Plant Virology.

By: Hull, RogerPublisher: San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2013Copyright date: ©2014Edition: 5th edDescription: 1 online resource (1119 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780123848727Subject(s): Plants.;Virology.;Virus diseases of plantsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Plant VirologyDDC classification: 579.28 LOC classification: QR351.H85 2014ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Front Cover -- Plant Virology -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Preface of the Fourth Edition -- About the Author -- List of Abbreviations -- I: Introduction -- 1. Introduction -- I. Historical -- II. Definition of a Virus -- III. Viruses and Koch's Postulates -- IV. This Edition -- References -- 2. Plant Viruses and Their Classification -- I. Classification of Viruses -- A. Historical Aspects -- B. Systems for Classification -- C. Families, Genera, and Species -- 1. Virus Species -- 2. Virus Strains and Isolates -- 3. Naming of Viruses (Species) -- 4. Acronyms or Abbreviations -- D. Plant Virus Genera, Subfamilies, Families, and Orders -- E. Use of Virus Names -- F. Endogenous Plant Viral Sequences -- G. Subviral Agents (King et al., 2012) -- II. Criteria Used for Classifying Viruses -- A. Structure of the Virus Particle -- B. Physicochemical Properties of Virus Particles -- C. Properties of Viral Nucleic Acids -- 1. New Sequencing Techniques -- 2. Use of Sequence Data in Classification -- 3. Problems in Using Sequence Data for Classification -- 4. Computing Programs for Analysis of Molecular Data -- D. Properties of Viral Proteins -- E. Serological Relationships -- F. Biological Properties in the Plant -- G. Methods of Transmission -- H. Demarcation Criteria -- I. Discussion -- III. Strains of Viruses -- A. Quasispecies -- 1. The Concept of Quasispecies -- 2. Quasispecies in Nature -- 3. Plant Virus Quasispecies -- B. Virus Strain -- IV. Criteria for the Recognition of Strains and Species -- A. Structural Criteria -- 1. Nucleic Acids -- 2. Structural Proteins -- 3. Nonstructural Proteins -- 4. Proportion of Particle Classes -- 5. Other Structural Features -- a. Architecture of the Virus Particle -- b. Electrophoretic Mobility -- c. Stability and Density -- B. Serological Criteria -- 1. Some General Considerations.
a. Presence or Absence of Serological Relationship -- b. Degrees of Serological Relationship -- i. Among a Group of Virus Strains -- ii. Experimental Variables -- c. The Serological Differentiation Index -- 2. The Role of Virus Components in Serological Reactions -- 3. Procedures Used for Delineating Viruses and Strains -- a. Assay Methods -- b. Monoclonal Antibodies -- 4. Antigenic Sites Involved in the Serological Delineation of Viruses and Strains -- 5. Production of Antibodies Against Defined Antigenic Determinants -- 6. Antibodies Against Nonstructural Proteins -- 7. Other Uses of Strain-Specific Antisera -- C. Biological Criteria -- 1. Symptoms -- a. Macroscopic Symptoms -- b. Cytological Effects -- 2. Host Range and Host Plant Genotype -- 3. Methods of Transmission -- 4. Cross-Protection -- 5. Virus Productivity -- 6. Specific Infectivity -- 7. Genome Compatibility -- 8. Activation of Satellites -- D. Discussion -- V. Correlations Between Criteria for Characterizing Viruses and Virus Strains -- A. Criteria for Identity -- B. Strains and Viruses -- C. Correlations for Various Criteria -- 1. Host Responses -- 2. Vector Transmission -- 3. Multipartite Genomes -- 4. General Nucleotide Sequence Similarities -- 5. 3′ Noncoding Nucleotide Sequences -- 6. Serological Relationships -- 7. Nonstructural Proteins -- VI. Viruses of Gymnosperms, Pteridophytes, Algae, and Fungi -- A. Viruses of Gymnosperms -- B. Viruses of Ferns -- C. Viruses of Algae -- 1. Large Algal Viruses (Phycodnaviridae) -- 2. Small Algal Viruses -- D. Viruses of Fungi (Also Known as Mycoviruses) -- 1. Phenotypic Effects of Fungal Viruses -- 2. Mycoviruses and RNA Silencing -- E. Discussion -- VII. Plant Virus Purification -- A. Choice of Plant Material -- 1. Assay Host -- 2. Propagation Host -- 3. Extraction Medium -- a. pH and Buffer System -- b. Metal Ions and Ionic Strength.
