Physics of Complex Colloids.

By: Bechinger, CContributor(s): Sciortino, F | Ziherl, PSeries: International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”Publisher: Burke : IOS Press, 2013Copyright date: ©2013Description: 1 online resource (639 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781614992783Subject(s): ColloidsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Physics of Complex ColloidsDDC classification: 541.345 LOC classification: QD549 -- .P49 2013ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Title Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Course group shot -- Colloidal interactions: From effective potentials to structure -- Colloidal Soft Matter -- The coarse-graining strategy: effective interactions -- Colloidal stabilization -- Charge stabilization -- Steric stabilization -- Classical uniform fluids -- Nonuniform fluids: density functional theory (DFT) -- The basic principles of DFT -- Some useful results -- Accurate density functionals for soft potentials -- Fluid-fluid interfaces -- Wetting -- Crystallization -- Cluster crystals -- Density functional theory for polymer chains -- Summary and conclusions -- Appendix A. Functionals and functional differentiation -- Like-charge colloidal attraction: A simple argument -- Introduction -- The model -- The large distance limit -- From infinite to small inter-plate distances: the unbinding scenario -- Discussion -- Unbinding scenario and ground-state structure -- Back to the failure of mean-field -- Large distance behaviour -- Asymmetric plates generalisation -- Conclusion -- Elastic properties of colloidal solids with disorder -- Introduction -- Introduction to elasticity in the context of thermodynamics -- Crystalline solids -- Born term -- Fluctuation term -- Density functional approach -- On the comparison of the different approaches -- Glasses -- Modified density functional approach -- Replica theory approach -- Mode coupling theory approach -- Conclusions and outlook -- Appendix A -- Colloidal arrested states of matter -- Introduction -- The prototype colloidal glass: the hard-sphere glass -- The role of polydispersity for the HS glass transition -- Hard spheres plus short-ranged attraction: attractive and repulsive glasses -- Effective interactions: depletion and its consequences on thermodynamics -- Dynamics in the presence of short-ranged attraction.
Soft glasses: the case of star polymers -- Star polymer solutions -- Binary mixtures of stars -- Further exploitation of softness: the asymmetric glass -- Dynamical features of the star-star multiple glasses -- Single glass -- Double glass -- Asymmetric glass -- Gels: low-density, disordered, arrested states driven by attraction -- Non-equilibrium gels resulting from arrested phase separation -- Equilibrium gels of patchy particles -- Charged colloids: Wigner glasses -- Competing interactions: cluster glasses and gels -- Gels of elongated clusters (or cluster gels) -- Wigner glasses of clusters (or cluster glasses) -- Appendix A. The ideal Mode Coupling Theory of the glass transition -- Stochastic thermodynamics: A brief introduction -- Preliminaries -- Introduction -- Nutshell thermodynamics -- Nutshell equilibrium statistical mechanics -- Nutshell Master equation -- Ensemble stochastic thermodynamics -- Ensemble stochastic thermodynamics: first law -- Ensemble stochastic thermodynamics: second law -- System in contact with two reservoirs: steady state and strong coupling -- Two-level system: efficiency at maximum power -- Ensemble stochastic thermodynamics: more -- General comments -- Landauer principle -- Adiabatic and non-adiabatic entropy -- Other extensions -- Trajectory stochastic thermodynamics -- Motivation -- First law: trajectory thermodynamics -- Second law: trajectory thermodynamics -- Integral and detailed fluctuation theorem -- Perspectives -- Simulations: The dark side -- Introduction and acknowledgment -- Simulations: Why and why not -- Predicting properties of novel compounds or materials -- Because it's there -- Testing force fields -- Simulation or theory -- Model testing -- The importance of exact results -- The digital microscope -- Simulation etiquette -- Embedded simulation -- Algorithms versus Moore's law.
