- 2.3.2 Motorcycle Dynamics -- 2.4 Tyre Dynamics Models -- 2.4.1 Tyre Kinematics Relationships -- 2.4.2 Modelling of Frictional Forces -- 2.4.3 Combined Tyre and Motorcycle Dynamics Models -- 2.5 Conclusions -- Nomenclature -- Appendix A: Calculation of Ms -- Appendix B: Calculation of Acceleration v̇ G -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Chapter 3 Identification and Analysis of Motorcycle Engine-to-Slip Dynamics -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Experimental Setup -- 3.3 Identification of Engine-to-Slip Dynamics -- 3.3.1 Relative Slip -- 3.3.2 Throttle Dynamics -- 3.4 Engine-to-Slip Dynamics Analysis -- 3.4.1 Throttle and Spark Advance Control -- 3.4.2 Motorcycle Benchmarking -- 3.5 Road Surface Sensitivity -- 3.6 Velocity Sensitivity -- 3.7 Conclusions -- References.
Chapter 4 Virtual Rider Design: Optimal Manoeuvre Definition and Tracking -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Principles of Minimum Time Trajectory Computation -- 4.2.1 Tyre Modelling -- 4.2.2 Engine and Drivetrain Modelling -- 4.2.3 Brake Modelling -- 4.2.4 Wheelie and Stoppie -- 4.3 Computing the Optimal Velocity Profile for a Point-Mass Motorcycle -- 4.3.1 Computing the Optimal Velocity Profile for a Realistic Motorcycle -- 4.3.2 Application to a Realistic Motorcycle Model -- 4.4 The Virtual Rider -- 4.4.1 The Sliding Plane Motorcycle Model -- 4.5 Dynamic Inversion: from Flatland to State-Input Trajectories -- 4.5.1 Quasi-Static Motorcycle Trajectory -- 4.5.2 Approximate Inversion by Trajectory Optimization -- 4.6 Closed-Loop Control: Executing the Planned Trajectory -- 4.6.1 Manoeuvre Regulation -- 4.6.2 Shaping the Closed-Loop Response -- 4.6.3 Interfacing the Maneuver Regulation Controller with the Multibody Motorycle Model -- 4.7 Conclusions -- 4.8 Acknowledgements -- References -- Chapter 5 The Optimal Manoeuvre -- 5.1 The Optimal Manoeuvre Concept: Manoeuvrability and Handling -- 5.1.1 Optimal Manoeuvre Mathematically Formalised -- 5.1.2 The Optimal Manoeuvre Explained with Linearized Motorcycle Models -- 5.2 Optimal Manoeuvre as a Solution of an Optimal Control Problem -- 5.2.1 The Pontryagin Minimum Principle -- 5.2.2 General Formulation of Unconstrained Optimal Control -- 5.2.3 Exact Solution of a Linearized Motorcycle Model -- 5.2.4 Numerical Solution and Approximate Pontryagin -- 5.3 Applications of Optimal Manoeuvre to Motorcycle Dynamics -- 5.3.1 Modelling Riders' Skills and Preferences with the Optimal Manoeuvre -- 5.3.2 Minimum Lap Time Manoeuvres -- 5.4 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 6 Active Biomechanical Rider Model for Motorcycle Simulation -- 6.1 Human Biomechanics and Motor Control -- 6.1.1 Biomechanics -- 6.1.2 Motor Control.
