An Ioc Medical Commission Publication, Sports Nutrition : An IOC Medical Commission Publication, Sports Nutrition.

By: Maughan, Ronald J
Series: The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine Ser: Publisher: Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2013Copyright date: ©2013Edition: 2nd edDescription: 1 online resource (682 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118692332Subject(s): Sports -- Physiological aspects.;Athletes -- Nutrition.;Sports medicineGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: An Ioc Medical Commission Publication, Sports Nutrition : An IOC Medical Commission Publication, Sports NutritionDDC classification: 613.711 LOC classification: RC1235.S66 2014ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- SPORTS NUTRITION -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Foreword -- Preface -- PART 1 THE UNDERPINNING SCIENCE -- Chapter 1 Human Nutrition -- Energy Nutrition -- Measurement of BMR and Energy Expenditure in Activity -- Recommendations and Reference Levels for Energy Intake -- Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein as Metabolic Fuels -- Protein Requirements -- Protein Quality and Amino Acid Requirements -- Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals -- Minerals -- Vitamins -- Dietary Reference Values -- Other Compounds in Foods -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 2 Exercise Physiology -- Introduction -- Cardiorespiratory Function -- Neuromuscular Function -- Thermoregulatory Function -- Fatigue -- Energy Depletion -- Metabolic By-products -- Neuromuscular Fatigue -- Principles of Training -- Summary -- Chapter 3 Biochemistry of Exercise -- Introduction -- Subcellular Skeletal Muscle Structure -- Overview -- Muscle Contraction -- Fiber Types -- Energy for Muscle Force Generation -- ATP Hydrolysis -- ATP Resynthesis -- Phosphocreatine Breakdown -- Glycolysis -- Muscle Uptake of Glucose from the Blood -- Muscle Glycogen Breakdown -- Glycolytic Pathway from Glucose-6-Phosphate to Pyruvate -- Buffers Prevent Excessive Falls in pH -- Carbohydrate Oxidation in Aerobic Metabolism -- Fat Oxidation in Aerobic Metabolism -- Fuel Stores in the Body -- Regulation of Energy Metabolism -- Intracellular Factors -- Hormones and Cytokines -- Metabolic Responses to Exercise -- High-Intensity Exercise -- Prolonged Exercise -- Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise Training -- Endurance Training Adaptation and the Influence of Nutrition -- Strength Training Adaptation and the Influence of Nutrition -- References -- PART 2 ENERGY AND MACRONUTRIENTS -- Chapter 4 How to Assess the Energy Costs of Exercise and Sport -- Introduction.
Definitions Related to Energy Expenditure -- Methodologies to Estimate the Energy Cost of Exercise and Sport -- Direct Methods -- Indirect Methods -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 5 Energy Balance and Energy Availability -- Goals of Athletic Training -- Distinctions between Energy Balance and Energy Availability -- Hormone Responses to Low Energy Availability -- Effects of Chronic Low Energy Availability -- Effects of Acute Low Energy Availability -- The Low Energy Availability Threshold -- Causes of Low Energy Availability -- Management of Energy Availability -- General Procedure -- New Measurement Techniques -- A Cautionary Note about the Calculation of EEE -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 6 Assessing Body Composition -- Introduction -- A Framework for Comparing Techniques -- Body Composition Assessment Techniques -- Laboratory Methods -- Field Methods -- Summary and Implications -- References -- Chapter 7 Carbohydrate Needs of Athletes in Training -- Introduction -- Daily Carbohydrate Requirements for Training -- Training Harder-Refueling on a Daily Basis -- Training Specifically-Practicing Competition Nutrition Strategies -- Training Smarter-Should Athletes Train with Low Carbohydrate Availability? -- Promoting Glycogen Storage with Suboptimal Carbohydrate Intakes -- Summary and Future Directions for Research -- References -- Chapter 8 The Regulation and Synthesis of Muscle Glycogen by Means of Nutrient Intervention -- Introduction -- Glycogen Formation and Structure -- Glycogen Synthase Regulation -- Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis After Exercise -- Glycogen Supercompensation -- Daily Replenishment of MuscleGlycogen Stores -- Short-Term Glycogen Storage -- Timing of Carbohydrate Supplementation -- Amount and Frequency of Carbohydrate Supplementation -- Type and Form of Carbohydrate Used for Supplementation -- The Addition of Protein.
