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Early Years in Machine Translation : Memoirs and biographies of pioneers.

By: Publisher: Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000Copyright date: ©2000Description: 1 online resource (411 pages)Content type:
  • text
Media type:
  • computer
Carrier type:
  • online resource
ISBN:
  • 9789027283719
Subject(s): Genre/Form: Additional physical formats: Print version:: Early Years in Machine Translation : Memoirs and biographies of pioneersDDC classification:
  • 418/.02/0285
LOC classification:
  • P306 -- .E18 2000eb
Online resources:
Contents:
EARLY YEARS IN MACHINE TRANSLATION -- Editorial page -- Title page -- Copyright page -- Table of contents -- PREFACE -- COMMON ABBREVIATIONS -- Acknowledgements -- CYRILLIC TRANSLITERATION -- THE FIRST DECADES OF MACHINE TRANSLATION OVERVIEW, CHRONOLOGY, SOURCES -- 1 Overview -- 2 Chronology -- 2.1 Before the computer -- 2.2 First pioneers: 1947-1954 -- 2.3 Age of innovation and enthusiasm: 1954-1959 -- 2.4 Age of growing sophistication and disillusion: 1960-1964 -- 2.5 The ALPA C report and its impact: 1966-1975 -- 3 Sources for the early history of machine translation (to 1970) -- 3.1 Bibliographies -- 3.2 Journals specifically devoted to MT -- 3.3 Collections and conferences -- 3.4 Other selected contemporary sources -- 3.5 Selected later historical treatments of the period -- Biographical details of the author -- WARREN WEAVER AND THE LAUNCHING OF MT BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE -- 1 The background -- 2 The memorandum -- 3 Selected writings by Warren Weaver (in date order) -- 4 Other references -- ERWIN REIFLER AND MACHINE TRANSLATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON -- Selected Publications by Erwin Reifler and by other members of the University of Washington group on MT (in date order) -- Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- MACHINE TRANSLATION AT HARVARD -- 1 The beginnings -- 2 Research at Harvard -- 3 Contacts with other researchers -- 4 Disengagement -- Selected Publications by Anthony G. Oettinger and other members of the Harvard MTproject (in date order) -- Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- EARLY RESEARCH AT M.I.T. IN SEARCH OF ADEQUATE THEORY -- 1 MT and the promise of linguistics -- 1.1 The promise of the machine -- 1.2 Word-for-word translation -- 1.3 Problems with word-for-word translation. -- 1.4 The focus on syntax. -- 1.5 The linguistic background. -- 2 Early research.
2.2 Structural ideas. -- 2.3 The sample translation algorithm. -- 2.4 Gap analysis. -- 2.5 The two-step approach. -- 2.6 The journal MT. -- 2.1 The partial translation experiment -- 3 An expanded program -- 3.1 A framework for mechanical translation -- 3.2 The COMIT programming effort. -- 3.3 The COMIT Language. -- 3.4 The simple sentence-producing algorithm. -- 3.5 Grammar testing by random generation of sentences. -- 3.6 A professional society. -- 4 Results from computer grammars -- 4.1 The depth hypothesis. -- 4.2 Testing the depth hypothesis. -- 4.3 The depth hypothesis and linguistic theory -- 4.4 What kind of grammar? -- 4.5 Results using COMIT. -- 5 Whither linguistics? -- 6 Selected publications by Victor H. Yngve on MT and related fields (in date order) -- 7 Other references -- Biographical details of author -- THE GEORGETOWN PROJECT AND LÉON DOSTERT RECOLLECTIONS OF A YOUNG ASSISTANT -- 1 My initiation -- 2 The director -- 3 The Georgetown MT project -- 4 The Pentagon demonstration -- 5 The Congressional hearings -- 6 Final thoughts -- 7 Selected writings by Léon Dostert on MT (in date order) -- 8 Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- IS FAHQ (M) T IMPOSSIBLE? MEMORIES OF PAUL GARVIN AND OTHER MT COLLEAGUES -- 1 Prolog: or How I became a MT pioneer by chance -- 2 Early years, early experiments -- 2.1 Early times at Georgetown -- 2.2 Computability and computing ability -- 2.3 Hansel and Gretel at the computer -- 2.4 Collaboration with Wayne State University -- 3 Moving on -- 3.1 Work at Ramo- Wooldridge and successor corporations -- 3.2 Machine translation in the Synthetic Intelligence Department -- 4 Epilog: Is FAHQT possible? -- 5 Selected publications by Paul Lucian Garvin4 on MT (in date order) -- 6 Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- THE EARLY DAYS OF GAT-SLC -- 1 Early years.
