Grammar of Space.

By: Svorou, SoteriaSeries: Typological Studies in LanguagePublisher: Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1994Copyright date: ©1994Description: 1 online resource (304 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789027276575Subject(s): Space and time in language.;Psycholinguistics.;Grammar, Comparative and general -- GrammaticalizationGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Grammar of SpaceDDC classification: 401/.9 LOC classification: P37.5.S65 -- S86 1994ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
THE GRAMMAR OF SPACE -- Editorial page -- Title page -- Copyright page -- Table of contents -- Acknowledgements -- List of abbreviations -- Chapter 1. The Conceptual Framework -- 1. Language and the world -- 1.1 Knowledge of the physical world -- 1.2 Our conceptual world -- 1.3 Experience, cognition and language -- 1.4 On the nature of language -- 1.5 The linguist's enterprise -- 2. Language and spatial relations -- 2.1 Locating entities -- 2.1.1 Region -- 2.1.2 Locating with respect to interior region -- 2.1.3 Locating with respect to exterior region -- 2.1.4 Reference frames -- 2.1.5 Locating with respect to plural entities -- 2.2 Orienting movements -- 2.2.1 Orienting movements with respect to source, destination and point in path -- 2.2.2 Orienting movements with respect to path -- 2.2.3 Orienting movements in terms of their directionality -- 3. The linguistic expression of spatial relations -- 3.1 The meaning of spatial grams -- 3.2 The form of spatial grams -- 3.2.1 Internal structure -- 3.2.2 Interaction with other elements -- Chapter 2. General Methodology -- 0. Introduction -- 1. Universais and methodology -- 2. The data base -- 2.1 Sampling -- 2.1.1 Sources -- 2.2 Coding -- 2.2.1 The pilot study -- 2.2.2 Selection criteria -- 2.2.3 Coding of formal characteristics -- 2.2.4 Coding of meaning -- 2.3 Data base design -- 3. The frame of data analysis -- Chapter 3. The Evolution of Spatial Grams -- 1. Universais and diachrony -- 1.1 The emergence of grammatical forms -- 2. Issues of grammaticization of spatial grams -- 2.1 Lexical sources -- 3. Nominal sources -- 3.1 Body parts -- 3.1.1 Two models for the evolution of body-part terms to spatial grams -- 3.2 Environmental landmarks -- 3.3 Relational object parts -- 3.4 Abstract spatial notions -- 3.5 The path of semantic evolution -- 3.5.1 Morphosyntactic consequences -- 4. Verbal sources.
4.1 Serial-verb constructions -- 4.2 Participles and spatial grams -- 4.3 The verbal model -- 5. Evolution and the acquisition of spatial grams -- Chapter 4. The Front - Back Axis -- 0. Introduction -- 1. FRONT-REGION spatial relations -- 1.1 ANTERIOR definition -- 1.2 ANTERIOR distribution in the sample -- 1.3 ANTERIOR and other uses -- 1.3.1 Other spatial uses -- 1.3.2 Non-spatial uses -- 1.3.3 Temporal uses -- 1.3.4 ANTERIOR as a derived use -- 2. BACK-REGION spatial relations -- 2.1 POSTERIOR definition -- 2.2 POSTERIOR distribution in the sample -- 2.3 POSTERIOR and other uses -- 2.3.1 Other spatial uses -- 2.3.2 Non-spatial uses -- 2.3.3 Temporal uses -- 3. FRONT-REGION, BACK-REGION and movement -- 3.1 Variation in specification of FRONT-/ BACK-REGION as destination, source and point-in-path -- 4. The semantic space of FRONT-/BACK-REGION grams and grammaticiza-tion -- 5. The morphology of FRONT-REGION and BACK-REGION grams -- 5.1 The degree of fusion of F-REGION and B-REGION grams -- 5.1.1 The scope elements of F-/B-REGION grams -- 5.1.2 The hosts of F-/B-REGION grams -- 5.1.3 The order of gram and its scope -- 5.2 Internal structure of the grams -- 5.2.1 Monomorphemic grams -- 5.2.2 Ρolymorphemic gram composition patterns -- 5.2.3 Internal gram fusion -- 5.2.4 F-/B-REGION grams and genitive markers -- Chapter 5. Conclusion -- 1. On the emergence and evolution of spatial grams -- 2. Semantic and morphosyntactic characteristics of a semantic subdomain -- 3. Some implications of the notion of "region -- Notes -- Appendix A. The SpaceCats Sample -- Appendix B. Coding Manual -- Section 1: Coding Morpheme Data (Page 1) -- Section B: Coding uses (page 2) -- Appendix C. Meaning component working definitions -- Appendix D. Frequency of meaning components in the data base -- Appendix E. Nominal sources of spatial grams -- 1. FRONT-REGION.