When not to compute -- Methods that seem simple... but require great care -- Finite-size effects -- Half is easier than double -- Hydrodynamic interactions -- Self-diffusion coefficients -- Compatibility of boundary conditions -- Deformable boxes -- Liquid crystals -- Helical boundary conditions -- Twist -- Conserved quantities -- Computing S(q) -- Using direct coexistence simulations to locate the freezing transition -- Computing the surface free energy of crystals -- Planck's constant in classical simulations -- And there is more -- Methods that seem reasonable... but are not -- Computing partition functions by MC sampling -- Particle removal -- Using grand-canonical simulations for crystalline solids -- Myths and misconceptions -- New algorithms are better than old algorithms -- Molecular Dynamics simulations predict the time evolution of a many-body system -- Acceptance of Monte Carlo moves should be around 50% -- Periodic boundaries are boundaries -- Free-energy landscapes are unique and meaningful -- And there is more... -- Phase diagrams of shape-anisotropic colloidal particles -- Introduction -- Predicting candidate crystal structures -- Free-energy calculations and phase diagrams -- Fluid phase -- Crystal phase -- Plastic crystal phases -- Orientationally ordered crystal phases -- Mapping out phase diagrams -- Nucleation, gelation, and glass transition -- Phase diagrams of shape-anisotropic hard particles -- Anisotropic hard particles -- Hard dumbbells -- Hard bowl-shaped particles -- Oblate hard spherocylinders -- Statistical optics concepts in light scattering and microscopy of colloidal systems -- Statistical optics -- Complex representation of non-monochromatic fields -- Correlations and spectrum -- Temporal properties of thermal sources -- Temporal coherence and interferometry -- Spatial coherence -- Mutual intensity.
Intensity correlation -- Intensity Correlation Spectroscopy -- Temporal and spatial coherence of the scattered field -- Time correlation of the field scattered by Brownian particles: Random walk and Langevin equation -- The "magic" of Intensity Correlation Spectroscopy -- Once again about radios: heterodyne detection and Doppler velocimetry -- Novel investigation methods based on intensity correlation -- Multi-speckle DLS and Time-Resolved Correlation (TRC) -- Speckles for the short-sighted man: Near Field Scattering (NFS) -- Beyond Flatland: the third dimension of the speckles -- Imaging and microscopy -- Spatial coherence and imaging: General considerations -- Resolving power -- Microscope structure -- Scattering and imaging: towards a joint venture -- Photon Correlation Imaging (PCI) -- Differential Dynamic Microscopy (DDM) -- Appendix A. Basics of diffraction and Fourier optics -- Angular spectrum and evanescent waves -- Diffraction -- Fourier optics and imaging -- Appendix B. Light scattering basics -- LS from molecular fluids -- Scattering by independent colloidal particles -- Scattering regimes -- From Clarkia to Escherichia and Janus: The physics of natural and synthetic active colloids -- Introduction -- Bacteria as active colloids -- Muss es sein? Es muss sein! -- Life at low Reynolds numbers -- Linearity and superposition -- The scallop theorem -- E. coli in motion -- Propulsive mechanism -- Wild-type swimming -- The genetic toolkit -- E. coli is not the only bug -- Synthetic swimmers -- Phoretic motion -- Diffusiophoresis -- Electrophoresis -- Thermophoresis -- Janus particles and autophoresis -- Other systems -- Controlling synthetic swimmers -- Characterising active colloids -- Tracking -- Dynamic light scattering -- Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) -- The generic physics of motile particle suspensions.