c. Reducing Agents and Substances Protecting Against Phenolic Compounds -- d. Additives That Remove Plant Proteins and Ribosomes -- e. Enzymes -- f. Detergents and Other Additives -- 4. Extraction Procedure -- 5. Preliminary Isolation of the Virus -- a. Clarification of the Extract -- b. Concentration of the Virus and Removal of Low-Molecular-Weight Materials -- i. High-Speed Sedimentation. -- ii. Precipitation with Polyethylene Glycol -- iii. Density Gradient Centrifugation -- iv. Salt Precipitation or Crystallization -- v. Precipitation at the Isoelectric Point -- vi. Dialysis -- 6. Further Purification of the Virus Preparation -- a. Density Gradient Centrifugation -- b. Gel Filtration -- c. Immunoaffinity Columns -- d. Chromatography -- e. Further Concentration of the Virus and Removal of Contaminants -- 7. Storage of Purified Viruses -- 8. Discussion and Summary -- References -- 3. Architecture and Assembly of Virus Particles -- I. Methods -- A. Chemical and Biochemical Methods -- B. Methods for Studying Size of Viruses -- 1. Hydrodynamic Measurements -- 2. Transmission Electron Microscopy -- 3. X-Ray Crystallography -- 4. Neutron Small-Angle Scattering -- 5. Atomic Force Microscopy -- C. Fine Structure Determination: Electron Microscopy (see Sections II and IV for details of fine structures). -- 1. Metal Shadowed Preparations -- 2. Freeze Etching -- 3. Negative Staining -- 4. 3D Images from Electron Microscopy -- 5. Thin Sections -- 6. Cryoelectron Microscopy -- 7. Cryoelectron Microscopy Compared with Negative Staining -- 8. Atomic Force Microscopy -- D. X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis -- E. Fiber Diffraction -- F. Neutron Small-Angle Scattering -- G. Mass Spectrometry -- H. Raman Optical Activity -- I. Serological Methods -- J. Methods for Studying Stabilizing Bonds -- 1. X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis.
2. Stability to Chemical and Physical Agents -- 3. Modification of the Coat Protein -- 4. Removal of Ions -- 5. Circular Dichroism -- 6. Methods Applicable to Nucleic Acid Within the Virus Particle -- K. Discussion -- II. Architecture of Rod-Shaped Viruses -- A. Introduction -- B. Rigid Rod-Shaped Particles -- 1. Tobamovirus Genus -- a. General Features -- b. Short Rods -- c. Properties of the Coat Protein -- d. Structure of the Double Disk -- e. Virus Structure -- 2. Tobravirus Genus -- 3. Other Viruses with Rigid Rod-Shaped Particles -- C. Flexuous Rod-Shaped Particles -- 1. Family Alphaflexidae -- 2. Family Potyviridae -- 3. Family Closteroviridae -- III. Assembly of Rod-Shaped Viruses -- A. TMV -- 1. Assembly of TMV Coat Protein -- 2. Assembly of the TMV Particle -- a. Assembly In Vitro -- i. The Assembly Origin in the RNA -- ii. The Initial Nucleating Event -- iii. Rod Extension in the 5′ Direction -- iv. Rod Extension in the 3′ Direction -- b. Assembly In Vivo -- B. Other Rod-Shaped Viruses -- IV. Architecture of Isometric Viruses -- A. Introduction -- B. Possible Icosahedra -- C. Clustering of Subunits -- D. Quasi-Equivalence -- E. "True" and "Quasi" Symmetries -- F. Other Structure Theories -- G. Bacilliform Particles -- V. Small Icosahedral Viruses -- A. General Features -- B. Architecture and Assembly of Small Icosahedral Viruses -- 1. T = 1 Particles -- a. Satellite Viruses -- 2. Bacilliform Particles Based on T = 1 Symmetry -- a. Alfamovirus and Ilarvirus Genera -- i. Particle Structure -- ii. Particle Assembly -- b. Ourmiaviruses -- 3. Other Particles Based on T = 1 Symmetry -- a. Geminivirus Structure -- 4. T = 3 Particles -- a. Tymovirus Genus -- i. Classes of Particle -- ii. The Protein Shell -- iii. Location of the RNA -- iv. Assembly of Tymoviruses -- b. Bromovirus Genus -- i. Stability of the Virus -- ii. Particle Structure.
