Japanese : Revised edition.

By: Iwasaki, ShoichiSeries: London Oriental and African Language LibraryPublisher: Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013Copyright date: ©2013Edition: 2nd edDescription: 1 online resource (405 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789027273147Subject(s): Japanese language -- Grammar.;Linguistics -- JapanGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Japanese : <strong>Revised edition</strong>DDC classification: 495.6/5 LOC classification: PL533 -- .I97 2013ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Japanese -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Dedication page -- Table of Contents -- Preface -- Romanization and text presentation -- Chapter 1. Overview -- 1. Language varieties -- 2. Genetic relationships with other languages -- 3. Historical periods and important changes in the language -- 4. Typological features of Japanese -- Chapter 2. Writing system -- 1. Early history -- 2. The current system -- 3. Kanji: Chinese characters -- 4. Kana -- Appendix A (Hiragana chart) -- Appendix B (Katakana chart) -- Chapter 3. Sounds -- 1. The inventory of sounds -- 1.1 Vowels -- 1.2 Consonants -- 1.2.1 Phonetic inventory -- 1.2.2 Phonemic analysis -- 1.2.3 Syllable-initial clusters -- 1.2.4 Special phonemes -- 2. Sound modification -- 2.1 High vowel devoicing -- 2.2 Sequential voicing ("Rendaku 濁") -- 3. Syllable, mora, and foot -- 4. Accent -- 5. Intonation -- Words -- 1. Vocabulary strata -- 2. Word classes -- 2.1 Major word classes -- 2.1.1 Nouns -- 2.1.2 Adjectives -- 2.1.3 Nominal adjectives -- 2.1.4 Verbs -- 2.2 Minor word classes -- 2.2.1 Adverbs -- 2.2.2 Conjunctions -- 2.2.3 Adnouns -- 2.2.4 Auxiliaries -- 2.2.5 Copula -- 2.2.6 Particles -- 2.2.7 Affixes -- 2.2.8 Interjections -- 3. Some notable word classes -- 3.1 Sound-symbolic words -- 3.2 Numerals and numeral-classifiers -- 3.2.1 Numerals -- 3.2.2 Numeral classifiers and numeric phrases -- Morphology -- 1. Morphology of the inflectional category -- 1.1 Verb morphology -- 1.1.1 Verb types -- 1.1.2 Onbin (sandhi) -- 1.1.3 Transitive-intransitive opposition -- 1.2 Adjective morphology -- 1.3 Copula morphology -- 1.4 Polite register inflection paradigms -- 2. Word-formation processes -- 2.1 Noun equivalents (Lexical nominalization) -- 2.2 Affixation -- 2.3 Compounding -- 2.4 Reduplication -- 2.5 Clipping and blending -- Chapter 6. Argument structures -- 1. Argument structure types.
1.1 Argument structures with stative predicates -- 1.2 Argument structures with dynamic predicates -- 1.3 Argument structure for the reportative verbs -- 2. Adjunct noun phrases -- 3. Syntactic roles and clausal structures -- 3.1 Subjects -- 3.2 Objects -- Tense and aspect -- 1. Tense -- 2. Aspect -- 2.1 Perfect (anterior) aspect: -ta -- 2.2 Perfective aspect -- 2.3 Imperfective aspect: Progressive and resultative -- 2.3.1 -te-iru -- 2.3.1.1 Canonical cases. The -te-iru construction shares great deal of similarities with the English be V-ing construction as the table below shows. -- 2.3.1.2. Extended uses. In the previous section, the unmarked meanings of the -te-iru form with different types of verbs were presented. However, marked, extended meanings may also emerge when a specific context is provided. This includes the ­resultative -- 2.3.2 -te-aru -- 2.3.3 Summary -- 2.4 Marked aspects -- 2.4.1 Completive aspect -- 2.4.1.1 [VerbINF]-owaru / oeru. The "completive" aspect is expressed by -owaru and -oeru following the infinitive form. These auxiliary verbs have derived from the main verbs, owaru (intransitive) and oeru (transitive), both of which mean 'finish, end.' C -- 2.4.1.2 -te-shimau. -- 2.4.2 Preparatory aspect: -te-oku -- 2.4.3 Exploratory aspect: -te-miru -- 2.4.4 Inceptive aspect: (INF) -hajimeru / -dasu -- 2.4.5 Inchoative aspect -- 2.4.5.1. (ni/-ku) naru. The "inchoative" aspect means a "change of state," or more specifically "the coming about of a state (without agentive intervention)" (Smith 1991: 35). The word naru is mainly used to code the inchoative aspect of adjectives (stati -- 2.4.5.2. -te-kuru and -te-iku. The auxiliary verbs in -te-kuru and -te-iku (or -te-ku with i deleted), which are derived from kuru 'come' and iku 'go,' respectively, also show the inchoative aspect. The original use of these expressions is directional (­C.
