Geographical Typology and Linguistic Areas : With special reference to Africa.

By: Hieda, OsamuContributor(s): König, Christa | Nakagawa, HirosiPublisher: Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011Copyright date: ©2011Description: 1 online resource (328 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789027273956Subject(s): Employee motivation.;LeadershipGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Geographical Typology and Linguistic Areas : With special reference to AfricaDDC classification: 409.6 LOC classification: P381.A3 -- G46 2011ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Geographical Typology and Linguistic Areas -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Contents -- Message from the President -- Center for Corpus-based Linguistics and Language Education -- Introduction -- References -- Areal Features and Linguistic Areas -- 1. Preamble -- 2. Macro-areas, and their features -- 3. Some widespread mechanisms of contact-induced change -- 4. Convergence zones and mechanisms of areal diffusion: an Amazonianexample -- 4.1. Backdrop: Amazonian versus Andine linguistic types -- 4.2. The Multilingual Vaupés River Basin as a low-tier linguistic area -- 4.3. Parallel grammaticalization: the comparative construction -- 4.4. Developing evidentials: different mechanisms, similar results -- 5. To conclude -- Abbreviations -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Areas of Grammaticalization and Geographical Typology -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1. On sprachbunds (linguistic areas) -- 1.2. Grammaticalization areas -- 2. A micro-area of grammaticalization -- 3. An areal typology of refl exive markers in Africa -- 3.1. Types and sources of refl exive markers -- 3.2. The noun channel -- 3.3. From noun to functional category: Grammaticalization -- 3.4. Discussion -- 3.5. Areal distribution -- 4. Discussion: Reanalyzing sprachbunds -- 5. Conclusions -- Abbreviations -- References -- Case Marking and Linguistic Geography -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Case studies: Cushitic languages -- 2.1. Accusative languages -- 2.2. Marked Nominative languages -- 3. Diachronic observations -- 4. Conclusions -- Abbreviations -- References -- Can Ethiopian Languages be Considered Languages in the African Linguistic Area? The Case of Highland East Cushitic, particularly Sidaama and Kambaata -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Literature Review -- 3. Should HEC Languages be Considered as Languages in the African Linguistic Area? -- 3.1. African Properties in HEC Languages.
3.2. Challenges to the Quantitative Approach to Defi ning Linguistic Areas -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Proto-Bantu and Proto-Niger-Congo: Macroareal Typology and Linguistic Reconstruction -- 1. Bantu and Niger-Congo in their macro-areal context -- 1.1. Introduction -- 1.2. The Macro-Sudan belt -- 1.3. The Bantu spread zone -- 2. Towards the early typology of the Bantu clause -- 2.1. Introduction -- 2.2. The early verb stem structure of Bantu -- 2.3. The early predicate structure of Bantu -- 3. Towards the role of Bantu for the reconstruction of Niger-Congo -- Abreviations -- References -- Explaining Convergence and the Formation of Linguistic Areas -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Defi nitions of linguistic areas -- 3. What is convergence? -- 4. Inferred and attributable meanings -- 5. Am emergence scenario for linguistic areas -- References -- Is Kumam a Creole Language?-A Mechanism of Linguistic Convergence in the Southern Lwo Area -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Morphosyntactic convergence in the southern Lwo area -- 2.1. Development of nominal prefi xes -- 2.2. Development of tense morphemes -- 2.3. Development of the verbal system in Kumam -- 3. Concluding remarks -- Abbreviations -- References -- The Continuum of Languages in West Tanzania Bantu -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Background of Gongwe, Bende, and Pimbwe -- 2.1. Data sources -- 2.2. Location and classifi cation, basic information -- 2.3. Short history of Gongwe -- 3. Data analysis -- 3.1. Shared vocabulary (Lexicostatistics) -- 3.2. Regular sound correspondences -- 3.3. Nominal morphology -- 3.4. Verbal morph -- 3.5. Copula construction -- 3.6. Greetings -- 4. To sum up -- Abbreviations -- References -- Patterns of Linguistic Convergence in the Khoe-speaking Area of Southern Africa -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The NARO-ǁGANA Subgroup -- 3. The East-West Boundary Line.
3.1. ǁGana-Kalahari East Lexical Relations -- 3.2. ǀ Gui-Kalahari East Lexical Relations -- 3.3. ǂ Haba-Kalahari East Lexical Relations -- 4. Ts'ixa: A Classic Case of Convergent Development in Khoe? -- 4.1. Phonological Features -- 4.2. Morphological Features -- 4.3. Lexical Features -- 5. KXOE Infl uence on Danisi -- 5.1. Phonological Features -- 5.2. Morphological Features -- 5.3. Lexical Transfers -- 6. Concluding Remark -- Abbreviations -- Genetic classification of Khoe -- References -- Tense and Aspect in Khoesan: The case of Ju/'hoansi -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Botswana Languages -- 3. Linguistic Situation -- 4. Tense and Temporal Reference -- 5. Tense and Aspect markers in Ju/'hoansi -- 5.1. The present tense markers -- 5.2. The past tense markers -- 5.3. The future markers -- 6. Conclusion -- Abbreviations -- References -- Ritual Pathways: Contact in a Framework of Difference, Imitation and Alterity -- 1. Introduction -- 2. On Mimesis -- 3. Difference, Imitation, and Alterity -- 4. Contact Along River Systems -- 4.1. Probabilities of Contact Phenomena -- 4.2. Replacing Basic Vocabulary -- 4.3. Inventing a Similar Language -- 4.4. Dominant Language as Sympathetic Magic -- 4.5. Mimesis of the Secret -- 5. Conclusive Remarks -- Abbreviations -- References -- The Eastern Kalahari Khoe -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Ethnic and language names according to the Salt Pans Khoisan communities -- 3. The Eastern Kalahari Khoe in Khoisan Classifi cation -- 4. Eastern Kalahari Khoe Ethnic population Distribution around the Salt Pans -- 5. Some phonological differentiation of among the speech communities of the EKK -- 6. The Social dynamics of the communities of Eastern Kalahari Khoe -- 6.1. Language use and attitudes -- 6.2. Some peculiar socio-linguistic situation -- 7. The emergence of Tciretcire and what threatens it -- 8. Conclusion -- References.