Effective temperature and potential -- Active sedimentation equilibrium -- Active aggregation and phase separation -- No detailed balance -- Non-stokeslet hydrodynamics -- Summary and conclusion -- Appendix A. "Microbiology Lab 101 for physicists", written in collaboration with Angela Dawson and Jana Schwarz-Linek -- Which bug? -- Laboratory requirements -- Obtaining your bacteria -- Getting started -- Preparing a motile culture -- The synthesis of functional colloids -- Introduction -- Inorganic particles -- Ionic particles -- Oxide particles -- Clay particles -- Cadmium selenide particles -- Carbon particles -- Metal particles -- Polymer particles -- Dispersion polymerisation -- Template polymerisation -- Emulsion polymerisation: type 1 -- Emulsion polymerisation: type 2 -- Suspension polymerisation -- Mini-emulsion polymerisation -- Co-polymerisation -- Hairy" latex particles (i.e. with terminally-grafted polymers) -- Surface Janus and patchy surface particles -- Control of particle shape -- Liquid latex particles -- Electrically conducting polymer particles -- Composite (two-phase) particles -- Currant-bun particles -- Knobbly" particles -- Core-shell particles -- Controlled release -- Preparation of solid shell/liquid core microcapsules -- Porous and swellable particles -- Porous particles -- Microgel particles: preparation and properties -- Microgel particles: applications -- Applications of colloids in industry -- Introduction -- Colloidal interactions and the impact on applications -- Asphaltene inhibition -- Reinforcement of tires with silica to improve fuel consumption -- Jamming of soft particles to tune rheology -- Conducting nanogels combined with ionic liquids for conductive coatings -- Using DNA to vary interactions and drive assembly -- Using anisotropic colloids to achieve unique properties in applications.
Ellipsoids to prevent coffee ring effects.
Summary: Colloids are systems comprised of particles of mesoscopic size suspended in a liquid. They have recently been attracting increased attention from scientists and engineers due to the fact that they are nowadays present in many industrial products such as paints, oil additives, electronic ink displays and drugs. Colloids also serve as versatile model systems for phenomena and structures from solid-state physics, surface science and statistical mechanics, and can easily be studied using tabletop experiments to provide insight into processes not readily accessible in atomic systems.This book presents the lectures delivered at the 2012 Enrico Fermi School 'Physics of Complex Colloids', held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2012. The school addressed experimental, theoretical and numerical results and methods, and the lectures covered a broad spectrum of topics from the starting point of the synthesis of colloids and their use in commercial products.The lectures review the state-of-the-art of colloidal science in a pedagogical way, discussing both the basics and the latest results, and this book will serve as a reference for both students and experts in this rapidly growing field.
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Title Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Course group shot -- Colloidal interactions: From effective potentials to structure -- Colloidal Soft Matter -- The coarse-graining strategy: effective interactions -- Colloidal stabilization -- Charge stabilization -- Steric stabilization -- Classical uniform fluids -- Nonuniform fluids: density functional theory (DFT) -- The basic principles of DFT -- Some useful results -- Accurate density functionals for soft potentials -- Fluid-fluid interfaces -- Wetting -- Crystallization -- Cluster crystals -- Density functional theory for polymer chains -- Summary and conclusions -- Appendix A. Functionals and functional differentiation -- Like-charge colloidal attraction: A simple argument -- Introduction -- The model -- The large distance limit -- From infinite to small inter-plate distances: the unbinding scenario -- Discussion -- Unbinding scenario and ground-state structure -- Back to the failure of mean-field -- Large distance behaviour -- Asymmetric plates generalisation -- Conclusion -- Elastic properties of colloidal solids with disorder -- Introduction -- Introduction to elasticity in the context of thermodynamics -- Crystalline solids -- Born term -- Fluctuation term -- Density functional approach -- On the comparison of the different approaches -- Glasses -- Modified density functional approach -- Replica theory approach -- Mode coupling theory approach -- Conclusions and outlook -- Appendix A -- Colloidal arrested states of matter -- Introduction -- The prototype colloidal glass: the hard-sphere glass -- The role of polydispersity for the HS glass transition -- Hard spheres plus short-ranged attraction: attractive and repulsive glasses -- Effective interactions: depletion and its consequences on thermodynamics -- Dynamics in the presence of short-ranged attraction.