2.4.6 Summary -- Chapter 8. Grammatical constructions -- 1. Passive construction -- 1.1 Eventive passives -- 1.1.1 Direct passives: -(r)are- as a "voice converter" -- 1.1.2 Indirect passives: -(r)are- as a "valence increaser" -- 1.1.3 Psychological affect (Adversity) -- 1.2 Stative Passives: -(r)are- as a "stativizer" -- 2. Spontaneous constructions -- 3. Potential constructions -- 4. Causatives -- 4.1 Lexical causatives -- 4.2 Morphological causatives -- 4.2.1 Intransitive-based morphological causatives -- 4.2.2 Transitive-based morphological causatives -- 4.3 Periphrastic causatives -- 4.4 Causative-passives -- 5. Benefactives -- 5.1 Basic structure -- 5.2 "Malefactive" interpretation -- 5.3 Causative-benefactives and passive-benefactives -- 6. Reciprocals -- 6.1 Lexical reciprocals -- 6.2 Morphological reciprocals -- 6.3 Periphrastic reciprocals -- 7. Numeric phrases -- Chapter 9. Noun phrase structures -- 1. Genitive and associative phrases -- 2. Simple attributive phrases -- 3. Clausal noun modification -- 3.1 "Cased head" type (Relative clause) -- 3.2 "Adverbial head" type -- 3.3 "Relational head" type -- 3.4 "Content label head" type ("Appositive clause") -- 4. Some syntactic characteristics -- 4.1 The 'ga-no' conversion -- 4.2 Relative clause formation in English and Japanese -- Chapter 10. Quotation and complementation -- 1. Quotation: Quoted speech and thought -- 2. Complementation -- 2.1 The object complement -- 2.2 The subject complement -- 3. Internally headed relative clauses (IHRs) -- 4. Integrated adverbial clauses -- 5. Summary -- Information structure and the sentence form -- 1. The topic-comment structure -- 1.1 Identifiability, activation and discourse -- 1.2 The "eel" sentence -- 1.3 The "-wa -ga" sentence structure -- 2. The contrastive structure -- 3. The focus structure -- 3.1 Presupposition and assertion.