2 Description of GAT-SLC -- 2.1 The principal GAT stages and transliteration -- 2.2 Syntactic level -- 2.3 Kernel sentences -- 2.4 Syntagmatic Relations -- 2.5 Word-form ambiguities -- 3 Semantics and extralinguistic situation -- 4 What about the future? -- 4.1 Using GAT methods -- 4.2 Commercialization -- 4.3 Rediscovery of wheels -- 5 Selected Publications of Michael Zarechnak on MT and related areas (in date order) -- 6 Other references -- Biographical details of author -- MACHINE TRANSLATION JUST A QUESTION OF FINDING THE RIGHT PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE? -- Papers by Antony F.R.Brown (in date order) -- Biographical details of the author -- FROM SERNA TO SYSTRAN -- Selected publications of Peter P. Toma (in date order) -- Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- MY EARLY YEARS IN MACHINE TRANSLATION -- 1 Previous background -- 2 The way into MT -- 3 Procedures towards an operational system -- 3.1 Communication with the computer -- 3.2 The early computers -- 3.3 The early software -- 3.4 Control of language -- 4 The situation at the time in computational linguistic research -- 5 Suspension of research as a result of the ALPAC report -- 6 Epilogue -- 7 Selected publications by W. P. Lehmann on MT and related fields (in date order) -- 8 Other References -- Biographical details of the author -- DAVID G. HAYS -- Select list of publications by David G. Hays (in date order) -- Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- GILBERT W. KING AND THE IBM-USAF TRANSLATOR -- 1 The photoscopic store -- 2 Probabilities, the lexicon and 'stuffing' -- 3 Results -- 4 Final judgment -- 5 Publications by G. W. King and others at IBM (in date order) -- 6 Other references -- TRANSLATION AND THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE -- 1 Background -- 2 Establishing the Berkeley MT project -- 3 Computers -- 4 Partitioning the dictionary.
5 Concordances and text analysis -- 6 Other activity -- 6.1 Theory -- 6.2 Chinese -- 6.3 English -- 6.4 Automated text analysis -- 6.5 Machine-aided translation -- 7 Relationships with other projects -- 8 The dispersion of the investigators -- 9 Programming strategy and Relational Networks -- 10 Selected publications by Sydney M Lamb and others of the Berkeley MT project -- 11 Other references -- Biographical details of author -- PIONEERING MT IN THE SOVIET UNION -- Selected Publications by Ol'ga Sergeevna Kulagina (in date orde -- Other references -- MACHINE TRANSLATION AND FORMAL LINGUISTICS IN THE USSR -- 1 Beginnings and first encounters -- 2 Meetings and publications -- 3 Interlingua and formal linguistics -- 4 Linguistics and MT -- 5 Influences from outside Russia -- 6 ALPAC, the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia, and after -- 7 Selected publications on MT and computational linguistics by Igor A. Mel'čuk (in date order) -- 8 Books (and selected articles) on linguistics by Igor A.MeVčuk -- 9 Other references -- Biographical details of the author. -- MY MEMOIRS OF MT IN THE SOVIET UNION -- Selected publications of T.N. Molosnaja (in date order) -- Biographical details of the author -- MT IN THE FORMER USSR AND IN THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES (NIS) PREHISTORY, ROMANTIC ERA, PROSAIC TIME -- 1 Pre-history -- 2 Romantic era -- 3 Prosaic time -- 3.1 Theoretical investigations -- 3.2 Linguistic automaton -- 3.3 Linguistic strategy for the development of LINGTON. -- 4 Epilogue -- 5 References -- Biographical information about the author -- MACHINE TRANSLATION EARLY YEARS IN THE USSR -- 1 Some biographical details. -- 2 The beginning of machine translation -- 3 What were the principles? -- 4 The convenient programming language. -- 5 Other MT systems of that time, and co-operation. -- 6 Selected publications by Jurij N. Marču -- 7 Other references.