iii. Location of the RNA -- iv. Assembly of Bromoviruses -- c. Cucumovirus Genus -- d. Tombusviridae Family -- i. Structure of Members of the Tombusviridae -- ii. Assembly of Tombusviruses -- e. Sobemovirus Genus -- i. Structure of Sobemoviruses -- ii. Assembly of Sobemoviruses -- f. Potato Leafroll Virus -- g. Pea Enation Mosaic -- 5. Bacilliform Based on T = 3 Symmetry -- 6. Pseudo T = 3 Symmetry -- a. Comovirus Genus -- i. Structure of Comoviruses -- ii. Assembly of Comoviruses -- b. Nepovirus Genus -- c. Other Possible Pseudo-T = 3 Symmetry Plant Viruses -- 7. T = 7 Particles -- a. Structure of Caulimoviruses -- b. Assembly of Caulimoviruses -- VI. More Complex Isometric Viruses -- A. Phytoreovirus -- B. Fijiviruses -- C. Oryzaviruses -- D. RNA Selection During Assembly of Plant Reoviruses -- VII. Enveloped Viruses -- A. Rhabdoviridae -- B. Tospoviruses -- 1. Tospovirus Structure -- 2. Tospovirus Assembly -- VIII. Discussion -- References -- 4. Symptoms and Host Range -- I. Disease Symptoms and Host Range -- II. Economic Losses Due to Plant Viruses -- III. Macroscopic Symptoms -- A. Local Symptoms -- B. Systemic Symptoms -- 1. Effects on Plant Size -- 2. Mosaic Patterns and Related Symptoms -- 3. Yellows Diseases -- 4. Leaf Rolling -- 5. Ring Spot Diseases -- 6. Necrotic Diseases -- 7. Developmental Abnormalities -- 8. Wilting -- 9. Recovery from Disease -- 10. Reduced Nodulation -- 11. Genetic Effects -- C. Agents Inducing Virus-Like Symptoms -- 1. Small Cellular Parasites -- 2. Bacteria -- 3. Toxins Produced by Arthropods -- 4. Genetic Abnormalities -- 5. Transposons -- 6. Nutritional Deficiencies -- 7. High Temperatures -- 8. Hormone Damage -- 9. Insecticides -- 10. Air Pollutants -- D. The Cryptoviruses -- IV. Histological Changes -- A. Necrosis -- B. Hypoplasia -- C. Hyperplasia -- 1. Cells are Larger Than Normal.
2. Cell Division in Differentiated Cells.
Summary: The seminal text Plant Virology is now in its fifth edition. It has been 10 years since the publication of the fourth edition, during which there has been an explosion of conceptual and factual advances. The fifth edition of Plant Virology updates and revises many details of the previous edition while retaining the important earlier results that constitute the field's conceptual foundation. Revamped art, along with fully updated references and increased focus on molecular biology, transgenic resistance, aphid transmission, and new, cutting-edge topics, bring the volume up to date and maintain its value as an essential reference for researchers and students in the field. Thumbnail sketches of each genera and family groups Genome maps of all genera for which they are known Genetic engineered resistance strategies for virus disease control Latest understanding of virus interactions with plants, including gene silencing Interactions between viruses and insect, fungal, and nematode vectors Contains over 300 full-color illustrations.