6.2 The Model -- 6.2.1 The Human Body Model -- 6.2.2 The Motorcycle Model -- 6.2.3 Steering the Motorcycle -- 6.3 Simulations and Results -- 6.3.1 Rider's Vibration Response -- 6.3.2 Lane Change Manoeuvre -- 6.3.3 Path Following Performance -- 6.3.4 Influence of Physical Fitness -- 6.3.5 Analysing Weave Mode -- 6.3.6 Provoking Wobble Mode -- 6.3.7 Road Excitation and Ride Comfort -- 6.4 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 7 A Virtual-Reality Framework for the Hardware-in-the-Loop Motorcycle Simulation -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Architecture of the Motorcycle Simulator -- 7.2.1 Motorcycle Mock-up and Sensors -- 7.2.2 Realtime Multibody Model -- 7.2.3 Simulator Cues -- 7.2.4 Virtual Scenario -- 7.3 Tuning and Validation -- 7.3.1 Objective Validation -- 7.3.2 Subjective Validation -- 7.4 Application Examples -- 7.4.1 Hardware- and Human-in-the-Loop Testing of Advanced Rider Assistance Systems -- 7.4.2 Training and Road Education -- References -- Part 2 Two-Wheeled Vehicles Control and Estimation Problems -- Chapter 8 Traction Control Systems Design: A Systematic Approach -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Wheel Slip Dynamics -- 8.3 Traction Control System Design -- 8.3.1 Supervisor -- 8.3.2 Slip Reference Generation -- 8.3.3 Control Law Design -- 8.3.4 Transition Recognition -- 8.4 Fine tuning and Experimental Validation -- 8.5 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 9 Motorcycle Dynamic Modes and Passive Steering Compensation -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Motorcycle Main Oscillatory Modes and Dynamic Behaviour -- 9.3 Motorcycle Standard Model -- 9.4 Characteristics of the Standard Machine Oscillatory Modes and the Influence of Steering Damping -- 9.5 Compensator Frequency Response Design -- 9.6 Suppression of Burst Oscillations -- 9.6.1 Simulated Bursting -- 9.6.2 Acceleration Analysis -- 9.6.3 Compensator Design and Performance -- 9.7 Conclusions -- References.
Chapter 10 Semi-Active Steering Damper Control for Two-Wheeled Vehicles -- 10.1 Introduction and Motivation -- 10.2 Steering Dynamics Analysis -- 10.2.1 Model Parameters Estimation -- 10.2.2 Comparison between Vertical and Steering Dynamics -- 10.3 Control Strategies for Semi-Active Steering Dampers -- 10.3.1 Rotational Sky-Hook and Ground-Hook -- 10.3.2 Closed-Loop Performance Analysis -- 10.4 Validation on Challenging Manoeuvres -- 10.4.1 Performance Evaluation Method -- 10.4.2 Validation of the Control Algorithms -- 10.5 Experimental Results -- 10.6 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 11 Semi-Active Suspension Control in Two-Wheeled Vehicles: a Case Study -- 11.1 Introduction and Problem Statement -- 11.2 The Semi-Active Actuator -- 11.3 The Quarter-Car Model: a Description of a Semi-Active Suspension System -- 11.4 Evaluation Methods for Semi-Active Suspension Systems -- 11.5 Semi-Active Control Strategies -- 11.5.1 Sky-hook Control -- 11.5.2 Mix-1-Sensor Control -- 11.5.3 The Ground-Hook Control -- 11.6 Experimental Set-up -- 11.7 Experimental Evaluation -- 11.8 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12 Autonomous Control of Riderless Motorcycles -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 Trajectory Tracking Control Systems Design -- 12.2.1 External/Internal Convertible Dynamical Systems -- 12.2.2 Trajectory Tracking Control -- 12.2.3 Simulation Results -- 12.3 Path-Following Control System Design -- 12.3.1 Modelling of Tyre-Road Friction Forces -- 12.3.2 Path-Following Manoeuvring Design -- 12.3.3 Simulation Results -- 12.4 Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- Appendix A: Calculation of the Lie Derivatives -- References -- Chapter 13 Estimation Problems in Two-Wheeled Vehicles -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 Roll Angle Estimation -- 13.2.1 Vehicle Attitude and Reference Frames -- 13.2.2 Experimental Set-up -- 13.2.3 Accelerometer-Based Roll Angle Estimation.
13.2.4 Use of the frequency separation principle -- 13.3 Vehicle Speed Estimation -- 13.3.1 Speed Estimation During Traction Manoeuvres -- 13.3.2 Experimental Setup -- 13.3.3 Vehicle Speed Estimation via Kalman Filtering and Frequency Split -- 13.3.4 Experimental Validation -- 13.4 Suspension Stroke Estimation -- 13.4.1 Problem Statement and Estimation Law -- 13.4.2 Experimental Results -- 13.5 Conclusions -- References -- Index.