3.2 Obligatory focus interpretation -- 3.3 The cleft argument focus construction -- 4. The topic-less sentence -- 4.1 The exclamatory sentence -- 4.2 The presentational sentence -- 5. The mixed-type sentence -- Chapter 12. Clause combining -- 1. Conjoining -- 1.1 Coupling -- 1.2 Contrast -- 2. Adverbial subordination -- 2.1 Temporal clauses -- 2.1.1 "When" (General time) -- 2.1.2 "Before" -- 2.1.3 "After" -- 2.1.4 "While" -- 2.2 Conditionals -- 2.2.1 Reality conditionals -- 2.2.2 Unreality conditionals -- 2.2.3 Concessive conditionals -- 2.3 Cause/reason -- 2.4 Counter expectation -- 2.5 Purpose -- 2.6 Circumstantials -- 3. Clause chaining and continuity marking -- 4. The "open clausal structure" and discourse organization -- Chapter 13. Reference system in discourse -- 1. Personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, and logophoric pronouns -- 2. Nominal ellipsis (zero anaphora) -- 3. Demonstratives as discourse deixis -- 3.1 Nominal reference -- 3.2 Discourse reference -- Chapter 14. Pragmatics -- 1. Subjectivity concerns -- 1.1 Internal state expressions -- 1.2 Deictic expressions -- 1.2.1 Demonstratives : The ko-so-a-do words -- 14.1.2.1.1 Spatial use. -- 1.2.1.2 Cognitive use. -- 14.1.2.1.3 Affective use. -- 1.2.2 Movement and transaction expressions -- 2. Modality expressions -- 2.1 Epistemic modality -- 2.1.1 Conjectural and inferential -- 2.1.2 Evidentials -- 2.1.3 Evaluative modality -- 3. Pragmatic particles -- 3.1 Markers of the "territory of information" -- 3.2 Markers of illocutionary act -- 3.3 Markers of unassimilated information -- 4. Conversation and language -- 4.1 Pragmatic particles and 'aizuchi' -- 4.2 Discourse markers and discourse connectives -- Chapter 15. Speech styles and registers -- 1. Personal indexical terms -- 2. Predicate forms -- 3. Direct vs. indirect dimensions -- 4. Honorifics -- 5. Gendered speech.
6. Speech register creation -- Chapter 16. Sample texts -- 1. Newspaper article -- 2. Folk tale -- 3. First person narrative ("Air Raid") -- 4. Conversation (1): "The Northridge earthquake" -- 5. Conversation (2): "Australia" -- Index.
Summary: Japanese ranks as the ninth most widely spoken language of the world with more than 127 million speakers in the island state of Japan. Its genetic relation has been a topic of heated discussion, but Altaic and Austronesian languages appear to have contributed to the early formation of this language. Japanese has a long written tradition, which goes back to texts from the eighth century CE. The modern writing system employs a mixture of Chinese characters and two sets of syllabary indigenously developed based on the Chinese characters.This book consists of sixteen chapters covering the phonology, morphology, writing system, tense and aspect systems, basic argument structure, grammatical constructions, and discourse and pragmatic phenomena of Japanese. It provides researchers with a useful typological reference and students of Japanese with a theory-neutral introduction to current linguistic research issues.
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Japanese -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Dedication page -- Table of Contents -- Preface -- Romanization and text presentation -- Chapter 1. Overview -- 1. Language varieties -- 2. Genetic relationships with other languages -- 3. Historical periods and important changes in the language -- 4. Typological features of Japanese -- Chapter 2. Writing system -- 1. Early history -- 2. The current system -- 3. Kanji: Chinese characters -- 4. Kana -- Appendix A (Hiragana chart) -- Appendix B (Katakana chart) -- Chapter 3. Sounds -- 1. The inventory of sounds -- 1.1 Vowels -- 1.2 Consonants -- 1.2.1 Phonetic inventory -- 1.2.2 Phonemic analysis -- 1.2.3 Syllable-initial clusters -- 1.2.4 Special phonemes -- 2. Sound modification -- 2.1 High vowel devoicing -- 2.2 Sequential voicing ("Rendaku 濁") -- 3. Syllable, mora, and foot -- 4. Accent -- 5. Intonation -- Words -- 1. Vocabulary strata -- 2. Word classes -- 2.1 Major word classes -- 2.1.1 Nouns -- 2.1.2 Adjectives -- 2.1.3 Nominal adjectives -- 2.1.4 Verbs -- 2.2 Minor word classes -- 2.2.1 Adverbs -- 2.2.2 Conjunctions -- 2.2.3 Adnouns -- 2.2.4 Auxiliaries -- 2.2.5 Copula -- 2.2.6 Particles -- 2.2.7 Affixes -- 2.2.8 Interjections -- 3. Some notable word classes -- 3.1 Sound-symbolic words -- 3.2 Numerals and numeral-classifiers -- 3.2.1 Numerals -- 3.2.2 Numeral classifiers and numeric phrases -- Morphology -- 1. Morphology of the inflectional category -- 1.1 Verb morphology -- 1.1.1 Verb types -- 1.1.2 Onbin (sandhi) -- 1.1.3 Transitive-intransitive opposition -- 1.2 Adjective morphology -- 1.3 Copula morphology -- 1.4 Polite register inflection paradigms -- 2. Word-formation processes -- 2.1 Noun equivalents (Lexical nominalization) -- 2.2 Affixation -- 2.3 Compounding -- 2.4 Reduplication -- 2.5 Clipping and blending -- Chapter 6. Argument structures -- 1. Argument structure types.