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Front Cover -- Plant Virology -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Preface of the Fourth Edition -- About the Author -- List of Abbreviations -- I: Introduction -- 1. Introduction -- I. Historical -- II. Definition of a Virus -- III. Viruses and Koch's Postulates -- IV. This Edition -- References -- 2. Plant Viruses and Their Classification -- I. Classification of Viruses -- A. Historical Aspects -- B. Systems for Classification -- C. Families, Genera, and Species -- 1. Virus Species -- 2. Virus Strains and Isolates -- 3. Naming of Viruses (Species) -- 4. Acronyms or Abbreviations -- D. Plant Virus Genera, Subfamilies, Families, and Orders -- E. Use of Virus Names -- F. Endogenous Plant Viral Sequences -- G. Subviral Agents (King et al., 2012) -- II. Criteria Used for Classifying Viruses -- A. Structure of the Virus Particle -- B. Physicochemical Properties of Virus Particles -- C. Properties of Viral Nucleic Acids -- 1. New Sequencing Techniques -- 2. Use of Sequence Data in Classification -- 3. Problems in Using Sequence Data for Classification -- 4. Computing Programs for Analysis of Molecular Data -- D. Properties of Viral Proteins -- E. Serological Relationships -- F. Biological Properties in the Plant -- G. Methods of Transmission -- H. Demarcation Criteria -- I. Discussion -- III. Strains of Viruses -- A. Quasispecies -- 1. The Concept of Quasispecies -- 2. Quasispecies in Nature -- 3. Plant Virus Quasispecies -- B. Virus Strain -- IV. Criteria for the Recognition of Strains and Species -- A. Structural Criteria -- 1. Nucleic Acids -- 2. Structural Proteins -- 3. Nonstructural Proteins -- 4. Proportion of Particle Classes -- 5. Other Structural Features -- a. Architecture of the Virus Particle -- b. Electrophoretic Mobility -- c. Stability and Density -- B. Serological Criteria -- 1. Some General Considerations.

a. Presence or Absence of Serological Relationship -- b. Degrees of Serological Relationship -- i. Among a Group of Virus Strains -- ii. Experimental Variables -- c. The Serological Differentiation Index -- 2. The Role of Virus Components in Serological Reactions -- 3. Procedures Used for Delineating Viruses and Strains -- a. Assay Methods -- b. Monoclonal Antibodies -- 4. Antigenic Sites Involved in the Serological Delineation of Viruses and Strains -- 5. Production of Antibodies Against Defined Antigenic Determinants -- 6. Antibodies Against Nonstructural Proteins -- 7. Other Uses of Strain-Specific Antisera -- C. Biological Criteria -- 1. Symptoms -- a. Macroscopic Symptoms -- b. Cytological Effects -- 2. Host Range and Host Plant Genotype -- 3. Methods of Transmission -- 4. Cross-Protection -- 5. Virus Productivity -- 6. Specific Infectivity -- 7. Genome Compatibility -- 8. Activation of Satellites -- D. Discussion -- V. Correlations Between Criteria for Characterizing Viruses and Virus Strains -- A. Criteria for Identity -- B. Strains and Viruses -- C. Correlations for Various Criteria -- 1. Host Responses -- 2. Vector Transmission -- 3. Multipartite Genomes -- 4. General Nucleotide Sequence Similarities -- 5. 3′ Noncoding Nucleotide Sequences -- 6. Serological Relationships -- 7. Nonstructural Proteins -- VI. Viruses of Gymnosperms, Pteridophytes, Algae, and Fungi -- A. Viruses of Gymnosperms -- B. Viruses of Ferns -- C. Viruses of Algae -- 1. Large Algal Viruses (Phycodnaviridae) -- 2. Small Algal Viruses -- D. Viruses of Fungi (Also Known as Mycoviruses) -- 1. Phenotypic Effects of Fungal Viruses -- 2. Mycoviruses and RNA Silencing -- E. Discussion -- VII. Plant Virus Purification -- A. Choice of Plant Material -- 1. Assay Host -- 2. Propagation Host -- 3. Extraction Medium -- a. pH and Buffer System -- b. Metal Ions and Ionic Strength.