Biographical details of author -- THE BEGINNINGS OF MT -- 1 Origins -- 2 London 1948 - 1962 -- 3 Saskatchewan 1962-1972. -- 4 Lakehead University 1972-1978. -- 5 Retirement 1978 and after -- 6 50 years of progress? -- 7 Selected publications by Andrew Donald Booth and Kathleen H. V. Booth on machine translation (in date order) -- 8 Selected books on computing by A.D.Booth and K.H. V.Booth -- 9 Other references -- Biographical details of the authors -- RH. RICHENS TRANSLATION IN THE NUDE -- 1 Richens' key papers -- 1.1 'Preprogramming for machine translation' -- 1.2 'A general programme for mechanical translation..' -- 1.3 'The thirteen steps' -- 1.4 'Interlingual machine translation' -- 1.5 'Tigris and Euphrates' -- 2 The thesaurus -- 3 The interlingua NUDE -- 4 Commentary -- 5 Later developments -- 6 Publications of Richard H. Richens (in date order) -- 7 Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- MARGARET MASTERMAN -- 1 Personal background -- 2 The Cambridge Language Research Unit -- 3 Themes in the work of Margaret Masterman: an assessment -- 3.1 Ideograms -- 3.2 Lattices and fans. -- 3.3 Thesauri and the use of large scale language resources -- 3.4 The use of interlinguas -- 3.5 The centrality of machine translation as a task -- 3.6 Parsing text by semantic methods. -- 3.7 Breath groups, repetition and rhetoric. -- 3.8 Metaphor as normal usage. -- 3.9 The overarching goal: a Wittgensteinian computational linguistics. -- 4 Selected publications by Margaret Masterman (in date order) -- 5 Other references -- Biographical details of author -- YEHOSHUA BAR-HILLEL A PHILOSOPHER'S CONTRIBUTION TO MACHINE TRANSLATION -- 1 From Jerusalem to MIT -- 2 Research appointment at MIT, 1951-1953 -- 3 The first MT conference -- 4 Survey of MT, 1958-60 -- 5 From 1961 to 1964 -- 6 Final thoughts on MT -- 7 Conclusion.
8 Selected writings by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel on MT and related topics.
Summary: Machine translation (MT) was one of the first non-numerical applications of the computer in the 1950s and 1960s. With limited equipment and programming tools, researchers from a wide range of disciplines (electronics, linguistics, mathematics, engineering, etc.) tackled the unknown problems of language analysis and processing, investigated original and innovative methods and techniques, and laid the foundations not just of current MT systems and computerized tools for translators but also of natural language processing in general. This volume contains contributions by or about the major MT pioneers from the United States, Russia, East and West Europe, and Japan, with recollections of personal experiences, colleagues and rivals, the political and institutional background, the successes and disappointments, and above all the challenges and excitement of a new field with great practical importance. Each article includes a personal bibliography, and the editor provides an overview, chronology and list of sources for the period.
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Item type Current library Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Ebrary Ebrary Afghanistan Available EBKAF00055401
Ebrary Ebrary Algeria Available
Ebrary Ebrary Cyprus Available
Ebrary Ebrary Egypt Available
Ebrary Ebrary Libya Available
Ebrary Ebrary Morocco Available
Ebrary Ebrary Nepal Available EBKNP00055401
Ebrary Ebrary Sudan Available
Ebrary Ebrary Tunisia Available
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EARLY YEARS IN MACHINE TRANSLATION -- Editorial page -- Title page -- Copyright page -- Table of contents -- PREFACE -- COMMON ABBREVIATIONS -- Acknowledgements -- CYRILLIC TRANSLITERATION -- THE FIRST DECADES OF MACHINE TRANSLATION OVERVIEW, CHRONOLOGY, SOURCES -- 1 Overview -- 2 Chronology -- 2.1 Before the computer -- 2.2 First pioneers: 1947-1954 -- 2.3 Age of innovation and enthusiasm: 1954-1959 -- 2.4 Age of growing sophistication and disillusion: 1960-1964 -- 2.5 The ALPA C report and its impact: 1966-1975 -- 3 Sources for the early history of machine translation (to 1970) -- 3.1 Bibliographies -- 3.2 Journals specifically devoted to MT -- 3.3 Collections and conferences -- 3.4 Other selected contemporary sources -- 3.5 Selected later historical treatments of the period -- Biographical details of the author -- WARREN WEAVER AND THE LAUNCHING OF MT BRIEF BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE -- 1 The background -- 2 The memorandum -- 3 Selected writings by Warren Weaver (in date order) -- 4 Other references -- ERWIN REIFLER AND MACHINE TRANSLATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON -- Selected Publications by Erwin Reifler and by other members of the University of Washington group on MT (in date order) -- Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- MACHINE TRANSLATION AT HARVARD -- 1 The beginnings -- 2 Research at Harvard -- 3 Contacts with other researchers -- 4 Disengagement -- Selected Publications by Anthony G. Oettinger and other members of the Harvard MTproject (in date order) -- Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- EARLY RESEARCH AT M.I.T. IN SEARCH OF ADEQUATE THEORY -- 1 MT and the promise of linguistics -- 1.1 The promise of the machine -- 1.2 Word-for-word translation -- 1.3 Problems with word-for-word translation. -- 1.4 The focus on syntax. -- 1.5 The linguistic background. -- 2 Early research.