The Addition of Caffeine -- Recommendations -- References -- Chapter 9 Carbohydrate Ingestion During Exercise -- Introduction -- High Intensity Exercise, 30-75 minute Duration -- Mechanisms -- Brain Responses to Oral Carbohydrate -- Implications -- Intermittent and Skill Sports -- Ergogenic Effects of Carbohydrate Intake During Prolonged Exercise (>2 hours) -- Optimizing the Carbohydrate Delivery -- Different Types of Carbohydrate -- Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates -- Effects of Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates on Exercise Performance -- Training the Gut -- Better Oxidation Efficiency and Less Gastrointestinal Discomfort -- Individual Differences -- Practical Implications -- Conclusion -- Summary -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Chapter 10 Defining Optimum Protein Intakes for Athletes -- Current Recommendations -- Optimizing Protein Intake -- Excessive Protein Intake -- Energy Intake -- Timing of Protein Consumption -- Practical Recommendations -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 11 Dietary Protein as a Trigger for Metabolic Adaptation -- Introduction -- Postexercise Muscle Protein Reconditioning -- Dietary Protein Ingestion Following Exercise -- Amount of Dietary Protein -- Source of Dietary Protein -- Carbohydrate Ingestion -- Timing of Dietary Protein Ingestion -- Acute Versus Long-Term Adaptive Response to Exercise -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12 Fat Metabolism During and After Exercise -- Introduction -- Fatty Acids as Energy Sources -- Circulating Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triacylglycerol -- Transport of Plasma FA into Muscle -- TG Located within the Skeletal Muscle Cell -- Fat Metabolism during Prolonged Exercise -- The Different FA Sources Utilized during Exercise -- Effect of Exercise Intensity on FA Metabolism -- Mitochondrial Metabolism -- Postexercise Recovery -- References.
Chapter 13 Metabolic Adaptations to a High-Fat Diet -- Introduction and Background -- Fat-Adaptation Protocols and Terminology: Dietary Periodization for the Athlete -- Fat Adaptation, Followed by Carbohydrate Restoration: Effects on Substrate Metabolism -- Fat Adaptation Followed by Carbohydrate Restoration: Putative Mechanisms Underlying the Persistent Increase in Fat Oxidation -- Membrane Transport -- Mitochondrial FA Transport -- Intramuscular Triacylglycerol Storage and Breakdown -- Fat Adaptation: A Blunt Tool for Improving Endurance Performance? -- References -- Chapter 14 Water and Electrolyte Loss and Replacement in Training and Competition -- Introduction -- Basal Water Requirements -- Control of Water Balance -- Impact of Exercise on Water Balance -- Assessing Hydration Status and Water Loss -- Water Replacement -- Measurement of Water Turnover -- Diuretic Agents -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 15 Performance Effects of Dehydration -- Introduction -- Fluid Intake Guidelines: History of the Past 15 Years -- Aerobic Exercise Performance: Effect of Exercise-Induced Dehydration -- Time-Trial Exercise Conditions and Exercise-Induced Dehydration: Effect on Endurance Performance -- Time-Trial Exercise Conditions and Exercise-Induced Dehydration: Endurance Performance and Thirst Sensation -- Time-Trial Exercise Conditions and Exercise-Induced Dehydration: 1 hour Endurance Performance -- Real-World Exercise Conditions and Exercise-Induced Dehydration: Effect on Endurance Performance -- Fixed-Exercise Intensity Conditions: Effects of Exercise-Induced Dehydration -- Aerobic Exercise Performance: Effect of Pre-Exercise Hypohydration -- Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Aerobic Exercise Performance: Effect of Pre-Exercise Hypohydration.