c. Reducing Agents and Substances Protecting Against Phenolic Compounds -- d. Additives That Remove Plant Proteins and Ribosomes -- e. Enzymes -- f. Detergents and Other Additives -- 4. Extraction Procedure -- 5. Preliminary Isolation of the Virus -- a. Clarification of the Extract -- b. Concentration of the Virus and Removal of Low-Molecular-Weight Materials -- i. High-Speed Sedimentation. -- ii. Precipitation with Polyethylene Glycol -- iii. Density Gradient Centrifugation -- iv. Salt Precipitation or Crystallization -- v. Precipitation at the Isoelectric Point -- vi. Dialysis -- 6. Further Purification of the Virus Preparation -- a. Density Gradient Centrifugation -- b. Gel Filtration -- c. Immunoaffinity Columns -- d. Chromatography -- e. Further Concentration of the Virus and Removal of Contaminants -- 7. Storage of Purified Viruses -- 8. Discussion and Summary -- References -- 3. Architecture and Assembly of Virus Particles -- I. Methods -- A. Chemical and Biochemical Methods -- B. Methods for Studying Size of Viruses -- 1. Hydrodynamic Measurements -- 2. Transmission Electron Microscopy -- 3. X-Ray Crystallography -- 4. Neutron Small-Angle Scattering -- 5. Atomic Force Microscopy -- C. Fine Structure Determination: Electron Microscopy (see Sections II and IV for details of fine structures). -- 1. Metal Shadowed Preparations -- 2. Freeze Etching -- 3. Negative Staining -- 4. 3D Images from Electron Microscopy -- 5. Thin Sections -- 6. Cryoelectron Microscopy -- 7. Cryoelectron Microscopy Compared with Negative Staining -- 8. Atomic Force Microscopy -- D. X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis -- E. Fiber Diffraction -- F. Neutron Small-Angle Scattering -- G. Mass Spectrometry -- H. Raman Optical Activity -- I. Serological Methods -- J. Methods for Studying Stabilizing Bonds -- 1. X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis.

2. Stability to Chemical and Physical Agents -- 3. Modification of the Coat Protein -- 4. Removal of Ions -- 5. Circular Dichroism -- 6. Methods Applicable to Nucleic Acid Within the Virus Particle -- K. Discussion -- II. Architecture of Rod-Shaped Viruses -- A. Introduction -- B. Rigid Rod-Shaped Particles -- 1. Tobamovirus Genus -- a. General Features -- b. Short Rods -- c. Properties of the Coat Protein -- d. Structure of the Double Disk -- e. Virus Structure -- 2. Tobravirus Genus -- 3. Other Viruses with Rigid Rod-Shaped Particles -- C. Flexuous Rod-Shaped Particles -- 1. Family Alphaflexidae -- 2. Family Potyviridae -- 3. Family Closteroviridae -- III. Assembly of Rod-Shaped Viruses -- A. TMV -- 1. Assembly of TMV Coat Protein -- 2. Assembly of the TMV Particle -- a. Assembly In Vitro -- i. The Assembly Origin in the RNA -- ii. The Initial Nucleating Event -- iii. Rod Extension in the 5′ Direction -- iv. Rod Extension in the 3′ Direction -- b. Assembly In Vivo -- B. Other Rod-Shaped Viruses -- IV. Architecture of Isometric Viruses -- A. Introduction -- B. Possible Icosahedra -- C. Clustering of Subunits -- D. Quasi-Equivalence -- E. "True" and "Quasi" Symmetries -- F. Other Structure Theories -- G. Bacilliform Particles -- V. Small Icosahedral Viruses -- A. General Features -- B. Architecture and Assembly of Small Icosahedral Viruses -- 1. T = 1 Particles -- a. Satellite Viruses -- 2. Bacilliform Particles Based on T = 1 Symmetry -- a. Alfamovirus and Ilarvirus Genera -- i. Particle Structure -- ii. Particle Assembly -- b. Ourmiaviruses -- 3. Other Particles Based on T = 1 Symmetry -- a. Geminivirus Structure -- 4. T = 3 Particles -- a. Tymovirus Genus -- i. Classes of Particle -- ii. The Protein Shell -- iii. Location of the RNA -- iv. Assembly of Tymoviruses -- b. Bromovirus Genus -- i. Stability of the Virus -- ii. Particle Structure.