Summary: Enhanced e-book includes videos  Many books have been written on modelling, simulation and control of four-wheeled vehicles (cars, in particular). However, due to the very specific and different dynamics of two-wheeled vehicles, it is very difficult to reuse previous knowledge gained on cars for two-wheeled vehicles. Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two-Wheeled Vehicles presents all of the unique features of two-wheeled vehicles, comprehensively covering the main methods, tools and approaches to address the modelling, simulation and control design issues. With contributions from leading researchers, this book also offers a perspective on the future trends in the field, outlining the challenges and the industrial and academic development scenarios. Extensive reference to real-world problems and experimental tests is also included throughout. Key features: The first book to cover all aspects of two-wheeled vehicle dynamics and control Collates cutting-edge research from leading international researchers in the field Covers motorcycle control - a subject gaining more and more attention both from an academic and an industrial viewpoint Covers modelling, simulation and control, areas that are integrated in two-wheeled vehicles, and therefore must be considered together in order to gain an insight into this very specific field of research Presents analysis of experimental data and reports on the results obtained on instrumented vehicles. Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two-Wheeled Vehicles is a comprehensive reference for those in academia who are interested in the state of the art of two-wheeled vehicles, and is also a useful source of information for industrial practitioners.
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Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- About the Editors -- List of Contributors -- Series Preface -- Introduction -- Part 1 Two-Wheeled Vehicles Modelling and Simulation -- Chapter 1 Motorcycle Dynamics -- 1.1 Kinematics -- 1.1.1 Basics of Motorcycle Kinematics -- 1.1.2 Handlebar Steering Angle and Kinematic Steering Angle -- 1.2 Tyres -- 1.2.1 Contact Forces and Torques -- 1.2.2 Steady-State Behaviour -- 1.2.3 Dynamic Behaviour -- 1.3 Suspensions -- 1.3.1 Suspension Forces -- 1.3.2 Suspensions Layout -- 1.3.3 Equivalent Stiffness and Damping -- 1.4 In-Plane Dynamics -- 1.4.1 Pitch, Bounce and Hops Modes -- 1.4.2 Powertrain -- 1.4.3 Engine-to-Slip Dynamics -- 1.4.4 Chatter -- 1.5 Out-of-Plane Dynamics -- 1.5.1 Roll Equilibrium -- 1.5.2 Motorcycle Countersteering -- 1.5.3 Weave, Wobble and Capsize -- 1.6 In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Coupled Dynamics -- References -- Chapter 2 Dynamic Modelling of Riderless Motorcycles for Agile Manoeuvres -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Related Work -- 2.3 Motorcycle Dynamics -- 2.3.1 Geometry and Kinematics Relationships -- 2.3.2 Motorcycle Dynamics -- 2.4 Tyre Dynamics Models -- 2.4.1 Tyre Kinematics Relationships -- 2.4.2 Modelling of Frictional Forces -- 2.4.3 Combined Tyre and Motorcycle Dynamics Models -- 2.5 Conclusions -- Nomenclature -- Appendix A: Calculation of Ms -- Appendix B: Calculation of Acceleration v̇ G -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Chapter 3 Identification and Analysis of Motorcycle Engine-to-Slip Dynamics -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Experimental Setup -- 3.3 Identification of Engine-to-Slip Dynamics -- 3.3.1 Relative Slip -- 3.3.2 Throttle Dynamics -- 3.4 Engine-to-Slip Dynamics Analysis -- 3.4.1 Throttle and Spark Advance Control -- 3.4.2 Motorcycle Benchmarking -- 3.5 Road Surface Sensitivity -- 3.6 Velocity Sensitivity -- 3.7 Conclusions -- References.

