Valence, Semantic Case, and Grammatical Relations : Workshop studies prepared for the 12th International Congress of Linguists, Vienna, August 29th to September 3rd, 1977.

By: Abraham, WernerSeries: Studies in Language Companion SeriesPublisher: Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1978Copyright date: ©1978Description: 1 online resource (749 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789027286734Subject(s): Case grammar -- Congresses.;Dependency grammar -- Congresses.;Grammar, Comparative and general -- Congresses.;Semantics -- CongressesGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Valence, Semantic Case, and Grammatical Relations : Workshop studies prepared for the 12th International Congress of Linguists, Vienna, August 29th to September 3rd, 1977DDC classification: 415 LOC classification: P162 -- .I57 1977ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- VALENCE, SEMANTIC CASE,AND GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS -- TABLE OF CONTENTS -- INTRODUCTORY REMARKS -- 1. VALENCE: FROM HEURISTIC PROBLEMS TO A STRICTLY DEFINED NOTION OF VALENCE-BOUNDNESS -- ÜBER EINIGE REGULARITÄTEN IN DEN VALENZEIGEN-SCHAFTEN DER VERBALEN STRECKFORMEN VOM BAUTYP "PRAPOSITIONALE NOMINALE KOMPONENTE + VERBALE KOMPONENTE" (IN BEWEGUNG SEIN, KOMMEN, BRINGEN) -- SUMMARY -- ÜBER KOMMUNIKATIVE NOTWENDIGKEIT UND VALENZ -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- LITERATURVERZEICHNIS -- ON THE POSSIBILITY OF DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN COMPLEMENTS AND ADJUNCTS -- SUMMARY -- 0. PRELIMINARY REMARKS -- 1. THE ELIMINATION TEST -- 2. THE ADDIBILITY TEST -- 3. DERIVATION FROM AN EMBEDDED CLAUSE -- 4. 'DELETED IN THE SURFACE STRUCTURE' vs. 'NOT CHOSEN IN THE DEEP STRUCTURE' -- 5. MORPHOLOGICAL INDEPENDENCE OF OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF THE SENTENCE -- 6. CHARACTERISTIC POSITIONS -- 7. DETERMINATION OF THE SUBCATEGORIZATION OF THE VERB -- 8. CONCLUSIONS -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- THREE ASPECTS OF VALENCE -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- VALENZGRAMMATISCHE UNTERSUCHUNG ZU FAKULTATIVENSPEZIALISIERUNGEN IM FRANZÖSISCHEN -- SUMMARY -- 0.EINLEITUNG -- 1.DIE KASUS-THEORIE FILLMORES -- 2. DIE VALENZ-THEORIE HELBIGS UND SCHENKELS -- 3.DIE SEMIOTISCHE SPRACHTHEORIE -- 3.1. BEZEICHNUNG UND ENTZEICHNUNG -- 3.2. DIE VERKNÜPFUNGSSEMANTIK -- 3.2.1. ALLGEMEINES -- 3.2.2. SPEZIALISATIONEN -- 3.2.3. VERGLEICH ZU FILLMORES KASUS-THEORIE -- 3.2.4. BEISPIELE -- 3.3. LEXIKON -- 4. VALENZ IN DER SEMIOTISCHEN SPRACHTHEORIE -- 4.1. 'FAKULTATIVE ERGANZUNG' vs. 'FREIE ANGABE' - EIN UNGELOSTES PROBLEM -- 4.2. EIN LOSUNGSVORSCHLAG -- 4.3. DIE ROLLE VALENZGRAMMATISCHER SPEZIFIKATIONEN FOR BEZEICHNUNG UND ENTZEICHNUNG -- 5. SCHLUSS -- 6. ANMERKUNGEN -- BIBLIOGRAPHIE -- VALENCE FRAMES IN STANDARD FORM AND CORRESPONDING FRAMES OF INDIVIDUAL LANGUAGES -- SUMMARY -- 1. VALENCE AND VALENCE FRAMES.
2. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN SENTENCES WITH DIFFERENT SURFACE FRAMES -- 3. STANDARD FRAME (VRs ) -- 4. VR OF SURFACE LEVEL (VRg) -- 5. COMBINATION OF VRs AND VRg -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- A RECONSTRUCTION OF THE NOTION OF VALENCE WITHIN A GRAMMAR WITH A λ-CATEGORIAL BASE -- SUMMARY -- 1. THE CATEGORIAL LANGUAGE λL -- 1.1. Syntax -- 1.2. Semantics -- 1.3. Model theory -- 1.4. The lexicon I of a fragment of German -- 2. THE LEXICON II -- 3. -- 4. -- APPENDIX I -- APPENDIX II -- 1. Machinery -- 2. MEANING RULES -- 3. CONDITIONAL -- 4. CAUSALITY -- 5. QUANTIFIERS -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- VALENCE IN CATEGORIAL SYNTAX -- SUMMARY -- 1. THE CONCEPT OF VALENCE -- 1.1. The elimination test -- 1.2. SPECIFIC VS. NON-SPECIFIC -- 1.3. THE CONCEPTUAL CORE OF THE NOTION OF VALENCE -- 2. THE DEFINITION OF VALENCE IN A CATEGORIAL SYNTAX -- 2.1. DEFINITIONS -- 2.1.1. WELL-FORMEDNESS -- 2.1.2. COMPLEMENTS AND ATTRIBUTES -- 2.1.3. ATTRIBUTE-STRUCTURES -- 2.1.4. ACTANTS -- 2.1.5. VALENCE -- 2.2. THE GENERAL IDEA OF THE DEFINITION -- 2.3. REMARKS ON THE DEFINITION -- 3. PROBLEMS -- 3.1. VERBS -- 3.2. ADJECTIVES -- 3.3. NOUNS -- 3.4. FINAL REMARKS -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- ON VALENCE-BINDING GRAMMARS -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- 2. SEMANTIC CASE: TOWARD A SHARPER UNDERSTANDING OF CASE NOTIONS AND SELECTION CRITERIA -- CASE GRAMMAR AND VALENCE THEORY AT A STALEMATE?THEIR RELEVANCE FOR SEMANTIC MEMORY -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- LEXICAL ENTRIES FOR VERBS IN A CONTRASTIVE LEXICON ENGLISH-GERMAN -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- BIBLIOGRAPHY -- SEMANTISCHE VERKNÜPFUNGEN UND KASUS -- SUMMARY -- 1. SEMANTISCHE VERKNÜPFUNGEN ALS ELEMENTE EINER TEXTGRAMMATIK -- 2.ALGEBRAISCHE TEXTSEMANTIK -- 3.FORMALE ASPEKTE DER SEMANTISCHEN VERKNUPFUNGEN -- 4. BEISPIEL -- 5.EINZELNE SEMANTISCHE VERKNÜPFUNGEN -- 6.TEXTSEMANTIK ALS ALGEBRAISCHES: ERZEUGENDENSYSTEM -- 7.ALGEBRAISCHE MORPHEMSEMANTIK.