1.1 Argument structures with stative predicates -- 1.2 Argument structures with dynamic predicates -- 1.3 Argument structure for the reportative verbs -- 2. Adjunct noun phrases -- 3. Syntactic roles and clausal structures -- 3.1 Subjects -- 3.2 Objects -- Tense and aspect -- 1. Tense -- 2. Aspect -- 2.1 Perfect (anterior) aspect: -ta -- 2.2 Perfective aspect -- 2.3 Imperfective aspect: Progressive and resultative -- 2.3.1 -te-iru -- 2.3.1.1 Canonical cases. The -te-iru construction shares great deal of similarities with the English be V-ing construction as the table below shows. -- 2.3.1.2. Extended uses. In the previous section, the unmarked meanings of the -te-iru form with different types of verbs were presented. However, marked, extended meanings may also emerge when a specific context is provided. This includes the ­resultative -- 2.3.2 -te-aru -- 2.3.3 Summary -- 2.4 Marked aspects -- 2.4.1 Completive aspect -- 2.4.1.1 [VerbINF]-owaru / oeru. The "completive" aspect is expressed by -owaru and -oeru following the infinitive form. These auxiliary verbs have derived from the main verbs, owaru (intransitive) and oeru (transitive), both of which mean 'finish, end.' C -- 2.4.1.2 -te-shimau. -- 2.4.2 Preparatory aspect: -te-oku -- 2.4.3 Exploratory aspect: -te-miru -- 2.4.4 Inceptive aspect: (INF) -hajimeru / -dasu -- 2.4.5 Inchoative aspect -- 2.4.5.1. (ni/-ku) naru. The "inchoative" aspect means a "change of state," or more specifically "the coming about of a state (without agentive intervention)" (Smith 1991: 35). The word naru is mainly used to code the inchoative aspect of adjectives (stati -- 2.4.5.2. -te-kuru and -te-iku. The auxiliary verbs in -te-kuru and -te-iku (or -te-ku with i deleted), which are derived from kuru 'come' and iku 'go,' respectively, also show the inchoative aspect. The original use of these expressions is directional (­C.

2.4.6 Summary -- Chapter 8. Grammatical constructions -- 1. Passive construction -- 1.1 Eventive passives -- 1.1.1 Direct passives: -(r)are- as a "voice converter" -- 1.1.2 Indirect passives: -(r)are- as a "valence increaser" -- 1.1.3 Psychological affect (Adversity) -- 1.2 Stative Passives: -(r)are- as a "stativizer" -- 2. Spontaneous constructions -- 3. Potential constructions -- 4. Causatives -- 4.1 Lexical causatives -- 4.2 Morphological causatives -- 4.2.1 Intransitive-based morphological causatives -- 4.2.2 Transitive-based morphological causatives -- 4.3 Periphrastic causatives -- 4.4 Causative-passives -- 5. Benefactives -- 5.1 Basic structure -- 5.2 "Malefactive" interpretation -- 5.3 Causative-benefactives and passive-benefactives -- 6. Reciprocals -- 6.1 Lexical reciprocals -- 6.2 Morphological reciprocals -- 6.3 Periphrastic reciprocals -- 7. Numeric phrases -- Chapter 9. Noun phrase structures -- 1. Genitive and associative phrases -- 2. Simple attributive phrases -- 3. Clausal noun modification -- 3.1 "Cased head" type (Relative clause) -- 3.2 "Adverbial head" type -- 3.3 "Relational head" type -- 3.4 "Content label head" type ("Appositive clause") -- 4. Some syntactic characteristics -- 4.1 The 'ga-no' conversion -- 4.2 Relative clause formation in English and Japanese -- Chapter 10. Quotation and complementation -- 1. Quotation: Quoted speech and thought -- 2. Complementation -- 2.1 The object complement -- 2.2 The subject complement -- 3. Internally headed relative clauses (IHRs) -- 4. Integrated adverbial clauses -- 5. Summary -- Information structure and the sentence form -- 1. The topic-comment structure -- 1.1 Identifiability, activation and discourse -- 1.2 The "eel" sentence -- 1.3 The "-wa -ga" sentence structure -- 2. The contrastive structure -- 3. The focus structure -- 3.1 Presupposition and assertion.