Jumping Ability and Muscle Strength, Power and Anaerobic Endurance Capacity: Effect of Pre-Exercise Hypohydration -- Hydration Guidelines -- Before Exercise -- During Exercise -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 16 Rehydration and Recovery After Exercise -- Introduction -- Factors Influencing Rehydration after Exercise -- Drink Volume and Rate of Drink Ingestion -- Beverage Composition -- Food and Fluid Consumption -- Beverage Palatability and Voluntary Fluid Intake -- Post-exercise Rehydration and Restoration of Exercise Capacity or Performance -- Practical Considerations, Summary, and Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 17 Nutritional Effects on Central Fatigue -- Definitions of Fatigue -- Nutritional Influences on Central Fatigue -- Branched-Chain Amino Acids -- Tyrosine -- Carbohydrate -- Caffeine -- Conclusions -- References -- PART 3 MICRONUTRIENTS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS -- Chapter 18 Vitamins, Minerals, and Sport Performance -- Introduction -- Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation Use Among Athletes -- Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Athletic Performance -- Vitamins -- Vitamin A -- Vitamin D -- Vitamin E (α-Tocopherol) -- The B Vitamins -- Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) -- Minerals -- Chromium -- Iron -- Zinc -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 19 Iron Requirements and Iron Status of Athletes -- The Physiology of Iron -- Intestinal Absorption, Body Iron Recycling, and Delivery to Target Tissues -- Regulation of Ferroportin-Mediated Iron Extrusion: The Role of Hepcidin -- Regulation of Body Iron Stores -- Iron in Sport -- Sports Anemia -- Iron and Iron-Related Parameter in Response to Exercise -- Role of Inflammation in Iron Deficiency -- Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency -- Biological Variability and Critical Difference -- Diagnostic Indices -- Iron Supplementation -- Iron Bioavailability.
Specific Iron Needs and Iron Supplementation in Athletes.
Summary: This latest volume in the Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine and Science, this book is the definitive comprehensive reference to nutrition as it relates to athletic performance. Leading experts from the fields of nutrition, sports science and sports medicine outline the current state of knowledge, from the biochemistry and physiology of eating to practical guidance for trainers, coaches, physicians and other professionals. Topics include weight management, supplements, and planning diets for optimal training and performance. This book is published in conjunction with the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee.
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Intro -- SPORTS NUTRITION -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Foreword -- Preface -- PART 1 THE UNDERPINNING SCIENCE -- Chapter 1 Human Nutrition -- Energy Nutrition -- Measurement of BMR and Energy Expenditure in Activity -- Recommendations and Reference Levels for Energy Intake -- Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein as Metabolic Fuels -- Protein Requirements -- Protein Quality and Amino Acid Requirements -- Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals -- Minerals -- Vitamins -- Dietary Reference Values -- Other Compounds in Foods -- Further Reading -- References -- Chapter 2 Exercise Physiology -- Introduction -- Cardiorespiratory Function -- Neuromuscular Function -- Thermoregulatory Function -- Fatigue -- Energy Depletion -- Metabolic By-products -- Neuromuscular Fatigue -- Principles of Training -- Summary -- Chapter 3 Biochemistry of Exercise -- Introduction -- Subcellular Skeletal Muscle Structure -- Overview -- Muscle Contraction -- Fiber Types -- Energy for Muscle Force Generation -- ATP Hydrolysis -- ATP Resynthesis -- Phosphocreatine Breakdown -- Glycolysis -- Muscle Uptake of Glucose from the Blood -- Muscle Glycogen Breakdown -- Glycolytic Pathway from Glucose-6-Phosphate to Pyruvate -- Buffers Prevent Excessive Falls in pH -- Carbohydrate Oxidation in Aerobic Metabolism -- Fat Oxidation in Aerobic Metabolism -- Fuel Stores in the Body -- Regulation of Energy Metabolism -- Intracellular Factors -- Hormones and Cytokines -- Metabolic Responses to Exercise -- High-Intensity Exercise -- Prolonged Exercise -- Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise Training -- Endurance Training Adaptation and the Influence of Nutrition -- Strength Training Adaptation and the Influence of Nutrition -- References -- PART 2 ENERGY AND MACRONUTRIENTS -- Chapter 4 How to Assess the Energy Costs of Exercise and Sport -- Introduction.