Language Contact and Social Change in North-central Namibia -- 1. Caregiver-child interactions among the Ju|'hoan -- 2. The Ju|'hoan and the !Xun -- 3. Method -- 4. Contemporary caregiver-child interactions among the !Xun -- 5. Singing and dancing activities among !Xun children -- 5.1. Ge mama -- 5.2. Oa kolo onyanga -- 5.3. Dance for a marriage -- 6. Participation in a shared rhythm -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Two Types of Kinship Classification Found among the Khoe Languages - Relative and Absolute Calculations in Determining the Seniority among Classificatory Siblings -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Khoe Sibling Category: Not Just only Full Siblings and Parallel Cousins -- 2.1. A Full Description of the G|ui Sibling Category -- 3. The G|ui Way of Determining Seniority among uo -- 3.1. Full Siblings: Absolute -- 3.2. Half Sibling: Absolute or Relative? -- 3.3. Step Siblings: Relative Calculation -- 3.4. Parallel Cousins: Relative -- 3.5. The Children of Parental Cross Cousin's -- 4. Concluding Remarks -- References -- A First Report on G|ui Ideophones -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Defi nition of G|ui ideophones -- 3. Important morphological and semantic features of G|ui ideophones -- 4. Comparison of G|ui and !Xóõ -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Noun-Modifi er Order in Africa -- 1. Comparing Africa to the rest of the world -- 1.1. Order of adjective and noun -- 1.2. Order of demonstrative and noun -- 1.3. Order of numeral and noun -- 1.4. Order of genitive and noun -- 1.5. Order of relative clause and noun -- 1.6. Order of defi nite marker and noun -- 2. Distribution within Africa -- 2.1. Order of adjective and noun in Africa -- 2.2. Order of demonstrative and noun in Africa -- 2.3. Order of numeral and noun in Africa -- 2.4. Order of genitive and noun in Africa -- 2.5. Order of relative clause and noun in Africa.
2.6. Order of defi nite marker and noun in Africa -- 3. Summary -- References -- Index of Authors -- Index of Languages, Language Families and Areas -- Index of Subjects -- Contributors -- The series: the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
Summary: Is Africa a linguistic area (Heine & Leyew 2008)? The present volume consists of sixteen papers highlighting the linguistic geography of Africa, covering, in particular, southern Africa with its Khoisan languages. A wide range of phenomena are discussed to give an overview of the pattern of social, cultural, and linguistic interaction that characterizes Africa's linguistic geography. Most contributors to the volume discuss language contact and areal diffusion in Africa, although some demonstrate, with examples from non-African linguistic data, including Amazonian and European languages, how language contact may lead to structural convergence. Others investigate contact phenomena in social-cultural behavior. The volume makes a large contribution toward bringing generalized theory to data-oriented discussions. It is intended to stimulate further research on contact phenomena in Africa. For sale in all countries except Japan. For customers in Japan: please contact Yushodo Co.
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Geographical Typology and Linguistic Areas -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Contents -- Message from the President -- Center for Corpus-based Linguistics and Language Education -- Introduction -- References -- Areal Features and Linguistic Areas -- 1. Preamble -- 2. Macro-areas, and their features -- 3. Some widespread mechanisms of contact-induced change -- 4. Convergence zones and mechanisms of areal diffusion: an Amazonianexample -- 4.1. Backdrop: Amazonian versus Andine linguistic types -- 4.2. The Multilingual Vaupés River Basin as a low-tier linguistic area -- 4.3. Parallel grammaticalization: the comparative construction -- 4.4. Developing evidentials: different mechanisms, similar results -- 5. To conclude -- Abbreviations -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Areas of Grammaticalization and Geographical Typology -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1. On sprachbunds (linguistic areas) -- 1.2. Grammaticalization areas -- 2. A micro-area of grammaticalization -- 3. An areal typology of refl exive markers in Africa -- 3.1. Types and sources of refl exive markers -- 3.2. The noun channel -- 3.3. From noun to functional category: Grammaticalization -- 3.4. Discussion -- 3.5. Areal distribution -- 4. Discussion: Reanalyzing sprachbunds -- 5. Conclusions -- Abbreviations -- References -- Case Marking and Linguistic Geography -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Case studies: Cushitic languages -- 2.1. Accusative languages -- 2.2. Marked Nominative languages -- 3. Diachronic observations -- 4. Conclusions -- Abbreviations -- References -- Can Ethiopian Languages be Considered Languages in the African Linguistic Area? The Case of Highland East Cushitic, particularly Sidaama and Kambaata -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Literature Review -- 3. Should HEC Languages be Considered as Languages in the African Linguistic Area? -- 3.1. African Properties in HEC Languages.