2. BACK-REGION -- 3. TOP-REGION -- 4. BOTTOM-REGION -- 5. SIDE-REGION -- 6. EDGE -- 7. MEDIAL-REGION -- 8. INTERIOR-REGION -- 9. EXTERIOR-REGION -- 10. ACROSS -- 11. AROUND -- 12. ALONG -- 13. PROXIMAL -- 14. SUPPORT/CONTIGUOUS -- 15. AT THE END -- 16. CHEZATIVE -- 17. THROUGH, VIA -- 18. ALLATIVE -- 19. ABLATIVE -- Bibliography -- Language Index -- Name Index -- Subject Index.
Summary: A cross-linguistic study of grammatical morphemes expressing spatial relationships that discusses the relationship between the way human beings experience space and the way it is encoded grammatically in language.The discussion of the similarities and differences among languages in the encoding and expression of spatial relations centers around the emergence and evolution of spatial grams, and the semantic and morphosyntactic characteristics of two types of spatial grams. The author bases her observations on the study of data from 26 genetically unrelated and randomly selected languages.It is shown that languages are similar in the way spatial grams emerge and evolve, and also in the way specific types of spatial grams are used to express not only spatial but also temporal and other non-spatial relations. Motivation for these similarities may lie in the way we, as human beings, experience the world, which is constrained by our physical configuration and neurophysiological apparatus, as well as our individual cultures.
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THE GRAMMAR OF SPACE -- Editorial page -- Title page -- Copyright page -- Table of contents -- Acknowledgements -- List of abbreviations -- Chapter 1. The Conceptual Framework -- 1. Language and the world -- 1.1 Knowledge of the physical world -- 1.2 Our conceptual world -- 1.3 Experience, cognition and language -- 1.4 On the nature of language -- 1.5 The linguist's enterprise -- 2. Language and spatial relations -- 2.1 Locating entities -- 2.1.1 Region -- 2.1.2 Locating with respect to interior region -- 2.1.3 Locating with respect to exterior region -- 2.1.4 Reference frames -- 2.1.5 Locating with respect to plural entities -- 2.2 Orienting movements -- 2.2.1 Orienting movements with respect to source, destination and point in path -- 2.2.2 Orienting movements with respect to path -- 2.2.3 Orienting movements in terms of their directionality -- 3. The linguistic expression of spatial relations -- 3.1 The meaning of spatial grams -- 3.2 The form of spatial grams -- 3.2.1 Internal structure -- 3.2.2 Interaction with other elements -- Chapter 2. General Methodology -- 0. Introduction -- 1. Universais and methodology -- 2. The data base -- 2.1 Sampling -- 2.1.1 Sources -- 2.2 Coding -- 2.2.1 The pilot study -- 2.2.2 Selection criteria -- 2.2.3 Coding of formal characteristics -- 2.2.4 Coding of meaning -- 2.3 Data base design -- 3. The frame of data analysis -- Chapter 3. The Evolution of Spatial Grams -- 1. Universais and diachrony -- 1.1 The emergence of grammatical forms -- 2. Issues of grammaticization of spatial grams -- 2.1 Lexical sources -- 3. Nominal sources -- 3.1 Body parts -- 3.1.1 Two models for the evolution of body-part terms to spatial grams -- 3.2 Environmental landmarks -- 3.3 Relational object parts -- 3.4 Abstract spatial notions -- 3.5 The path of semantic evolution -- 3.5.1 Morphosyntactic consequences -- 4. Verbal sources.

