Responses to Language Endangerment : In honor of Mickey Noonan. New directions in language documentation and language revitalization.

By: Mihas, ElenaContributor(s): Perley, Bernard | Rei-Doval, Gabriel | Wheatley, KathleenSeries: Studies in Language Companion SeriesPublisher: Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013Copyright date: ©2013Description: 1 online resource (289 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789027271150Subject(s): International relations -- History.;European Union countries -- Foreign relationsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Responses to Language Endangerment : In honor of Mickey Noonan. New directions in language documentation and language revitalizationDDC classification: 409 LOC classification: P40.5.L33 C36 2013Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Responses to Language Endangerment -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Table of contents -- Dedication -- References -- Acknowledgements -- Introduction -- References -- The world's languages in crisis -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methodology -- 2.1 Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) -- 2.2 Generating an EGIDS estimate for every language -- 3. Results -- 3.1 A comprehensive analysis of the state of the world's languages -- 3.2 Global results -- 3.3 Results by geographical regions -- 4. Discussion -- 4.1 Krauss's warning: Is it coming true? -- 4.2 Mufwene's colonization types: A possible explanation -- 4.3 Urbanization: The next big threat? -- 5. Conclusions -- References -- What can revitalization work teach us about documentation? -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Shift -- 2.1 Counteracting invisibility -- 2.2 Empowering more serious learners -- 3. Convergence -- 3.1 Distributing information over words -- 3.2 Distributing information over categories -- 3.3 Idiomaticity -- 4. Structure and substance -- 4.1 Routinization -- 4.2 Extending patterns -- 4.3 Creativity: Language use -- 5. Pride in complexity -- 6. Conclusion -- References -- Unanswered questions in language documentation and revitalization -- 1. Taking stock -- 2. Goals in documentation -- 2.1 Which languages do we document? -- 3. Goals in revitalization -- 4. Uniting documentation and revitalization -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Training as empowering social action -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Ethics, empowerment, fieldwork models, and revitalization -- 3. Training and empowerment -- 3.1 The InField workshops -- 3.2 Field training -- 3.3 Further dimensions of empowerment -- 4. Conclusions -- References -- How to avoid pitfalls in documenting endangered languages -- 1. Introduction -- 2. First steps -- 3. Managing eld sessions -- 4. Individual variation.
5. An extended example: Dictionary-making -- 6. Conclusion -- References -- Converb and aspect-marking polysemy in Nar -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Nar-Phu typological profile -- 3. Converbs in Nar -- 4. Aspect-Marking -- 5. From converb to aspect marker -- 6. Concluding comments -- References -- Grammatical relations in Mixe and Chimariko -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Grammatical relations in Chuxnabán Mixe and Chimariko -- 2.1 Chuxnabán Mixe, an endangered Mexican indigenous language -- 2.1.1 Language and data -- 2.1.2 Grammatical relations -- 2.1.2.1 Hierarchical system. In Chuxnabán Mixe, only the most prominent ­participant in an event is marked or cross-referenced on the predicate. The hier­archy is determined by three factors: (a) grammatical person: 1st > 2nd > 3rd, (b) animacy: animate > -- 2.1.2.2 Inversion. When participants in a clause are such that the actor outranks the undergoer on this hierarchy, there is direct alignment. If the opposite occurs, there is inverse alignment (Dryer 1992, 1994 -- Gildea 1994 -- Klaiman 1992 -- Zavala 2000, 200 -- 2.1.2.3 Dependent and independent construction. As in other Mixean ­languages, in Chuxnabán Mixe all predicates are treated as either independent or dependent, each with its own set of inflectional person markers. Dependency is ­triggered if a non‑core co -- 2.1.3 Summary -- 2.2 Chimariko, an extinct Northern California language -- 2.2.1 Language and data -- 2.2.2 Grammatical relations -- 2.2.2.1 Agent-patient system. Chimariko grammatical relations are based on an agent-patient system for first persons, which is apparent in intransitive, transitive, and ditransitive clauses, as shown in the examples below.