Definitions Related to Energy Expenditure -- Methodologies to Estimate the Energy Cost of Exercise and Sport -- Direct Methods -- Indirect Methods -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 5 Energy Balance and Energy Availability -- Goals of Athletic Training -- Distinctions between Energy Balance and Energy Availability -- Hormone Responses to Low Energy Availability -- Effects of Chronic Low Energy Availability -- Effects of Acute Low Energy Availability -- The Low Energy Availability Threshold -- Causes of Low Energy Availability -- Management of Energy Availability -- General Procedure -- New Measurement Techniques -- A Cautionary Note about the Calculation of EEE -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 6 Assessing Body Composition -- Introduction -- A Framework for Comparing Techniques -- Body Composition Assessment Techniques -- Laboratory Methods -- Field Methods -- Summary and Implications -- References -- Chapter 7 Carbohydrate Needs of Athletes in Training -- Introduction -- Daily Carbohydrate Requirements for Training -- Training Harder-Refueling on a Daily Basis -- Training Specifically-Practicing Competition Nutrition Strategies -- Training Smarter-Should Athletes Train with Low Carbohydrate Availability? -- Promoting Glycogen Storage with Suboptimal Carbohydrate Intakes -- Summary and Future Directions for Research -- References -- Chapter 8 The Regulation and Synthesis of Muscle Glycogen by Means of Nutrient Intervention -- Introduction -- Glycogen Formation and Structure -- Glycogen Synthase Regulation -- Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis After Exercise -- Glycogen Supercompensation -- Daily Replenishment of MuscleGlycogen Stores -- Short-Term Glycogen Storage -- Timing of Carbohydrate Supplementation -- Amount and Frequency of Carbohydrate Supplementation -- Type and Form of Carbohydrate Used for Supplementation -- The Addition of Protein.

The Addition of Caffeine -- Recommendations -- References -- Chapter 9 Carbohydrate Ingestion During Exercise -- Introduction -- High Intensity Exercise, 30-75 minute Duration -- Mechanisms -- Brain Responses to Oral Carbohydrate -- Implications -- Intermittent and Skill Sports -- Ergogenic Effects of Carbohydrate Intake During Prolonged Exercise (>2 hours) -- Optimizing the Carbohydrate Delivery -- Different Types of Carbohydrate -- Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates -- Effects of Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates on Exercise Performance -- Training the Gut -- Better Oxidation Efficiency and Less Gastrointestinal Discomfort -- Individual Differences -- Practical Implications -- Conclusion -- Summary -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Chapter 10 Defining Optimum Protein Intakes for Athletes -- Current Recommendations -- Optimizing Protein Intake -- Excessive Protein Intake -- Energy Intake -- Timing of Protein Consumption -- Practical Recommendations -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 11 Dietary Protein as a Trigger for Metabolic Adaptation -- Introduction -- Postexercise Muscle Protein Reconditioning -- Dietary Protein Ingestion Following Exercise -- Amount of Dietary Protein -- Source of Dietary Protein -- Carbohydrate Ingestion -- Timing of Dietary Protein Ingestion -- Acute Versus Long-Term Adaptive Response to Exercise -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12 Fat Metabolism During and After Exercise -- Introduction -- Fatty Acids as Energy Sources -- Circulating Very Low Density Lipoprotein Triacylglycerol -- Transport of Plasma FA into Muscle -- TG Located within the Skeletal Muscle Cell -- Fat Metabolism during Prolonged Exercise -- The Different FA Sources Utilized during Exercise -- Effect of Exercise Intensity on FA Metabolism -- Mitochondrial Metabolism -- Postexercise Recovery -- References.