2.2 Structural ideas. -- 2.3 The sample translation algorithm. -- 2.4 Gap analysis. -- 2.5 The two-step approach. -- 2.6 The journal MT. -- 2.1 The partial translation experiment -- 3 An expanded program -- 3.1 A framework for mechanical translation -- 3.2 The COMIT programming effort. -- 3.3 The COMIT Language. -- 3.4 The simple sentence-producing algorithm. -- 3.5 Grammar testing by random generation of sentences. -- 3.6 A professional society. -- 4 Results from computer grammars -- 4.1 The depth hypothesis. -- 4.2 Testing the depth hypothesis. -- 4.3 The depth hypothesis and linguistic theory -- 4.4 What kind of grammar? -- 4.5 Results using COMIT. -- 5 Whither linguistics? -- 6 Selected publications by Victor H. Yngve on MT and related fields (in date order) -- 7 Other references -- Biographical details of author -- THE GEORGETOWN PROJECT AND LÉON DOSTERT RECOLLECTIONS OF A YOUNG ASSISTANT -- 1 My initiation -- 2 The director -- 3 The Georgetown MT project -- 4 The Pentagon demonstration -- 5 The Congressional hearings -- 6 Final thoughts -- 7 Selected writings by Léon Dostert on MT (in date order) -- 8 Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- IS FAHQ (M) T IMPOSSIBLE? MEMORIES OF PAUL GARVIN AND OTHER MT COLLEAGUES -- 1 Prolog: or How I became a MT pioneer by chance -- 2 Early years, early experiments -- 2.1 Early times at Georgetown -- 2.2 Computability and computing ability -- 2.3 Hansel and Gretel at the computer -- 2.4 Collaboration with Wayne State University -- 3 Moving on -- 3.1 Work at Ramo- Wooldridge and successor corporations -- 3.2 Machine translation in the Synthetic Intelligence Department -- 4 Epilog: Is FAHQT possible? -- 5 Selected publications by Paul Lucian Garvin4 on MT (in date order) -- 6 Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- THE EARLY DAYS OF GAT-SLC -- 1 Early years.

2 Description of GAT-SLC -- 2.1 The principal GAT stages and transliteration -- 2.2 Syntactic level -- 2.3 Kernel sentences -- 2.4 Syntagmatic Relations -- 2.5 Word-form ambiguities -- 3 Semantics and extralinguistic situation -- 4 What about the future? -- 4.1 Using GAT methods -- 4.2 Commercialization -- 4.3 Rediscovery of wheels -- 5 Selected Publications of Michael Zarechnak on MT and related areas (in date order) -- 6 Other references -- Biographical details of author -- MACHINE TRANSLATION JUST A QUESTION OF FINDING THE RIGHT PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE? -- Papers by Antony F.R.Brown (in date order) -- Biographical details of the author -- FROM SERNA TO SYSTRAN -- Selected publications of Peter P. Toma (in date order) -- Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- MY EARLY YEARS IN MACHINE TRANSLATION -- 1 Previous background -- 2 The way into MT -- 3 Procedures towards an operational system -- 3.1 Communication with the computer -- 3.2 The early computers -- 3.3 The early software -- 3.4 Control of language -- 4 The situation at the time in computational linguistic research -- 5 Suspension of research as a result of the ALPAC report -- 6 Epilogue -- 7 Selected publications by W. P. Lehmann on MT and related fields (in date order) -- 8 Other References -- Biographical details of the author -- DAVID G. HAYS -- Select list of publications by David G. Hays (in date order) -- Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- GILBERT W. KING AND THE IBM-USAF TRANSLATOR -- 1 The photoscopic store -- 2 Probabilities, the lexicon and 'stuffing' -- 3 Results -- 4 Final judgment -- 5 Publications by G. W. King and others at IBM (in date order) -- 6 Other references -- TRANSLATION AND THE STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE -- 1 Background -- 2 Establishing the Berkeley MT project -- 3 Computers -- 4 Partitioning the dictionary.