Chapter 4 Virtual Rider Design: Optimal Manoeuvre Definition and Tracking -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Principles of Minimum Time Trajectory Computation -- 4.2.1 Tyre Modelling -- 4.2.2 Engine and Drivetrain Modelling -- 4.2.3 Brake Modelling -- 4.2.4 Wheelie and Stoppie -- 4.3 Computing the Optimal Velocity Profile for a Point-Mass Motorcycle -- 4.3.1 Computing the Optimal Velocity Profile for a Realistic Motorcycle -- 4.3.2 Application to a Realistic Motorcycle Model -- 4.4 The Virtual Rider -- 4.4.1 The Sliding Plane Motorcycle Model -- 4.5 Dynamic Inversion: from Flatland to State-Input Trajectories -- 4.5.1 Quasi-Static Motorcycle Trajectory -- 4.5.2 Approximate Inversion by Trajectory Optimization -- 4.6 Closed-Loop Control: Executing the Planned Trajectory -- 4.6.1 Manoeuvre Regulation -- 4.6.2 Shaping the Closed-Loop Response -- 4.6.3 Interfacing the Maneuver Regulation Controller with the Multibody Motorycle Model -- 4.7 Conclusions -- 4.8 Acknowledgements -- References -- Chapter 5 The Optimal Manoeuvre -- 5.1 The Optimal Manoeuvre Concept: Manoeuvrability and Handling -- 5.1.1 Optimal Manoeuvre Mathematically Formalised -- 5.1.2 The Optimal Manoeuvre Explained with Linearized Motorcycle Models -- 5.2 Optimal Manoeuvre as a Solution of an Optimal Control Problem -- 5.2.1 The Pontryagin Minimum Principle -- 5.2.2 General Formulation of Unconstrained Optimal Control -- 5.2.3 Exact Solution of a Linearized Motorcycle Model -- 5.2.4 Numerical Solution and Approximate Pontryagin -- 5.3 Applications of Optimal Manoeuvre to Motorcycle Dynamics -- 5.3.1 Modelling Riders' Skills and Preferences with the Optimal Manoeuvre -- 5.3.2 Minimum Lap Time Manoeuvres -- 5.4 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 6 Active Biomechanical Rider Model for Motorcycle Simulation -- 6.1 Human Biomechanics and Motor Control -- 6.1.1 Biomechanics -- 6.1.2 Motor Control.

6.2 The Model -- 6.2.1 The Human Body Model -- 6.2.2 The Motorcycle Model -- 6.2.3 Steering the Motorcycle -- 6.3 Simulations and Results -- 6.3.1 Rider's Vibration Response -- 6.3.2 Lane Change Manoeuvre -- 6.3.3 Path Following Performance -- 6.3.4 Influence of Physical Fitness -- 6.3.5 Analysing Weave Mode -- 6.3.6 Provoking Wobble Mode -- 6.3.7 Road Excitation and Ride Comfort -- 6.4 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 7 A Virtual-Reality Framework for the Hardware-in-the-Loop Motorcycle Simulation -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Architecture of the Motorcycle Simulator -- 7.2.1 Motorcycle Mock-up and Sensors -- 7.2.2 Realtime Multibody Model -- 7.2.3 Simulator Cues -- 7.2.4 Virtual Scenario -- 7.3 Tuning and Validation -- 7.3.1 Objective Validation -- 7.3.2 Subjective Validation -- 7.4 Application Examples -- 7.4.1 Hardware- and Human-in-the-Loop Testing of Advanced Rider Assistance Systems -- 7.4.2 Training and Road Education -- References -- Part 2 Two-Wheeled Vehicles Control and Estimation Problems -- Chapter 8 Traction Control Systems Design: A Systematic Approach -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Wheel Slip Dynamics -- 8.3 Traction Control System Design -- 8.3.1 Supervisor -- 8.3.2 Slip Reference Generation -- 8.3.3 Control Law Design -- 8.3.4 Transition Recognition -- 8.4 Fine tuning and Experimental Validation -- 8.5 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 9 Motorcycle Dynamic Modes and Passive Steering Compensation -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Motorcycle Main Oscillatory Modes and Dynamic Behaviour -- 9.3 Motorcycle Standard Model -- 9.4 Characteristics of the Standard Machine Oscillatory Modes and the Influence of Steering Damping -- 9.5 Compensator Frequency Response Design -- 9.6 Suppression of Burst Oscillations -- 9.6.1 Simulated Bursting -- 9.6.2 Acceleration Analysis -- 9.6.3 Compensator Design and Performance -- 9.7 Conclusions -- References.

