Comparative Studies in Early Germanic Languages : With a focus on verbal categories.

By: Diewald, GabrieleContributor(s): Kahlas-Tarkka, Leena | Wischer, IlseSeries: Studies in Language Companion SeriesPublisher: Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013Copyright date: ©2013Description: 1 online resource (324 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789027271457Subject(s): English language -- Grammar, Comparative.;English language -- Grammar, Historical.;Germanic languages -- Grammar, Comparative.;Germanic languages -- Grammar, Historical.;Grammar, Comparative and general -- GrammaticalizationGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Comparative Studies in Early Germanic Languages : With a focus on verbal categoriesDDC classification: 429/.56 LOC classification: PE1075 -- .I57 2013ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Comparative Studies in Early Germanic Languages -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC page -- Table of contents -- Introduction -- 1. Verbal categories and their diachronic development in Old English and Old High German -- 2. Grammaticalisation, comparative diachronic linguistics and socio-cultural/philological aspects -- 3. Historical comparative corpus studies -- 4. The verbal categories studied in this volume -- 5. Summary and outlook -- References -- *haitan in Gothic and Old English -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methodology -- 2.1 Corpora and data collection -- 3. Results -- 3.1 Functions of Gothic haitan and Old English hātan -- 3.1.1 Gothic -- 3.1.2 Early Old English -- 3.1.3 Late Old English -- 3.1.4 Comparison of Gothic and Early and Late Old English -- 3.2 Competitors of haitan in Gothic -- 4. Discussion and conclusion -- Appendix -- Early Old English Texts -- Late Old English Texts -- References -- Incipient Grammaticalisation -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Problems with the traditional view of an Old High German and Old English passive -- 2.1 Old High German -- 2.2 Old English -- 3. Theoretical considerations for the interpretation of constructions with the past participle in English and German -- 3.1 The copulas: OHG sīn/wesan and werdan, OE s-copula and weorðan -- 3.2 Past participle -- 3.3 Constructions with the past participle -- 3.3.1 Constructions with stative copula: Sīn/wesan, s-copula plus past participle -- 3.2.2 Constructions with inchoative copula: Werdan/weorðan plus past participle -- 4. Considerations about different incipient stages of grammaticalisation of "passive" constructions in Late Old English and Old High German -- 5. Conclusion and further research -- References -- Passive auxiliaries in English and German -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Previous studies -- 2.1 Old English -- 2.2 Old High German.
3. A different approach: Constructional environments -- 4. Bounded and unbounded language use -- 4.1 Status in Present Day English and New High German -- 4.2 The bounded system of Old English and its breakdown -- 4.3 The bounded system of German and its grammaticalisation -- 5. Convergence and divergence in the development of the English and German passive -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Corpora and data -- 5.3 Clause type -- 5.4 Time adverbs -- 5.5 Word order -- 6. Conclusion -- Refernces -- Causative habban in Old English -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 The structure of the paper -- 1.2 The construction -- 1.3 The corpus studied -- 1.4 The causative habban instances -- 1.5 Previous studies -- 2. Discussion -- 2.1 Diachronic and dialectal breakdown -- 2.2 Syntactic properties of causative habban constructions -- 2.3 Semantic properties of causative habban constructions -- 2.4 An analysis of the OE instances listed as causative in Section 1.3 -- 2.5 A hypothesis concerning the rise of causative habban -- 2.6 The triggering of the grammaticalisation process: the rise of causative habban in the light of Diewald's context-sensitive grammaticalisation scenario -- 3. Final remarks -- References -- Remembering ( ge)munan -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Re(-)membering ( ge)munan: A semantic analysis of OE (ge)munan -- 3. The rising modality of munen in the post-OE periods -- 3.1 mun/mon in Middle English -- 3.2 mun/man in Early Modern English -- 3.3 mun/man/maun in northern dialects -- 3.4 Summary: The auxiliaryhood of mun/man/maun -- 4. The grammaticalisation of mun/man -- 5. The decline of modal mun/man -- 6. Conclusion -- References -- The emergence of modal meanings from haben with zu-infinitives in Old High German -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Different uses of  'haben + zu-infinitive' in late Old High German -- 3. Modes of expression in Latin.
4. Old High German 'sein + zu-infinitive' -- 5. Summary -- Sources -- References -- Markers of Futurity in Old High German and Old English -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Theoretical background -- 3. Empirical analysis (methodology) -- 4. The data: Source lexemes in OHG and OE: Distribution and frequency -- 5. Discussion -- 5.1 The high degree of auxiliarisation of the OE modals -- 5.2 Semantic and constructional aspects of the source items -- 5.2.1 Modal futures -- 5.2.2 'Be, become' futures -- 6. Summary -- Sources -- References -- The Verb to be in the West Saxon Gospels and the Lindisfarne Gospels -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The present indicative -- 2.1 Distribution -- 2.2 Time reference -- 2.3 Differences between the gospel versions -- 2.4 Aspectual references -- 2.4.1 Durative and iterative references -- 2.4.2 Habitual and generic references -- 3. The present subjunctive -- 3.1 Distribution -- 3.2 Time reference -- 3.3 Differences between the gospel versions -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Aspectual properties of the verbal prefix a- in Old English with reference to Gothic -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Hypothesis and theoretical framework -- 3. Data -- 4. Previous research -- 5. Etymology -- 6. Aspect in early Germanic -- 7. Semantics of the prefix a- -- 8. Co-existence of prefixes and particles -- 9. Contrastive analysis -- 10. Conclusion -- References -- Þǣr wæs vs. thâr was -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Theoretical framework: Constructions and grammaticalisation -- 3. ModE and ModHG existential constructions in isolating contexts -- 4. Development in Old English -- 4.1 Untypical contexts in OE -- 4.2 Critical contexts in OE -- 4.3 Frequency of OE existential þǣr-constructions -- 5. Development in OHG -- 5.1 Untypical contexts in OHG -- 5.2 Critical contexts in OHG -- 5.3 Frequency of OHG existential thâr-constructions -- 6. Conclusion -- Sources.
References -- On gain and loss of verbal categories in language contact -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Shared inherited categories -- 3. Shared innovated categories -- 4. Differential innovated categories -- 4.1 Two copulas -- 4.1.1 Two copulas in Old English -- 4.1.2 Two copulas in Celtic -- 4.2 Other categorial differences -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Index.
Summary: The theory of language change has in recent years increased its explanatory repertoire by pointing out the role of language contact in determining which paths of development are entered and followed under specified conditions. In particular, language shifting - as unmonitored second language learning - is recognized as a powerful mechanism for introducing new verbal categories into language systems as well as leading to the loss of verbal categories from language systems. In this paper I will relate several of the most important structural changes and categorial differences in the verb systems of Proto-Germanic, Old English and Old High German to the different contact histories of these languages, among them: (1) the reduction of the Proto-Indo-European TAM system (TAM for tense, aspect, mood) to half its size in Proto-Germanic, (2) the existence of a double copular paradigm in Old English (and again in Irish English) but not in German; (3) a number of properties of English but not of German attributed to Celtic influence by Filppula, Klemola, and Paulasto (2008), such as the loss of the affected possessor construction and the rise of the verbal noun in -ung/-ing and the progressive based on it.
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Comparative Studies in Early Germanic Languages -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC page -- Table of contents -- Introduction -- 1. Verbal categories and their diachronic development in Old English and Old High German -- 2. Grammaticalisation, comparative diachronic linguistics and socio-cultural/philological aspects -- 3. Historical comparative corpus studies -- 4. The verbal categories studied in this volume -- 5. Summary and outlook -- References -- *haitan in Gothic and Old English -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methodology -- 2.1 Corpora and data collection -- 3. Results -- 3.1 Functions of Gothic haitan and Old English hātan -- 3.1.1 Gothic -- 3.1.2 Early Old English -- 3.1.3 Late Old English -- 3.1.4 Comparison of Gothic and Early and Late Old English -- 3.2 Competitors of haitan in Gothic -- 4. Discussion and conclusion -- Appendix -- Early Old English Texts -- Late Old English Texts -- References -- Incipient Grammaticalisation -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Problems with the traditional view of an Old High German and Old English passive -- 2.1 Old High German -- 2.2 Old English -- 3. Theoretical considerations for the interpretation of constructions with the past participle in English and German -- 3.1 The copulas: OHG sīn/wesan and werdan, OE s-copula and weorðan -- 3.2 Past participle -- 3.3 Constructions with the past participle -- 3.3.1 Constructions with stative copula: Sīn/wesan, s-copula plus past participle -- 3.2.2 Constructions with inchoative copula: Werdan/weorðan plus past participle -- 4. Considerations about different incipient stages of grammaticalisation of "passive" constructions in Late Old English and Old High German -- 5. Conclusion and further research -- References -- Passive auxiliaries in English and German -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Previous studies -- 2.1 Old English -- 2.2 Old High German.

