Constructing the Heritage Language Learner : Knowledge, Power and New Subjectivities.

By: Doerr, NerikoContributor(s): Lee, Kiri | Fishman, Joshua ASeries: Contributions to the Sociology of Language [CSL] SerPublisher: Boston : De Gruyter, Inc., 2013Copyright date: ©2013Description: 1 online resource (202 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781614512837Subject(s): Language and languages -- Study and teaching -- United States.;Second language acquisition.;Language teachers -- Training of -- United States.;Japanese language -- Study and teaching -- Foreign speakersGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Constructing the Heritage Language Learner : Knowledge, Power and New SubjectivitiesDDC classification: 495.680071/073 LOC classification: P57.U7.C66 2013ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- Acknowledgments -- 1 Introduction: The heritage language learner? -- 1.1 The heritage language learner? -- 1.2 Research on heritage language learners -- 1.3 Weekend Japanese language schools in the United States -- 1.4 Kokugo vs. keishō go education and the "heritage language effect" -- 1.5 Analyzing performative construction of the heritage language learner -- 1.6 Construction of the heritage language learner -- 1.6.1 Constructing the heritage language learner as an object of investigation -- 1.6.2 Constructing heritage language learners through schooling: Two imaginings, two modes of governmentality -- 1.6.3 Constructing heritage language learners by giving them meanings -- 1.7 On collaboration -- 1.8 The structure of the book -- 2 An emerging field of investigation: Construction of the heritage language learner as a new object of study -- 2.1 A new term on the block -- 2.2 Shifts in language policies in the United States -- 2.3 Emergence of the term "heritage language" in the United States -- 2.3.1 Self-esteem-based definition of the heritage language learner -- 2.3.2 Linguistic-proficiency-based definition of the heritage language learner -- 2.3.3 Interconnection, disjuncture, and critique -- 2.4 Contested fields of research: Defining the heritage language learner -- 2.5 Knowledge and power -- 2.6 Reification of language, linguistic community, and language speakers: The heritage language effect -- 2.6.1 Reifying language and linguistic community -- 2.6.1.1 Language and nation-states -- 2.6.1.2 Standardization -- 2.6.1.3 Linguistics -- 2.6.2 Reifying the language speaker -- 2.6.2.1 The native speaker concept -- 2.6.2.2 Alternative notions: English as a lingua franca -- 2.6.2.3 Alternative labels -- 2.6.2.4 Contestations -- 2.7 Construction of the heritage language through research.
3 Ethnographic fieldwork at Jackson Japanese Language School -- 3.1 Jackson Japanese Language School -- 3.2 The Jackson Course -- 3.3 JJLS, heritage language research, and keishōgo vs. heritage language -- 3.4 Ethnographic fieldwork at JJLS and subjectivities of the authors -- 3.5 Collecting data -- 4 Betwixt and between Japanese and the heritage language learner of Japanese -- 4.1 Transplanted virtual "Japan", or Japanese school for the local community? -- 4.2 Japanese government policies on hoshūkō -- 4.3 Adapting to a changing student body at the local level -- 4.4 The road JJLS took -- 4.4.1 Mr. and Mrs. Ikeda: Founding members and local administrators -- 4.4.2 Lee: Principal of the second unit, 2004-2012 -- 4.4.3 MEXT-sent principals -- 4.5 Construction of "Japanese" students and "heritage language learners of Japanese" -- 5 Designing the heritage language learner: Modes of governmentality in the classroom -- 5.1 Intended modes of governmentality in hoshūkō-bu and the Jackson Course -- 5.2 Visibility and technique -- 5.2.1 Learning about Takamura Kōtarō in hoshūkō-bu: The subject-centered approach -- 5.2.2 Learning about John Manjirō and beyond in the Jackson Course: The holistic approach -- 5.3 Knowledge -- 5.4 Subjectivities -- 5.4.1 On supporting Japan's future -- 5.4.2 A hoshūkō-bu teacher's view -- 5.4.3 On the voting age -- 5.4.4 On abortion in Korea and other countries -- 5.4.5 A Jackson Course teacher's view -- 5.5 Molding heritage language learners -- 6 Defining the heritage language learner -- 6.1 Practices and perceptions -- 6.2 Carving out legitimacy: The Jackson Course administrators and MEXT officials -- 6.3 Deciding (not) to join the Jackson Course: Cases of five students -- 6.3.1 "Rescued students" -- 6.3.1.1 Sasha: A Jackson Course old-timer -- 6.3.2 "Potential traversers" -- 6.3.2.1 Anne: Staying in hoshūkō-bu.
6.3.2.2 Mayumi: Moved from hoshūkō-bu to the Jackson Course after 6th grade -- 6.3.2.3 Junko: Regime of difference of top- vs. lower-track class -- 6.3.3 "System outsiders" -- 6.3.3.1 Martin: Starting JJLS in the Jackson Course -- 6.4 One classroom, two perceptions, two modes of governmentality -- 6.4.1 Mayumi: Staying in the Jackson Course -- 6.4.2 Junko: Moving back to hoshūkō-bu from the Jackson Course -- 6.4.3 Perceptions and experienced governmentality -- 6.5 Legitimacy, meanings, and modes of governmentality -- 6.5.1 Competing mentalities of governmentality and invested meanings -- 6.5.2 Creation of legitimacy and schooling -- 7 Shifting frames of reference: JJLS, AP, heading college, and construction of the Japanese-as-a-heritage-language learner -- 7.1 What makes one continue learning a heritage language -- 7.2 Minority language education and the mainstream educational system -- 7.3 Japanese language in US mainstream education -- 7.4 Students' and parents' experiences -- 7.4.1 Mayumi: After taking AP examination, left JJLS right before graduation -- 7.4.2 Jake: Left JJLS after 8th grade -- 7.4.3 Anne: Left JJLS after middle school but took AP Japanese examination -- 7.5 Changing motivations and the mainstream education system -- 7.6 Construction of subjects and two frames of reference -- 7.7 The AP Japanese examination as interface -- 7.8 Conclusion -- 8 Adjusting the Jackson Course -- 8.1 Imagining and accommodating heritage language learners -- 8.2 Responding to parents' perceptions -- 8.3 Responding to students' lives in the United States -- 8.4 Responding to the MEXT's positions -- 8.5 Implications -- 9 Implications and departure -- 9.1 Construction of the heritage language learner -- 9.2 Theoretical implications -- 9.3 Practical implications of administrator involvement in research -- 9.4 Suggestions following from this study's findings.
9.5 Heritage as a new imagining -- Appendix 1: First Questionnaires for Parents -- Appendix 2: Second Questionnaires for Parents -- Appendix 3: First Questionnaires for Students -- Appendix 4: Second Questionnaires for Students -- Appendix 5: Questionnaires for Teachers -- Appendix 6: Questionnaires for Parents of Students Who Were Leaving or Had Left JJLS -- Appendix 7: Questionnaires for Students Who Were Leaving or Had Left JJLS -- Appendix 8: Summary of Student Interviews and Profiles -- Appendix 9: Glossary of Japanese Terms -- References -- Index.
Summary: Though often treated as an objective category, heritage language learner is a social construct contested by researchers, government officials, school administrators, and students themselves. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Japanese language school in the US, the book examines the construction of the heritage language learner, viewing the notion as a site of negotiation regarding the legitimate knowledge of language and ways of belonging.
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Intro -- Acknowledgments -- 1 Introduction: The heritage language learner? -- 1.1 The heritage language learner? -- 1.2 Research on heritage language learners -- 1.3 Weekend Japanese language schools in the United States -- 1.4 Kokugo vs. keishō go education and the "heritage language effect" -- 1.5 Analyzing performative construction of the heritage language learner -- 1.6 Construction of the heritage language learner -- 1.6.1 Constructing the heritage language learner as an object of investigation -- 1.6.2 Constructing heritage language learners through schooling: Two imaginings, two modes of governmentality -- 1.6.3 Constructing heritage language learners by giving them meanings -- 1.7 On collaboration -- 1.8 The structure of the book -- 2 An emerging field of investigation: Construction of the heritage language learner as a new object of study -- 2.1 A new term on the block -- 2.2 Shifts in language policies in the United States -- 2.3 Emergence of the term "heritage language" in the United States -- 2.3.1 Self-esteem-based definition of the heritage language learner -- 2.3.2 Linguistic-proficiency-based definition of the heritage language learner -- 2.3.3 Interconnection, disjuncture, and critique -- 2.4 Contested fields of research: Defining the heritage language learner -- 2.5 Knowledge and power -- 2.6 Reification of language, linguistic community, and language speakers: The heritage language effect -- 2.6.1 Reifying language and linguistic community -- 2.6.1.1 Language and nation-states -- 2.6.1.2 Standardization -- 2.6.1.3 Linguistics -- 2.6.2 Reifying the language speaker -- 2.6.2.1 The native speaker concept -- 2.6.2.2 Alternative notions: English as a lingua franca -- 2.6.2.3 Alternative labels -- 2.6.2.4 Contestations -- 2.7 Construction of the heritage language through research.