Chapter 10 Semi-Active Steering Damper Control for Two-Wheeled Vehicles -- 10.1 Introduction and Motivation -- 10.2 Steering Dynamics Analysis -- 10.2.1 Model Parameters Estimation -- 10.2.2 Comparison between Vertical and Steering Dynamics -- 10.3 Control Strategies for Semi-Active Steering Dampers -- 10.3.1 Rotational Sky-Hook and Ground-Hook -- 10.3.2 Closed-Loop Performance Analysis -- 10.4 Validation on Challenging Manoeuvres -- 10.4.1 Performance Evaluation Method -- 10.4.2 Validation of the Control Algorithms -- 10.5 Experimental Results -- 10.6 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 11 Semi-Active Suspension Control in Two-Wheeled Vehicles: a Case Study -- 11.1 Introduction and Problem Statement -- 11.2 The Semi-Active Actuator -- 11.3 The Quarter-Car Model: a Description of a Semi-Active Suspension System -- 11.4 Evaluation Methods for Semi-Active Suspension Systems -- 11.5 Semi-Active Control Strategies -- 11.5.1 Sky-hook Control -- 11.5.2 Mix-1-Sensor Control -- 11.5.3 The Ground-Hook Control -- 11.6 Experimental Set-up -- 11.7 Experimental Evaluation -- 11.8 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12 Autonomous Control of Riderless Motorcycles -- 12.1 Introduction -- 12.2 Trajectory Tracking Control Systems Design -- 12.2.1 External/Internal Convertible Dynamical Systems -- 12.2.2 Trajectory Tracking Control -- 12.2.3 Simulation Results -- 12.3 Path-Following Control System Design -- 12.3.1 Modelling of Tyre-Road Friction Forces -- 12.3.2 Path-Following Manoeuvring Design -- 12.3.3 Simulation Results -- 12.4 Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- Appendix A: Calculation of the Lie Derivatives -- References -- Chapter 13 Estimation Problems in Two-Wheeled Vehicles -- 13.1 Introduction -- 13.2 Roll Angle Estimation -- 13.2.1 Vehicle Attitude and Reference Frames -- 13.2.2 Experimental Set-up -- 13.2.3 Accelerometer-Based Roll Angle Estimation.

13.2.4 Use of the frequency separation principle -- 13.3 Vehicle Speed Estimation -- 13.3.1 Speed Estimation During Traction Manoeuvres -- 13.3.2 Experimental Setup -- 13.3.3 Vehicle Speed Estimation via Kalman Filtering and Frequency Split -- 13.3.4 Experimental Validation -- 13.4 Suspension Stroke Estimation -- 13.4.1 Problem Statement and Estimation Law -- 13.4.2 Experimental Results -- 13.5 Conclusions -- References -- Index.

Enhanced e-book includes videos  Many books have been written on modelling, simulation and control of four-wheeled vehicles (cars, in particular). However, due to the very specific and different dynamics of two-wheeled vehicles, it is very difficult to reuse previous knowledge gained on cars for two-wheeled vehicles. Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two-Wheeled Vehicles presents all of the unique features of two-wheeled vehicles, comprehensively covering the main methods, tools and approaches to address the modelling, simulation and control design issues. With contributions from leading researchers, this book also offers a perspective on the future trends in the field, outlining the challenges and the industrial and academic development scenarios. Extensive reference to real-world problems and experimental tests is also included throughout. Key features: The first book to cover all aspects of two-wheeled vehicle dynamics and control Collates cutting-edge research from leading international researchers in the field Covers motorcycle control - a subject gaining more and more attention both from an academic and an industrial viewpoint Covers modelling, simulation and control, areas that are integrated in two-wheeled vehicles, and therefore must be considered together in order to gain an insight into this very specific field of research Presents analysis of experimental data and reports on the results obtained on instrumented vehicles. Modelling, Simulation and Control of Two-Wheeled Vehicles is a comprehensive reference for those in academia who are interested in the state of the art of two-wheeled vehicles, and is also a useful source of information for industrial practitioners.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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