2.2.2.2 Hierarchical system. The same as with Chuxnabán Mixe, in Chimariko only one argument is cross‑referenced on the predicate following a hierarchy whereby speech‑act participants outrank third persons. The hierarchical system is only apparent in tran -- 2.2.3 Summary -- 3. Comparison: Similarities and differences between the two systems -- 4. Conclusions -- References -- List of Abbreviations -- Having a shinshii/shiishii 'master' around makes you speak Japanese! -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Background -- 3. Initial experience -- 4. Contextualization by shinshii/shiishii 'master' -- 5. Episodes from work sessions -- 6. Elicited data -- 6.1 Pronunciation -- 6.2 Verb inflections -- 6.3 Case markers -- 7. Discussion -- 8. Conclusions -- References -- Internal and external calls to immigrant language promotion -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Goals and summary -- 1.2 Paper outline -- 2. Immigration and Mesoamerican indigenous languages -- 2.1 Concentration of immigrant population in the US -- 2.2 Arrival of 'invisible' languages -- 2.3 Sociolinguistic situation of immigrant languages in Eastern North Carolina -- 3. Ethical issues in language preservation efforts -- 3.1 Some problems in linguistic fieldwork -- 3.2 Participatory Action Research -- 3.3 A successful Participatory Action Research project: Mayangna Yulbarangyang Balna -- 4. Two projects in Eastern North Carolina -- 4.1 Two calls, a shared objective -- 4.2 Goals of the projects -- 5. Reshaping the research approach -- 5.1 Challenges -- 5.2 A new research model: From Participatory Action Research to engaged research -- 6. Summary and conclusions -- References -- Code-switching in an Erzya-Russian bilingual variety -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Theoretical background -- 2.1 The characteristics of mixed codes -- 2.2. Sociohistorical background -- 2.3 Typological characteristics of Erzya and Russian.
3. Methodology and the corpus -- 4. Discussion -- 4.1 Verbal constructions -- 4.2 Numeral phrases -- 4.2.1 Quantity -- 4.2.2 Time expressions -- 5. Conclusions -- References -- Colonialism, nationalism and language vitality in Azerbaijan -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Soviet language policies in Azerbaijan -- 3. Language vitality assessed -- 3.1 Talysh and Tat -- 3.2 The Shahdagh languages -- 3.3 Udi and Lezgi -- 4. Colonization patterns and language vitality -- 5. Nationalism and language vitality -- 6. Responses -- 7. Conclusion -- References -- Revitalizing languages through place-based language curriculum -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Native languages in the Pacific Northwest -- 2.1 Loss and revitalization -- 2.2 Native language in the classroom -- 3. Models for Northwest language learning -- 3.1 Place-based curriculum -- 3.2 Identity through learning -- 3.3 Oregon and Washington teaching contexts -- 4. Curriculum examples: Basketry, plants, canoes -- 4.1 Grand Ronde Basketry: Place, community and voices - intergenerational learning -- Overview: -- Goals and objectives: -- Products: -- 4.2 Tamaníksh: Yakama Nation Natural Resources Catalog and Curriculum -- Overview: -- Goals and objectives: -- Products: -- 4.3 Lushootseed Canoe Curriculum -- Goals and objectives: -- Products: -- 5. Discussion -- References -- Remembering ancestral voices emergent vitalities and the future of Indigenous languages -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Remembering, embodiment, vitality, and indigenous voices -- 1.2 Language crisis and intervention management -- 2. Metaphors of language ontologies -- 2.1 Emerging from sleep -- 2.2 Emergent vitalities -- 3. Remembering ancestral voices -- 3.1 New domains, new relationships -- 3.2 Remembering language, landscape, and spirituality -- 4. Discussion: The future of indigenous languages -- 5. Conclusion. Back to the beginning -- Dedication.
References -- Index.
Summary: Language endangerment is a global tragedy that has prompted a surge in research and advocacy on behalf of those communities whose languages have been diagnosed as endangered. Indigenous languages in the Americas and Australia are the most at risk of becoming extinct by the end of this century. Graded scales from "safe" to "extinct" present diagnostic frames of reference that influence the kinds of approaches toward documentation and revitalization that community activists/advocates and language experts develop and initiate. Those languages deemed "extinct" and/or "severely endangered" are hampered by the prevailing metaphors that unduly constrain possible actions for language vitality. This paper offers a re-conceptualization of the metaphors regarding language endangerment away from "death" and "extinct" to "sleeping" and from documentation toward "emergent vitalities". This is especially critical for indigenous communities living in their ancestral homelands where remembering ancestral voices plays a significant role in possible futures for indigenous languages.