4.1 Serial-verb constructions -- 4.2 Participles and spatial grams -- 4.3 The verbal model -- 5. Evolution and the acquisition of spatial grams -- Chapter 4. The Front - Back Axis -- 0. Introduction -- 1. FRONT-REGION spatial relations -- 1.1 ANTERIOR definition -- 1.2 ANTERIOR distribution in the sample -- 1.3 ANTERIOR and other uses -- 1.3.1 Other spatial uses -- 1.3.2 Non-spatial uses -- 1.3.3 Temporal uses -- 1.3.4 ANTERIOR as a derived use -- 2. BACK-REGION spatial relations -- 2.1 POSTERIOR definition -- 2.2 POSTERIOR distribution in the sample -- 2.3 POSTERIOR and other uses -- 2.3.1 Other spatial uses -- 2.3.2 Non-spatial uses -- 2.3.3 Temporal uses -- 3. FRONT-REGION, BACK-REGION and movement -- 3.1 Variation in specification of FRONT-/ BACK-REGION as destination, source and point-in-path -- 4. The semantic space of FRONT-/BACK-REGION grams and grammaticiza-tion -- 5. The morphology of FRONT-REGION and BACK-REGION grams -- 5.1 The degree of fusion of F-REGION and B-REGION grams -- 5.1.1 The scope elements of F-/B-REGION grams -- 5.1.2 The hosts of F-/B-REGION grams -- 5.1.3 The order of gram and its scope -- 5.2 Internal structure of the grams -- 5.2.1 Monomorphemic grams -- 5.2.2 Ρolymorphemic gram composition patterns -- 5.2.3 Internal gram fusion -- 5.2.4 F-/B-REGION grams and genitive markers -- Chapter 5. Conclusion -- 1. On the emergence and evolution of spatial grams -- 2. Semantic and morphosyntactic characteristics of a semantic subdomain -- 3. Some implications of the notion of "region -- Notes -- Appendix A. The SpaceCats Sample -- Appendix B. Coding Manual -- Section 1: Coding Morpheme Data (Page 1) -- Section B: Coding uses (page 2) -- Appendix C. Meaning component working definitions -- Appendix D. Frequency of meaning components in the data base -- Appendix E. Nominal sources of spatial grams -- 1. FRONT-REGION.

2. BACK-REGION -- 3. TOP-REGION -- 4. BOTTOM-REGION -- 5. SIDE-REGION -- 6. EDGE -- 7. MEDIAL-REGION -- 8. INTERIOR-REGION -- 9. EXTERIOR-REGION -- 10. ACROSS -- 11. AROUND -- 12. ALONG -- 13. PROXIMAL -- 14. SUPPORT/CONTIGUOUS -- 15. AT THE END -- 16. CHEZATIVE -- 17. THROUGH, VIA -- 18. ALLATIVE -- 19. ABLATIVE -- Bibliography -- Language Index -- Name Index -- Subject Index.

A cross-linguistic study of grammatical morphemes expressing spatial relationships that discusses the relationship between the way human beings experience space and the way it is encoded grammatically in language.The discussion of the similarities and differences among languages in the encoding and expression of spatial relations centers around the emergence and evolution of spatial grams, and the semantic and morphosyntactic characteristics of two types of spatial grams. The author bases her observations on the study of data from 26 genetically unrelated and randomly selected languages.It is shown that languages are similar in the way spatial grams emerge and evolve, and also in the way specific types of spatial grams are used to express not only spatial but also temporal and other non-spatial relations. Motivation for these similarities may lie in the way we, as human beings, experience the world, which is constrained by our physical configuration and neurophysiological apparatus, as well as our individual cultures.

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