iii. Location of the RNA -- iv. Assembly of Bromoviruses -- c. Cucumovirus Genus -- d. Tombusviridae Family -- i. Structure of Members of the Tombusviridae -- ii. Assembly of Tombusviruses -- e. Sobemovirus Genus -- i. Structure of Sobemoviruses -- ii. Assembly of Sobemoviruses -- f. Potato Leafroll Virus -- g. Pea Enation Mosaic -- 5. Bacilliform Based on T = 3 Symmetry -- 6. Pseudo T = 3 Symmetry -- a. Comovirus Genus -- i. Structure of Comoviruses -- ii. Assembly of Comoviruses -- b. Nepovirus Genus -- c. Other Possible Pseudo-T = 3 Symmetry Plant Viruses -- 7. T = 7 Particles -- a. Structure of Caulimoviruses -- b. Assembly of Caulimoviruses -- VI. More Complex Isometric Viruses -- A. Phytoreovirus -- B. Fijiviruses -- C. Oryzaviruses -- D. RNA Selection During Assembly of Plant Reoviruses -- VII. Enveloped Viruses -- A. Rhabdoviridae -- B. Tospoviruses -- 1. Tospovirus Structure -- 2. Tospovirus Assembly -- VIII. Discussion -- References -- 4. Symptoms and Host Range -- I. Disease Symptoms and Host Range -- II. Economic Losses Due to Plant Viruses -- III. Macroscopic Symptoms -- A. Local Symptoms -- B. Systemic Symptoms -- 1. Effects on Plant Size -- 2. Mosaic Patterns and Related Symptoms -- 3. Yellows Diseases -- 4. Leaf Rolling -- 5. Ring Spot Diseases -- 6. Necrotic Diseases -- 7. Developmental Abnormalities -- 8. Wilting -- 9. Recovery from Disease -- 10. Reduced Nodulation -- 11. Genetic Effects -- C. Agents Inducing Virus-Like Symptoms -- 1. Small Cellular Parasites -- 2. Bacteria -- 3. Toxins Produced by Arthropods -- 4. Genetic Abnormalities -- 5. Transposons -- 6. Nutritional Deficiencies -- 7. High Temperatures -- 8. Hormone Damage -- 9. Insecticides -- 10. Air Pollutants -- D. The Cryptoviruses -- IV. Histological Changes -- A. Necrosis -- B. Hypoplasia -- C. Hyperplasia -- 1. Cells are Larger Than Normal.

2. Cell Division in Differentiated Cells.

The seminal text Plant Virology is now in its fifth edition. It has been 10 years since the publication of the fourth edition, during which there has been an explosion of conceptual and factual advances. The fifth edition of Plant Virology updates and revises many details of the previous edition while retaining the important earlier results that constitute the field's conceptual foundation. Revamped art, along with fully updated references and increased focus on molecular biology, transgenic resistance, aphid transmission, and new, cutting-edge topics, bring the volume up to date and maintain its value as an essential reference for researchers and students in the field. Thumbnail sketches of each genera and family groups Genome maps of all genera for which they are known Genetic engineered resistance strategies for virus disease control Latest understanding of virus interactions with plants, including gene silencing Interactions between viruses and insect, fungal, and nematode vectors Contains over 300 full-color illustrations.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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