8.SEMANTISCHE VERKNOPFUNGEN UND KASUS -- 9. SCHLUSS -- ANMERKUNGEN -- LITERATURANGABEN -- A LA RECHERCHE D'UNE GRAMMAIRE DES CAS. SES RAPPORTS AVEC LA SYNTAXE ET LE LEXIOUE. -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- CASE GRAMMAR AND VIABILITY -- SUMMARY -- 1. MODIFICATIONS WITH RESPECT TO DEEP CASES -- 2. MODIFICATIONS CONNECTED WITH DEEP CASE FEATURES -- 3. MODIFICATIONS MOTIVATED BY SOME PROBLEMS OF SENTENCE INTERPRETATION. -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- A CASE GRAMMAR MATRIX MODEL (AND ITS APPLICATION TO A HEMINGWAY TEXT) -- SUMMARY -- 1. DEEP STRUCTURE -- 2. LIST OF CASES -- 3. VERB TYPES -- 4. DERIVATION -- 5. COVERT CASE ROLES -- 6. CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- STIMULUS AS A SEMANTIC ROLE -- SUMMARY -- 1. THE REAPPEARANCE OF SYNTACTIC SEMANTICS -- 2. VALIDATION OF HYPOTHESES IN SYNTACTIC SEMANTICS -- 3. PATIENT (OR OBJECT): A HETEROGENEOUS GROUP OF HYPER-ROLES -- 4. THE STIMULUS-EXPERIENCER ROLE CONFIGURATION -- REFERENCES -- CAN 'AREA' BE TAKEN OUT OF THE WASTE-BASKET? -- SUMMARY -- 1. OBJECTIVE VERSUS AREA -- 2. AREA VERBS -- 3. THE WORLD OF AREAS -- 4. CLASSIFYING FUNCTION OF AREAS -- REFERENCES -- DEFINING SEMANTIC ROLES IN DERIVED ADJECTIVES -- SUMMARY -- 1. UNDERLYING MATERIAL DEEPER THAN SINGLE CASES -- 2. RELEXICALISATION DUE TO GROWING COMPLEXITY OF SCENES -- 3. LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC FRAMES FOR CROSS-CULTURAL SCENES -- CONCLUSION -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- 1ST DER UNIVERSALITÄTSANSPRUCH DER KASUS-GRAMMATIK BERECHTIGT? -- SUMMARY -- ANMERKUNGEN -- LITERATUR -- 3. THE INTERLOCKING OF CODING AND CONTROL FEATURES WITH GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS -- DIE BEZIEHUNG ZWISCHEN SEMANTISCHEN KASUSRELATIONEN UND SYNTAKTISCHEN SATZGLIEDFUNKTIONEN: DER FREIE DATIV -- SUMMARY -- ANMERKUNGEN -- LITERATURVERWEISE -- CASE-GRAMMAR AS COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS -- SUMMARY -- 1 Hypothesis and Argument of the Paper -- 2 Case -- 3 Voice and Word-Order -- 4 Componential Analysis -- REFERENCES.
THE ONE PER SENT SOLUTION -- SUMMARY -- CONTENTS -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. ORGANIZATION -- 3.0. LEXICAS -- 4.0 CASE -- 4.1 ROLES AND RELATIONS -- 4.1.1 CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING CASE RELATIONS -- 4.1.2.Patient (PAT) -- 4.1.3 AGENT (AGT) -- 4.1.4 INSTRUMENT (INS) -- 4.1.5. FORCE -- 4.1.6. PLACE (PLC) and LOCUS (LOC) -- 4.1.7. CORRESPONDENT (COR) -- 4.1.8. REFERENCE (REF) -- 4.2. CASE FORMS -- 5.0. PERSPECTIVE -- 6.0. THE ALTERNATIVES -- 7.0 VERB SUBCATEGORIZATION -- 7.1 VERB CLASSES -- 7.2. CASE FRAME SUBCATEGORIZATION -- 7.3 TRANSITIVITY -- 8.0 CAUSATION -- 8.1 THE LEXICASE APPROACH -- 8.2. THE PARADIGM CASE -- 8.3 EXCEPTIONS TO THE PARADIGM CASE -- 8.3.1 CAUSATIVE BLOCKAGE -- 8.3.2 DOUBLING -- 8.3.3 EXTENDED DEMOTION -- 9.0 CONCLUSION -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- NOMINALINFLECTION IN PAMANYUNGAN -- A Case Study in Relational Grammar -- SUMMARY -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. ERGATIVE -- 3 . ACCUSATIVE AND SPLIT ERGATIVITY -- 4. DATIVE -- 5. DIRECT OBJECTS AND DATIVE -- 6. ANTIPASSIVE -- 7. THE ANCESTRAL ERGATIVE HYPOTHESIS -- 8. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- RESTRUCTURING OF NOUN-CASES IN SYNTAX, WHY 'ANTI-' WILL NOT DO -- SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- ERGATIVE LANGUAGES, ACCESSIBILITY HIERARCHIES GOVERNING REFLEXIVES AND QUESTIONS OF FORMAL ANALYSIS -- SUMMARY -- 1 INTRODUCTION -- 2. ERGATIVE-ABSOLUTIVE LANGUAGES -- 3. REFLEXIVES CROSS-LINGUISTICALLY -- 4. QUESTIONS OF FORMAL GRAMMAR -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- ON THE DERIVATIVE STATUS OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- VALENCEAND CASE: REMARKS ON THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- REFERENCES.