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Responses to Language Endangerment -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Table of contents -- Dedication -- References -- Acknowledgements -- Introduction -- References -- The world's languages in crisis -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methodology -- 2.1 Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) -- 2.2 Generating an EGIDS estimate for every language -- 3. Results -- 3.1 A comprehensive analysis of the state of the world's languages -- 3.2 Global results -- 3.3 Results by geographical regions -- 4. Discussion -- 4.1 Krauss's warning: Is it coming true? -- 4.2 Mufwene's colonization types: A possible explanation -- 4.3 Urbanization: The next big threat? -- 5. Conclusions -- References -- What can revitalization work teach us about documentation? -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Shift -- 2.1 Counteracting invisibility -- 2.2 Empowering more serious learners -- 3. Convergence -- 3.1 Distributing information over words -- 3.2 Distributing information over categories -- 3.3 Idiomaticity -- 4. Structure and substance -- 4.1 Routinization -- 4.2 Extending patterns -- 4.3 Creativity: Language use -- 5. Pride in complexity -- 6. Conclusion -- References -- Unanswered questions in language documentation and revitalization -- 1. Taking stock -- 2. Goals in documentation -- 2.1 Which languages do we document? -- 3. Goals in revitalization -- 4. Uniting documentation and revitalization -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Training as empowering social action -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Ethics, empowerment, fieldwork models, and revitalization -- 3. Training and empowerment -- 3.1 The InField workshops -- 3.2 Field training -- 3.3 Further dimensions of empowerment -- 4. Conclusions -- References -- How to avoid pitfalls in documenting endangered languages -- 1. Introduction -- 2. First steps -- 3. Managing eld sessions -- 4. Individual variation.

5. An extended example: Dictionary-making -- 6. Conclusion -- References -- Converb and aspect-marking polysemy in Nar -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Nar-Phu typological profile -- 3. Converbs in Nar -- 4. Aspect-Marking -- 5. From converb to aspect marker -- 6. Concluding comments -- References -- Grammatical relations in Mixe and Chimariko -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Grammatical relations in Chuxnabán Mixe and Chimariko -- 2.1 Chuxnabán Mixe, an endangered Mexican indigenous language -- 2.1.1 Language and data -- 2.1.2 Grammatical relations -- 2.1.2.1 Hierarchical system. In Chuxnabán Mixe, only the most prominent ­participant in an event is marked or cross-referenced on the predicate. The hier­archy is determined by three factors: (a) grammatical person: 1st > 2nd > 3rd, (b) animacy: animate > -- 2.1.2.2 Inversion. When participants in a clause are such that the actor outranks the undergoer on this hierarchy, there is direct alignment. If the opposite occurs, there is inverse alignment (Dryer 1992, 1994 -- Gildea 1994 -- Klaiman 1992 -- Zavala 2000, 200 -- 2.1.2.3 Dependent and independent construction. As in other Mixean ­languages, in Chuxnabán Mixe all predicates are treated as either independent or dependent, each with its own set of inflectional person markers. Dependency is ­triggered if a non‑core co -- 2.1.3 Summary -- 2.2 Chimariko, an extinct Northern California language -- 2.2.1 Language and data -- 2.2.2 Grammatical relations -- 2.2.2.1 Agent-patient system. Chimariko grammatical relations are based on an agent-patient system for first persons, which is apparent in intransitive, transitive, and ditransitive clauses, as shown in the examples below.