Soft glasses: the case of star polymers -- Star polymer solutions -- Binary mixtures of stars -- Further exploitation of softness: the asymmetric glass -- Dynamical features of the star-star multiple glasses -- Single glass -- Double glass -- Asymmetric glass -- Gels: low-density, disordered, arrested states driven by attraction -- Non-equilibrium gels resulting from arrested phase separation -- Equilibrium gels of patchy particles -- Charged colloids: Wigner glasses -- Competing interactions: cluster glasses and gels -- Gels of elongated clusters (or cluster gels) -- Wigner glasses of clusters (or cluster glasses) -- Appendix A. The ideal Mode Coupling Theory of the glass transition -- Stochastic thermodynamics: A brief introduction -- Preliminaries -- Introduction -- Nutshell thermodynamics -- Nutshell equilibrium statistical mechanics -- Nutshell Master equation -- Ensemble stochastic thermodynamics -- Ensemble stochastic thermodynamics: first law -- Ensemble stochastic thermodynamics: second law -- System in contact with two reservoirs: steady state and strong coupling -- Two-level system: efficiency at maximum power -- Ensemble stochastic thermodynamics: more -- General comments -- Landauer principle -- Adiabatic and non-adiabatic entropy -- Other extensions -- Trajectory stochastic thermodynamics -- Motivation -- First law: trajectory thermodynamics -- Second law: trajectory thermodynamics -- Integral and detailed fluctuation theorem -- Perspectives -- Simulations: The dark side -- Introduction and acknowledgment -- Simulations: Why and why not -- Predicting properties of novel compounds or materials -- Because it's there -- Testing force fields -- Simulation or theory -- Model testing -- The importance of exact results -- The digital microscope -- Simulation etiquette -- Embedded simulation -- Algorithms versus Moore's law.

When not to compute -- Methods that seem simple... but require great care -- Finite-size effects -- Half is easier than double -- Hydrodynamic interactions -- Self-diffusion coefficients -- Compatibility of boundary conditions -- Deformable boxes -- Liquid crystals -- Helical boundary conditions -- Twist -- Conserved quantities -- Computing S(q) -- Using direct coexistence simulations to locate the freezing transition -- Computing the surface free energy of crystals -- Planck's constant in classical simulations -- And there is more -- Methods that seem reasonable... but are not -- Computing partition functions by MC sampling -- Particle removal -- Using grand-canonical simulations for crystalline solids -- Myths and misconceptions -- New algorithms are better than old algorithms -- Molecular Dynamics simulations predict the time evolution of a many-body system -- Acceptance of Monte Carlo moves should be around 50% -- Periodic boundaries are boundaries -- Free-energy landscapes are unique and meaningful -- And there is more... -- Phase diagrams of shape-anisotropic colloidal particles -- Introduction -- Predicting candidate crystal structures -- Free-energy calculations and phase diagrams -- Fluid phase -- Crystal phase -- Plastic crystal phases -- Orientationally ordered crystal phases -- Mapping out phase diagrams -- Nucleation, gelation, and glass transition -- Phase diagrams of shape-anisotropic hard particles -- Anisotropic hard particles -- Hard dumbbells -- Hard bowl-shaped particles -- Oblate hard spherocylinders -- Statistical optics concepts in light scattering and microscopy of colloidal systems -- Statistical optics -- Complex representation of non-monochromatic fields -- Correlations and spectrum -- Temporal properties of thermal sources -- Temporal coherence and interferometry -- Spatial coherence -- Mutual intensity.