3. A different approach: Constructional environments -- 4. Bounded and unbounded language use -- 4.1 Status in Present Day English and New High German -- 4.2 The bounded system of Old English and its breakdown -- 4.3 The bounded system of German and its grammaticalisation -- 5. Convergence and divergence in the development of the English and German passive -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 Corpora and data -- 5.3 Clause type -- 5.4 Time adverbs -- 5.5 Word order -- 6. Conclusion -- Refernces -- Causative habban in Old English -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 The structure of the paper -- 1.2 The construction -- 1.3 The corpus studied -- 1.4 The causative habban instances -- 1.5 Previous studies -- 2. Discussion -- 2.1 Diachronic and dialectal breakdown -- 2.2 Syntactic properties of causative habban constructions -- 2.3 Semantic properties of causative habban constructions -- 2.4 An analysis of the OE instances listed as causative in Section 1.3 -- 2.5 A hypothesis concerning the rise of causative habban -- 2.6 The triggering of the grammaticalisation process: the rise of causative habban in the light of Diewald's context-sensitive grammaticalisation scenario -- 3. Final remarks -- References -- Remembering ( ge)munan -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Re(-)membering ( ge)munan: A semantic analysis of OE (ge)munan -- 3. The rising modality of munen in the post-OE periods -- 3.1 mun/mon in Middle English -- 3.2 mun/man in Early Modern English -- 3.3 mun/man/maun in northern dialects -- 3.4 Summary: The auxiliaryhood of mun/man/maun -- 4. The grammaticalisation of mun/man -- 5. The decline of modal mun/man -- 6. Conclusion -- References -- The emergence of modal meanings from haben with zu-infinitives in Old High German -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Different uses of  'haben + zu-infinitive' in late Old High German -- 3. Modes of expression in Latin.