5 Concordances and text analysis -- 6 Other activity -- 6.1 Theory -- 6.2 Chinese -- 6.3 English -- 6.4 Automated text analysis -- 6.5 Machine-aided translation -- 7 Relationships with other projects -- 8 The dispersion of the investigators -- 9 Programming strategy and Relational Networks -- 10 Selected publications by Sydney M Lamb and others of the Berkeley MT project -- 11 Other references -- Biographical details of author -- PIONEERING MT IN THE SOVIET UNION -- Selected Publications by Ol'ga Sergeevna Kulagina (in date orde -- Other references -- MACHINE TRANSLATION AND FORMAL LINGUISTICS IN THE USSR -- 1 Beginnings and first encounters -- 2 Meetings and publications -- 3 Interlingua and formal linguistics -- 4 Linguistics and MT -- 5 Influences from outside Russia -- 6 ALPAC, the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia, and after -- 7 Selected publications on MT and computational linguistics by Igor A. Mel'čuk (in date order) -- 8 Books (and selected articles) on linguistics by Igor A.MeVčuk -- 9 Other references -- Biographical details of the author. -- MY MEMOIRS OF MT IN THE SOVIET UNION -- Selected publications of T.N. Molosnaja (in date order) -- Biographical details of the author -- MT IN THE FORMER USSR AND IN THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES (NIS) PREHISTORY, ROMANTIC ERA, PROSAIC TIME -- 1 Pre-history -- 2 Romantic era -- 3 Prosaic time -- 3.1 Theoretical investigations -- 3.2 Linguistic automaton -- 3.3 Linguistic strategy for the development of LINGTON. -- 4 Epilogue -- 5 References -- Biographical information about the author -- MACHINE TRANSLATION EARLY YEARS IN THE USSR -- 1 Some biographical details. -- 2 The beginning of machine translation -- 3 What were the principles? -- 4 The convenient programming language. -- 5 Other MT systems of that time, and co-operation. -- 6 Selected publications by Jurij N. Marču -- 7 Other references.

Biographical details of author -- THE BEGINNINGS OF MT -- 1 Origins -- 2 London 1948 - 1962 -- 3 Saskatchewan 1962-1972. -- 4 Lakehead University 1972-1978. -- 5 Retirement 1978 and after -- 6 50 years of progress? -- 7 Selected publications by Andrew Donald Booth and Kathleen H. V. Booth on machine translation (in date order) -- 8 Selected books on computing by A.D.Booth and K.H. V.Booth -- 9 Other references -- Biographical details of the authors -- RH. RICHENS TRANSLATION IN THE NUDE -- 1 Richens' key papers -- 1.1 'Preprogramming for machine translation' -- 1.2 'A general programme for mechanical translation..' -- 1.3 'The thirteen steps' -- 1.4 'Interlingual machine translation' -- 1.5 'Tigris and Euphrates' -- 2 The thesaurus -- 3 The interlingua NUDE -- 4 Commentary -- 5 Later developments -- 6 Publications of Richard H. Richens (in date order) -- 7 Other references -- Biographical details of the author -- MARGARET MASTERMAN -- 1 Personal background -- 2 The Cambridge Language Research Unit -- 3 Themes in the work of Margaret Masterman: an assessment -- 3.1 Ideograms -- 3.2 Lattices and fans. -- 3.3 Thesauri and the use of large scale language resources -- 3.4 The use of interlinguas -- 3.5 The centrality of machine translation as a task -- 3.6 Parsing text by semantic methods. -- 3.7 Breath groups, repetition and rhetoric. -- 3.8 Metaphor as normal usage. -- 3.9 The overarching goal: a Wittgensteinian computational linguistics. -- 4 Selected publications by Margaret Masterman (in date order) -- 5 Other references -- Biographical details of author -- YEHOSHUA BAR-HILLEL A PHILOSOPHER'S CONTRIBUTION TO MACHINE TRANSLATION -- 1 From Jerusalem to MIT -- 2 Research appointment at MIT, 1951-1953 -- 3 The first MT conference -- 4 Survey of MT, 1958-60 -- 5 From 1961 to 1964 -- 6 Final thoughts on MT -- 7 Conclusion.

8 Selected writings by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel on MT and related topics.

Machine translation (MT) was one of the first non-numerical applications of the computer in the 1950s and 1960s. With limited equipment and programming tools, researchers from a wide range of disciplines (electronics, linguistics, mathematics, engineering, etc.) tackled the unknown problems of language analysis and processing, investigated original and innovative methods and techniques, and laid the foundations not just of current MT systems and computerized tools for translators but also of natural language processing in general. This volume contains contributions by or about the major MT pioneers from the United States, Russia, East and West Europe, and Japan, with recollections of personal experiences, colleagues and rivals, the political and institutional background, the successes and disappointments, and above all the challenges and excitement of a new field with great practical importance. Each article includes a personal bibliography, and the editor provides an overview, chronology and list of sources for the period.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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