2.2.2.2 Hierarchical system. The same as with Chuxnabán Mixe, in Chimariko only one argument is cross‑referenced on the predicate following a hierarchy whereby speech‑act participants outrank third persons. The hierarchical system is only apparent in tran -- 2.2.3 Summary -- 3. Comparison: Similarities and differences between the two systems -- 4. Conclusions -- References -- List of Abbreviations -- Having a shinshii/shiishii 'master' around makes you speak Japanese! -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Background -- 3. Initial experience -- 4. Contextualization by shinshii/shiishii 'master' -- 5. Episodes from work sessions -- 6. Elicited data -- 6.1 Pronunciation -- 6.2 Verb inflections -- 6.3 Case markers -- 7. Discussion -- 8. Conclusions -- References -- Internal and external calls to immigrant language promotion -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Goals and summary -- 1.2 Paper outline -- 2. Immigration and Mesoamerican indigenous languages -- 2.1 Concentration of immigrant population in the US -- 2.2 Arrival of 'invisible' languages -- 2.3 Sociolinguistic situation of immigrant languages in Eastern North Carolina -- 3. Ethical issues in language preservation efforts -- 3.1 Some problems in linguistic fieldwork -- 3.2 Participatory Action Research -- 3.3 A successful Participatory Action Research project: Mayangna Yulbarangyang Balna -- 4. Two projects in Eastern North Carolina -- 4.1 Two calls, a shared objective -- 4.2 Goals of the projects -- 5. Reshaping the research approach -- 5.1 Challenges -- 5.2 A new research model: From Participatory Action Research to engaged research -- 6. Summary and conclusions -- References -- Code-switching in an Erzya-Russian bilingual variety -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Theoretical background -- 2.1 The characteristics of mixed codes -- 2.2. Sociohistorical background -- 2.3 Typological characteristics of Erzya and Russian.

3. Methodology and the corpus -- 4. Discussion -- 4.1 Verbal constructions -- 4.2 Numeral phrases -- 4.2.1 Quantity -- 4.2.2 Time expressions -- 5. Conclusions -- References -- Colonialism, nationalism and language vitality in Azerbaijan -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Soviet language policies in Azerbaijan -- 3. Language vitality assessed -- 3.1 Talysh and Tat -- 3.2 The Shahdagh languages -- 3.3 Udi and Lezgi -- 4. Colonization patterns and language vitality -- 5. Nationalism and language vitality -- 6. Responses -- 7. Conclusion -- References -- Revitalizing languages through place-based language curriculum -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Native languages in the Pacific Northwest -- 2.1 Loss and revitalization -- 2.2 Native language in the classroom -- 3. Models for Northwest language learning -- 3.1 Place-based curriculum -- 3.2 Identity through learning -- 3.3 Oregon and Washington teaching contexts -- 4. Curriculum examples: Basketry, plants, canoes -- 4.1 Grand Ronde Basketry: Place, community and voices - intergenerational learning -- Overview: -- Goals and objectives: -- Products: -- 4.2 Tamaníksh: Yakama Nation Natural Resources Catalog and Curriculum -- Overview: -- Goals and objectives: -- Products: -- 4.3 Lushootseed Canoe Curriculum -- Goals and objectives: -- Products: -- 5. Discussion -- References -- Remembering ancestral voices emergent vitalities and the future of Indigenous languages -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Remembering, embodiment, vitality, and indigenous voices -- 1.2 Language crisis and intervention management -- 2. Metaphors of language ontologies -- 2.1 Emerging from sleep -- 2.2 Emergent vitalities -- 3. Remembering ancestral voices -- 3.1 New domains, new relationships -- 3.2 Remembering language, landscape, and spirituality -- 4. Discussion: The future of indigenous languages -- 5. Conclusion. Back to the beginning -- Dedication.

References -- Index.

Language endangerment is a global tragedy that has prompted a surge in research and advocacy on behalf of those communities whose languages have been diagnosed as endangered. Indigenous languages in the Americas and Australia are the most at risk of becoming extinct by the end of this century. Graded scales from "safe" to "extinct" present diagnostic frames of reference that influence the kinds of approaches toward documentation and revitalization that community activists/advocates and language experts develop and initiate. Those languages deemed "extinct" and/or "severely endangered" are hampered by the prevailing metaphors that unduly constrain possible actions for language vitality. This paper offers a re-conceptualization of the metaphors regarding language endangerment away from "death" and "extinct" to "sleeping" and from documentation toward "emergent vitalities". This is especially critical for indigenous communities living in their ancestral homelands where remembering ancestral voices plays a significant role in possible futures for indigenous languages.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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