3 Ethnographic fieldwork at Jackson Japanese Language School -- 3.1 Jackson Japanese Language School -- 3.2 The Jackson Course -- 3.3 JJLS, heritage language research, and keishōgo vs. heritage language -- 3.4 Ethnographic fieldwork at JJLS and subjectivities of the authors -- 3.5 Collecting data -- 4 Betwixt and between Japanese and the heritage language learner of Japanese -- 4.1 Transplanted virtual "Japan", or Japanese school for the local community? -- 4.2 Japanese government policies on hoshūkō -- 4.3 Adapting to a changing student body at the local level -- 4.4 The road JJLS took -- 4.4.1 Mr. and Mrs. Ikeda: Founding members and local administrators -- 4.4.2 Lee: Principal of the second unit, 2004-2012 -- 4.4.3 MEXT-sent principals -- 4.5 Construction of "Japanese" students and "heritage language learners of Japanese" -- 5 Designing the heritage language learner: Modes of governmentality in the classroom -- 5.1 Intended modes of governmentality in hoshūkō-bu and the Jackson Course -- 5.2 Visibility and technique -- 5.2.1 Learning about Takamura Kōtarō in hoshūkō-bu: The subject-centered approach -- 5.2.2 Learning about John Manjirō and beyond in the Jackson Course: The holistic approach -- 5.3 Knowledge -- 5.4 Subjectivities -- 5.4.1 On supporting Japan's future -- 5.4.2 A hoshūkō-bu teacher's view -- 5.4.3 On the voting age -- 5.4.4 On abortion in Korea and other countries -- 5.4.5 A Jackson Course teacher's view -- 5.5 Molding heritage language learners -- 6 Defining the heritage language learner -- 6.1 Practices and perceptions -- 6.2 Carving out legitimacy: The Jackson Course administrators and MEXT officials -- 6.3 Deciding (not) to join the Jackson Course: Cases of five students -- 6.3.1 "Rescued students" -- 6.3.1.1 Sasha: A Jackson Course old-timer -- 6.3.2 "Potential traversers" -- 6.3.2.1 Anne: Staying in hoshūkō-bu.