3.2. Challenges to the Quantitative Approach to Defi ning Linguistic Areas -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Proto-Bantu and Proto-Niger-Congo: Macroareal Typology and Linguistic Reconstruction -- 1. Bantu and Niger-Congo in their macro-areal context -- 1.1. Introduction -- 1.2. The Macro-Sudan belt -- 1.3. The Bantu spread zone -- 2. Towards the early typology of the Bantu clause -- 2.1. Introduction -- 2.2. The early verb stem structure of Bantu -- 2.3. The early predicate structure of Bantu -- 3. Towards the role of Bantu for the reconstruction of Niger-Congo -- Abreviations -- References -- Explaining Convergence and the Formation of Linguistic Areas -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Defi nitions of linguistic areas -- 3. What is convergence? -- 4. Inferred and attributable meanings -- 5. Am emergence scenario for linguistic areas -- References -- Is Kumam a Creole Language?-A Mechanism of Linguistic Convergence in the Southern Lwo Area -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Morphosyntactic convergence in the southern Lwo area -- 2.1. Development of nominal prefi xes -- 2.2. Development of tense morphemes -- 2.3. Development of the verbal system in Kumam -- 3. Concluding remarks -- Abbreviations -- References -- The Continuum of Languages in West Tanzania Bantu -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Background of Gongwe, Bende, and Pimbwe -- 2.1. Data sources -- 2.2. Location and classifi cation, basic information -- 2.3. Short history of Gongwe -- 3. Data analysis -- 3.1. Shared vocabulary (Lexicostatistics) -- 3.2. Regular sound correspondences -- 3.3. Nominal morphology -- 3.4. Verbal morph -- 3.5. Copula construction -- 3.6. Greetings -- 4. To sum up -- Abbreviations -- References -- Patterns of Linguistic Convergence in the Khoe-speaking Area of Southern Africa -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The NARO-ǁGANA Subgroup -- 3. The East-West Boundary Line.