Intensity correlation -- Intensity Correlation Spectroscopy -- Temporal and spatial coherence of the scattered field -- Time correlation of the field scattered by Brownian particles: Random walk and Langevin equation -- The "magic" of Intensity Correlation Spectroscopy -- Once again about radios: heterodyne detection and Doppler velocimetry -- Novel investigation methods based on intensity correlation -- Multi-speckle DLS and Time-Resolved Correlation (TRC) -- Speckles for the short-sighted man: Near Field Scattering (NFS) -- Beyond Flatland: the third dimension of the speckles -- Imaging and microscopy -- Spatial coherence and imaging: General considerations -- Resolving power -- Microscope structure -- Scattering and imaging: towards a joint venture -- Photon Correlation Imaging (PCI) -- Differential Dynamic Microscopy (DDM) -- Appendix A. Basics of diffraction and Fourier optics -- Angular spectrum and evanescent waves -- Diffraction -- Fourier optics and imaging -- Appendix B. Light scattering basics -- LS from molecular fluids -- Scattering by independent colloidal particles -- Scattering regimes -- From Clarkia to Escherichia and Janus: The physics of natural and synthetic active colloids -- Introduction -- Bacteria as active colloids -- Muss es sein? Es muss sein! -- Life at low Reynolds numbers -- Linearity and superposition -- The scallop theorem -- E. coli in motion -- Propulsive mechanism -- Wild-type swimming -- The genetic toolkit -- E. coli is not the only bug -- Synthetic swimmers -- Phoretic motion -- Diffusiophoresis -- Electrophoresis -- Thermophoresis -- Janus particles and autophoresis -- Other systems -- Controlling synthetic swimmers -- Characterising active colloids -- Tracking -- Dynamic light scattering -- Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) -- The generic physics of motile particle suspensions.

Effective temperature and potential -- Active sedimentation equilibrium -- Active aggregation and phase separation -- No detailed balance -- Non-stokeslet hydrodynamics -- Summary and conclusion -- Appendix A. "Microbiology Lab 101 for physicists", written in collaboration with Angela Dawson and Jana Schwarz-Linek -- Which bug? -- Laboratory requirements -- Obtaining your bacteria -- Getting started -- Preparing a motile culture -- The synthesis of functional colloids -- Introduction -- Inorganic particles -- Ionic particles -- Oxide particles -- Clay particles -- Cadmium selenide particles -- Carbon particles -- Metal particles -- Polymer particles -- Dispersion polymerisation -- Template polymerisation -- Emulsion polymerisation: type 1 -- Emulsion polymerisation: type 2 -- Suspension polymerisation -- Mini-emulsion polymerisation -- Co-polymerisation -- Hairy" latex particles (i.e. with terminally-grafted polymers) -- Surface Janus and patchy surface particles -- Control of particle shape -- Liquid latex particles -- Electrically conducting polymer particles -- Composite (two-phase) particles -- Currant-bun particles -- Knobbly" particles -- Core-shell particles -- Controlled release -- Preparation of solid shell/liquid core microcapsules -- Porous and swellable particles -- Porous particles -- Microgel particles: preparation and properties -- Microgel particles: applications -- Applications of colloids in industry -- Introduction -- Colloidal interactions and the impact on applications -- Asphaltene inhibition -- Reinforcement of tires with silica to improve fuel consumption -- Jamming of soft particles to tune rheology -- Conducting nanogels combined with ionic liquids for conductive coatings -- Using DNA to vary interactions and drive assembly -- Using anisotropic colloids to achieve unique properties in applications.

Ellipsoids to prevent coffee ring effects.

Colloids are systems comprised of particles of mesoscopic size suspended in a liquid. They have recently been attracting increased attention from scientists and engineers due to the fact that they are nowadays present in many industrial products such as paints, oil additives, electronic ink displays and drugs. Colloids also serve as versatile model systems for phenomena and structures from solid-state physics, surface science and statistical mechanics, and can easily be studied using tabletop experiments to provide insight into processes not readily accessible in atomic systems.This book presents the lectures delivered at the 2012 Enrico Fermi School 'Physics of Complex Colloids', held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2012. The school addressed experimental, theoretical and numerical results and methods, and the lectures covered a broad spectrum of topics from the starting point of the synthesis of colloids and their use in commercial products.The lectures review the state-of-the-art of colloidal science in a pedagogical way, discussing both the basics and the latest results, and this book will serve as a reference for both students and experts in this rapidly growing field.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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