4. Old High German 'sein + zu-infinitive' -- 5. Summary -- Sources -- References -- Markers of Futurity in Old High German and Old English -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Theoretical background -- 3. Empirical analysis (methodology) -- 4. The data: Source lexemes in OHG and OE: Distribution and frequency -- 5. Discussion -- 5.1 The high degree of auxiliarisation of the OE modals -- 5.2 Semantic and constructional aspects of the source items -- 5.2.1 Modal futures -- 5.2.2 'Be, become' futures -- 6. Summary -- Sources -- References -- The Verb to be in the West Saxon Gospels and the Lindisfarne Gospels -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The present indicative -- 2.1 Distribution -- 2.2 Time reference -- 2.3 Differences between the gospel versions -- 2.4 Aspectual references -- 2.4.1 Durative and iterative references -- 2.4.2 Habitual and generic references -- 3. The present subjunctive -- 3.1 Distribution -- 3.2 Time reference -- 3.3 Differences between the gospel versions -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Aspectual properties of the verbal prefix a- in Old English with reference to Gothic -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Hypothesis and theoretical framework -- 3. Data -- 4. Previous research -- 5. Etymology -- 6. Aspect in early Germanic -- 7. Semantics of the prefix a- -- 8. Co-existence of prefixes and particles -- 9. Contrastive analysis -- 10. Conclusion -- References -- Þǣr wæs vs. thâr was -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Theoretical framework: Constructions and grammaticalisation -- 3. ModE and ModHG existential constructions in isolating contexts -- 4. Development in Old English -- 4.1 Untypical contexts in OE -- 4.2 Critical contexts in OE -- 4.3 Frequency of OE existential þǣr-constructions -- 5. Development in OHG -- 5.1 Untypical contexts in OHG -- 5.2 Critical contexts in OHG -- 5.3 Frequency of OHG existential thâr-constructions -- 6. Conclusion -- Sources.

References -- On gain and loss of verbal categories in language contact -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Shared inherited categories -- 3. Shared innovated categories -- 4. Differential innovated categories -- 4.1 Two copulas -- 4.1.1 Two copulas in Old English -- 4.1.2 Two copulas in Celtic -- 4.2 Other categorial differences -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Index.

The theory of language change has in recent years increased its explanatory repertoire by pointing out the role of language contact in determining which paths of development are entered and followed under specified conditions. In particular, language shifting - as unmonitored second language learning - is recognized as a powerful mechanism for introducing new verbal categories into language systems as well as leading to the loss of verbal categories from language systems. In this paper I will relate several of the most important structural changes and categorial differences in the verb systems of Proto-Germanic, Old English and Old High German to the different contact histories of these languages, among them: (1) the reduction of the Proto-Indo-European TAM system (TAM for tense, aspect, mood) to half its size in Proto-Germanic, (2) the existence of a double copular paradigm in Old English (and again in Irish English) but not in German; (3) a number of properties of English but not of German attributed to Celtic influence by Filppula, Klemola, and Paulasto (2008), such as the loss of the affected possessor construction and the rise of the verbal noun in -ung/-ing and the progressive based on it.

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