6.3.2.2 Mayumi: Moved from hoshūkō-bu to the Jackson Course after 6th grade -- 6.3.2.3 Junko: Regime of difference of top- vs. lower-track class -- 6.3.3 "System outsiders" -- 6.3.3.1 Martin: Starting JJLS in the Jackson Course -- 6.4 One classroom, two perceptions, two modes of governmentality -- 6.4.1 Mayumi: Staying in the Jackson Course -- 6.4.2 Junko: Moving back to hoshūkō-bu from the Jackson Course -- 6.4.3 Perceptions and experienced governmentality -- 6.5 Legitimacy, meanings, and modes of governmentality -- 6.5.1 Competing mentalities of governmentality and invested meanings -- 6.5.2 Creation of legitimacy and schooling -- 7 Shifting frames of reference: JJLS, AP, heading college, and construction of the Japanese-as-a-heritage-language learner -- 7.1 What makes one continue learning a heritage language -- 7.2 Minority language education and the mainstream educational system -- 7.3 Japanese language in US mainstream education -- 7.4 Students' and parents' experiences -- 7.4.1 Mayumi: After taking AP examination, left JJLS right before graduation -- 7.4.2 Jake: Left JJLS after 8th grade -- 7.4.3 Anne: Left JJLS after middle school but took AP Japanese examination -- 7.5 Changing motivations and the mainstream education system -- 7.6 Construction of subjects and two frames of reference -- 7.7 The AP Japanese examination as interface -- 7.8 Conclusion -- 8 Adjusting the Jackson Course -- 8.1 Imagining and accommodating heritage language learners -- 8.2 Responding to parents' perceptions -- 8.3 Responding to students' lives in the United States -- 8.4 Responding to the MEXT's positions -- 8.5 Implications -- 9 Implications and departure -- 9.1 Construction of the heritage language learner -- 9.2 Theoretical implications -- 9.3 Practical implications of administrator involvement in research -- 9.4 Suggestions following from this study's findings.

9.5 Heritage as a new imagining -- Appendix 1: First Questionnaires for Parents -- Appendix 2: Second Questionnaires for Parents -- Appendix 3: First Questionnaires for Students -- Appendix 4: Second Questionnaires for Students -- Appendix 5: Questionnaires for Teachers -- Appendix 6: Questionnaires for Parents of Students Who Were Leaving or Had Left JJLS -- Appendix 7: Questionnaires for Students Who Were Leaving or Had Left JJLS -- Appendix 8: Summary of Student Interviews and Profiles -- Appendix 9: Glossary of Japanese Terms -- References -- Index.

Though often treated as an objective category, heritage language learner is a social construct contested by researchers, government officials, school administrators, and students themselves. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Japanese language school in the US, the book examines the construction of the heritage language learner, viewing the notion as a site of negotiation regarding the legitimate knowledge of language and ways of belonging.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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