3.2 Obligatory focus interpretation -- 3.3 The cleft argument focus construction -- 4. The topic-less sentence -- 4.1 The exclamatory sentence -- 4.2 The presentational sentence -- 5. The mixed-type sentence -- Chapter 12. Clause combining -- 1. Conjoining -- 1.1 Coupling -- 1.2 Contrast -- 2. Adverbial subordination -- 2.1 Temporal clauses -- 2.1.1 "When" (General time) -- 2.1.2 "Before" -- 2.1.3 "After" -- 2.1.4 "While" -- 2.2 Conditionals -- 2.2.1 Reality conditionals -- 2.2.2 Unreality conditionals -- 2.2.3 Concessive conditionals -- 2.3 Cause/reason -- 2.4 Counter expectation -- 2.5 Purpose -- 2.6 Circumstantials -- 3. Clause chaining and continuity marking -- 4. The "open clausal structure" and discourse organization -- Chapter 13. Reference system in discourse -- 1. Personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, and logophoric pronouns -- 2. Nominal ellipsis (zero anaphora) -- 3. Demonstratives as discourse deixis -- 3.1 Nominal reference -- 3.2 Discourse reference -- Chapter 14. Pragmatics -- 1. Subjectivity concerns -- 1.1 Internal state expressions -- 1.2 Deictic expressions -- 1.2.1 Demonstratives : The ko-so-a-do words -- 14.1.2.1.1 Spatial use. -- 1.2.1.2 Cognitive use. -- 14.1.2.1.3 Affective use. -- 1.2.2 Movement and transaction expressions -- 2. Modality expressions -- 2.1 Epistemic modality -- 2.1.1 Conjectural and inferential -- 2.1.2 Evidentials -- 2.1.3 Evaluative modality -- 3. Pragmatic particles -- 3.1 Markers of the "territory of information" -- 3.2 Markers of illocutionary act -- 3.3 Markers of unassimilated information -- 4. Conversation and language -- 4.1 Pragmatic particles and 'aizuchi' -- 4.2 Discourse markers and discourse connectives -- Chapter 15. Speech styles and registers -- 1. Personal indexical terms -- 2. Predicate forms -- 3. Direct vs. indirect dimensions -- 4. Honorifics -- 5. Gendered speech.

6. Speech register creation -- Chapter 16. Sample texts -- 1. Newspaper article -- 2. Folk tale -- 3. First person narrative ("Air Raid") -- 4. Conversation (1): "The Northridge earthquake" -- 5. Conversation (2): "Australia" -- Index.

Japanese ranks as the ninth most widely spoken language of the world with more than 127 million speakers in the island state of Japan. Its genetic relation has been a topic of heated discussion, but Altaic and Austronesian languages appear to have contributed to the early formation of this language. Japanese has a long written tradition, which goes back to texts from the eighth century CE. The modern writing system employs a mixture of Chinese characters and two sets of syllabary indigenously developed based on the Chinese characters.This book consists of sixteen chapters covering the phonology, morphology, writing system, tense and aspect systems, basic argument structure, grammatical constructions, and discourse and pragmatic phenomena of Japanese. It provides researchers with a useful typological reference and students of Japanese with a theory-neutral introduction to current linguistic research issues.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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