Chapter 13 Metabolic Adaptations to a High-Fat Diet -- Introduction and Background -- Fat-Adaptation Protocols and Terminology: Dietary Periodization for the Athlete -- Fat Adaptation, Followed by Carbohydrate Restoration: Effects on Substrate Metabolism -- Fat Adaptation Followed by Carbohydrate Restoration: Putative Mechanisms Underlying the Persistent Increase in Fat Oxidation -- Membrane Transport -- Mitochondrial FA Transport -- Intramuscular Triacylglycerol Storage and Breakdown -- Fat Adaptation: A Blunt Tool for Improving Endurance Performance? -- References -- Chapter 14 Water and Electrolyte Loss and Replacement in Training and Competition -- Introduction -- Basal Water Requirements -- Control of Water Balance -- Impact of Exercise on Water Balance -- Assessing Hydration Status and Water Loss -- Water Replacement -- Measurement of Water Turnover -- Diuretic Agents -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 15 Performance Effects of Dehydration -- Introduction -- Fluid Intake Guidelines: History of the Past 15 Years -- Aerobic Exercise Performance: Effect of Exercise-Induced Dehydration -- Time-Trial Exercise Conditions and Exercise-Induced Dehydration: Effect on Endurance Performance -- Time-Trial Exercise Conditions and Exercise-Induced Dehydration: Endurance Performance and Thirst Sensation -- Time-Trial Exercise Conditions and Exercise-Induced Dehydration: 1 hour Endurance Performance -- Real-World Exercise Conditions and Exercise-Induced Dehydration: Effect on Endurance Performance -- Fixed-Exercise Intensity Conditions: Effects of Exercise-Induced Dehydration -- Aerobic Exercise Performance: Effect of Pre-Exercise Hypohydration -- Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Aerobic Exercise Performance: Effect of Pre-Exercise Hypohydration.

Jumping Ability and Muscle Strength, Power and Anaerobic Endurance Capacity: Effect of Pre-Exercise Hypohydration -- Hydration Guidelines -- Before Exercise -- During Exercise -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 16 Rehydration and Recovery After Exercise -- Introduction -- Factors Influencing Rehydration after Exercise -- Drink Volume and Rate of Drink Ingestion -- Beverage Composition -- Food and Fluid Consumption -- Beverage Palatability and Voluntary Fluid Intake -- Post-exercise Rehydration and Restoration of Exercise Capacity or Performance -- Practical Considerations, Summary, and Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 17 Nutritional Effects on Central Fatigue -- Definitions of Fatigue -- Nutritional Influences on Central Fatigue -- Branched-Chain Amino Acids -- Tyrosine -- Carbohydrate -- Caffeine -- Conclusions -- References -- PART 3 MICRONUTRIENTS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS -- Chapter 18 Vitamins, Minerals, and Sport Performance -- Introduction -- Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation Use Among Athletes -- Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Athletic Performance -- Vitamins -- Vitamin A -- Vitamin D -- Vitamin E (α-Tocopherol) -- The B Vitamins -- Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) -- Minerals -- Chromium -- Iron -- Zinc -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 19 Iron Requirements and Iron Status of Athletes -- The Physiology of Iron -- Intestinal Absorption, Body Iron Recycling, and Delivery to Target Tissues -- Regulation of Ferroportin-Mediated Iron Extrusion: The Role of Hepcidin -- Regulation of Body Iron Stores -- Iron in Sport -- Sports Anemia -- Iron and Iron-Related Parameter in Response to Exercise -- Role of Inflammation in Iron Deficiency -- Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency -- Biological Variability and Critical Difference -- Diagnostic Indices -- Iron Supplementation -- Iron Bioavailability.

Specific Iron Needs and Iron Supplementation in Athletes.

This latest volume in the Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine and Science, this book is the definitive comprehensive reference to nutrition as it relates to athletic performance. Leading experts from the fields of nutrition, sports science and sports medicine outline the current state of knowledge, from the biochemistry and physiology of eating to practical guidance for trainers, coaches, physicians and other professionals. Topics include weight management, supplements, and planning diets for optimal training and performance. This book is published in conjunction with the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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