3.1. ǁGana-Kalahari East Lexical Relations -- 3.2. ǀ Gui-Kalahari East Lexical Relations -- 3.3. ǂ Haba-Kalahari East Lexical Relations -- 4. Ts'ixa: A Classic Case of Convergent Development in Khoe? -- 4.1. Phonological Features -- 4.2. Morphological Features -- 4.3. Lexical Features -- 5. KXOE Infl uence on Danisi -- 5.1. Phonological Features -- 5.2. Morphological Features -- 5.3. Lexical Transfers -- 6. Concluding Remark -- Abbreviations -- Genetic classification of Khoe -- References -- Tense and Aspect in Khoesan: The case of Ju/'hoansi -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Botswana Languages -- 3. Linguistic Situation -- 4. Tense and Temporal Reference -- 5. Tense and Aspect markers in Ju/'hoansi -- 5.1. The present tense markers -- 5.2. The past tense markers -- 5.3. The future markers -- 6. Conclusion -- Abbreviations -- References -- Ritual Pathways: Contact in a Framework of Difference, Imitation and Alterity -- 1. Introduction -- 2. On Mimesis -- 3. Difference, Imitation, and Alterity -- 4. Contact Along River Systems -- 4.1. Probabilities of Contact Phenomena -- 4.2. Replacing Basic Vocabulary -- 4.3. Inventing a Similar Language -- 4.4. Dominant Language as Sympathetic Magic -- 4.5. Mimesis of the Secret -- 5. Conclusive Remarks -- Abbreviations -- References -- The Eastern Kalahari Khoe -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Ethnic and language names according to the Salt Pans Khoisan communities -- 3. The Eastern Kalahari Khoe in Khoisan Classifi cation -- 4. Eastern Kalahari Khoe Ethnic population Distribution around the Salt Pans -- 5. Some phonological differentiation of among the speech communities of the EKK -- 6. The Social dynamics of the communities of Eastern Kalahari Khoe -- 6.1. Language use and attitudes -- 6.2. Some peculiar socio-linguistic situation -- 7. The emergence of Tciretcire and what threatens it -- 8. Conclusion -- References.

Language Contact and Social Change in North-central Namibia -- 1. Caregiver-child interactions among the Ju|'hoan -- 2. The Ju|'hoan and the !Xun -- 3. Method -- 4. Contemporary caregiver-child interactions among the !Xun -- 5. Singing and dancing activities among !Xun children -- 5.1. Ge mama -- 5.2. Oa kolo onyanga -- 5.3. Dance for a marriage -- 6. Participation in a shared rhythm -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Two Types of Kinship Classification Found among the Khoe Languages - Relative and Absolute Calculations in Determining the Seniority among Classificatory Siblings -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The Khoe Sibling Category: Not Just only Full Siblings and Parallel Cousins -- 2.1. A Full Description of the G|ui Sibling Category -- 3. The G|ui Way of Determining Seniority among uo -- 3.1. Full Siblings: Absolute -- 3.2. Half Sibling: Absolute or Relative? -- 3.3. Step Siblings: Relative Calculation -- 3.4. Parallel Cousins: Relative -- 3.5. The Children of Parental Cross Cousin's -- 4. Concluding Remarks -- References -- A First Report on G|ui Ideophones -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Defi nition of G|ui ideophones -- 3. Important morphological and semantic features of G|ui ideophones -- 4. Comparison of G|ui and !Xóõ -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Noun-Modifi er Order in Africa -- 1. Comparing Africa to the rest of the world -- 1.1. Order of adjective and noun -- 1.2. Order of demonstrative and noun -- 1.3. Order of numeral and noun -- 1.4. Order of genitive and noun -- 1.5. Order of relative clause and noun -- 1.6. Order of defi nite marker and noun -- 2. Distribution within Africa -- 2.1. Order of adjective and noun in Africa -- 2.2. Order of demonstrative and noun in Africa -- 2.3. Order of numeral and noun in Africa -- 2.4. Order of genitive and noun in Africa -- 2.5. Order of relative clause and noun in Africa.

2.6. Order of defi nite marker and noun in Africa -- 3. Summary -- References -- Index of Authors -- Index of Languages, Language Families and Areas -- Index of Subjects -- Contributors -- The series: the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

Is Africa a linguistic area (Heine & Leyew 2008)? The present volume consists of sixteen papers highlighting the linguistic geography of Africa, covering, in particular, southern Africa with its Khoisan languages. A wide range of phenomena are discussed to give an overview of the pattern of social, cultural, and linguistic interaction that characterizes Africa's linguistic geography. Most contributors to the volume discuss language contact and areal diffusion in Africa, although some demonstrate, with examples from non-African linguistic data, including Amazonian and European languages, how language contact may lead to structural convergence. Others investigate contact phenomena in social-cultural behavior. The volume makes a large contribution toward bringing generalized theory to data-oriented discussions. It is intended to stimulate further research on contact phenomena in Africa. For sale in all countries except Japan. For customers in Japan: please contact Yushodo Co.

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