Summary: The papers in this volume have been grouped in three thematic parts: Valence which plays a key concept in the syntactic classification of verbs and adjectives, provides a necessary link for decoding and encoding grammatical relations, and is an important requisite for the evaluation of formal languages for the purpose of describing and explaining phenomena of natural language. The second group of papers concerns the notion of (deep) case and the implications of tracing a grammatical theory on semantic case. The final series of papers is distinguished by the degree of accent it puts on the link between linguistic surface phenomena, including semantic case, and grammatical relations, in the sense that it has been postulated by Universal Grammar.
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Intro -- VALENCE, SEMANTIC CASE,AND GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS -- TABLE OF CONTENTS -- INTRODUCTORY REMARKS -- 1. VALENCE: FROM HEURISTIC PROBLEMS TO A STRICTLY DEFINED NOTION OF VALENCE-BOUNDNESS -- ÜBER EINIGE REGULARITÄTEN IN DEN VALENZEIGEN-SCHAFTEN DER VERBALEN STRECKFORMEN VOM BAUTYP "PRAPOSITIONALE NOMINALE KOMPONENTE + VERBALE KOMPONENTE" (IN BEWEGUNG SEIN, KOMMEN, BRINGEN) -- SUMMARY -- ÜBER KOMMUNIKATIVE NOTWENDIGKEIT UND VALENZ -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- LITERATURVERZEICHNIS -- ON THE POSSIBILITY OF DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN COMPLEMENTS AND ADJUNCTS -- SUMMARY -- 0. PRELIMINARY REMARKS -- 1. THE ELIMINATION TEST -- 2. THE ADDIBILITY TEST -- 3. DERIVATION FROM AN EMBEDDED CLAUSE -- 4. 'DELETED IN THE SURFACE STRUCTURE' vs. 'NOT CHOSEN IN THE DEEP STRUCTURE' -- 5. MORPHOLOGICAL INDEPENDENCE OF OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF THE SENTENCE -- 6. CHARACTERISTIC POSITIONS -- 7. DETERMINATION OF THE SUBCATEGORIZATION OF THE VERB -- 8. CONCLUSIONS -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- THREE ASPECTS OF VALENCE -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- VALENZGRAMMATISCHE UNTERSUCHUNG ZU FAKULTATIVENSPEZIALISIERUNGEN IM FRANZÖSISCHEN -- SUMMARY -- 0.EINLEITUNG -- 1.DIE KASUS-THEORIE FILLMORES -- 2. DIE VALENZ-THEORIE HELBIGS UND SCHENKELS -- 3.DIE SEMIOTISCHE SPRACHTHEORIE -- 3.1. BEZEICHNUNG UND ENTZEICHNUNG -- 3.2. DIE VERKNÜPFUNGSSEMANTIK -- 3.2.1. ALLGEMEINES -- 3.2.2. SPEZIALISATIONEN -- 3.2.3. VERGLEICH ZU FILLMORES KASUS-THEORIE -- 3.2.4. BEISPIELE -- 3.3. LEXIKON -- 4. VALENZ IN DER SEMIOTISCHEN SPRACHTHEORIE -- 4.1. 'FAKULTATIVE ERGANZUNG' vs. 'FREIE ANGABE' - EIN UNGELOSTES PROBLEM -- 4.2. EIN LOSUNGSVORSCHLAG -- 4.3. DIE ROLLE VALENZGRAMMATISCHER SPEZIFIKATIONEN FOR BEZEICHNUNG UND ENTZEICHNUNG -- 5. SCHLUSS -- 6. ANMERKUNGEN -- BIBLIOGRAPHIE -- VALENCE FRAMES IN STANDARD FORM AND CORRESPONDING FRAMES OF INDIVIDUAL LANGUAGES -- SUMMARY -- 1. VALENCE AND VALENCE FRAMES.

2. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN SENTENCES WITH DIFFERENT SURFACE FRAMES -- 3. STANDARD FRAME (VRs ) -- 4. VR OF SURFACE LEVEL (VRg) -- 5. COMBINATION OF VRs AND VRg -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- A RECONSTRUCTION OF THE NOTION OF VALENCE WITHIN A GRAMMAR WITH A λ-CATEGORIAL BASE -- SUMMARY -- 1. THE CATEGORIAL LANGUAGE λL -- 1.1. Syntax -- 1.2. Semantics -- 1.3. Model theory -- 1.4. The lexicon I of a fragment of German -- 2. THE LEXICON II -- 3. -- 4. -- APPENDIX I -- APPENDIX II -- 1. Machinery -- 2. MEANING RULES -- 3. CONDITIONAL -- 4. CAUSALITY -- 5. QUANTIFIERS -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- VALENCE IN CATEGORIAL SYNTAX -- SUMMARY -- 1. THE CONCEPT OF VALENCE -- 1.1. The elimination test -- 1.2. SPECIFIC VS. NON-SPECIFIC -- 1.3. THE CONCEPTUAL CORE OF THE NOTION OF VALENCE -- 2. THE DEFINITION OF VALENCE IN A CATEGORIAL SYNTAX -- 2.1. DEFINITIONS -- 2.1.1. WELL-FORMEDNESS -- 2.1.2. COMPLEMENTS AND ATTRIBUTES -- 2.1.3. ATTRIBUTE-STRUCTURES -- 2.1.4. ACTANTS -- 2.1.5. VALENCE -- 2.2. THE GENERAL IDEA OF THE DEFINITION -- 2.3. REMARKS ON THE DEFINITION -- 3. PROBLEMS -- 3.1. VERBS -- 3.2. ADJECTIVES -- 3.3. NOUNS -- 3.4. FINAL REMARKS -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- ON VALENCE-BINDING GRAMMARS -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- 2. SEMANTIC CASE: TOWARD A SHARPER UNDERSTANDING OF CASE NOTIONS AND SELECTION CRITERIA -- CASE GRAMMAR AND VALENCE THEORY AT A STALEMATE?THEIR RELEVANCE FOR SEMANTIC MEMORY -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- LEXICAL ENTRIES FOR VERBS IN A CONTRASTIVE LEXICON ENGLISH-GERMAN -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- BIBLIOGRAPHY -- SEMANTISCHE VERKNÜPFUNGEN UND KASUS -- SUMMARY -- 1. SEMANTISCHE VERKNÜPFUNGEN ALS ELEMENTE EINER TEXTGRAMMATIK -- 2.ALGEBRAISCHE TEXTSEMANTIK -- 3.FORMALE ASPEKTE DER SEMANTISCHEN VERKNUPFUNGEN -- 4. BEISPIEL -- 5.EINZELNE SEMANTISCHE VERKNÜPFUNGEN -- 6.TEXTSEMANTIK ALS ALGEBRAISCHES: ERZEUGENDENSYSTEM -- 7.ALGEBRAISCHE MORPHEMSEMANTIK.

8.SEMANTISCHE VERKNOPFUNGEN UND KASUS -- 9. SCHLUSS -- ANMERKUNGEN -- LITERATURANGABEN -- A LA RECHERCHE D'UNE GRAMMAIRE DES CAS. SES RAPPORTS AVEC LA SYNTAXE ET LE LEXIOUE. -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- CASE GRAMMAR AND VIABILITY -- SUMMARY -- 1. MODIFICATIONS WITH RESPECT TO DEEP CASES -- 2. MODIFICATIONS CONNECTED WITH DEEP CASE FEATURES -- 3. MODIFICATIONS MOTIVATED BY SOME PROBLEMS OF SENTENCE INTERPRETATION. -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- A CASE GRAMMAR MATRIX MODEL (AND ITS APPLICATION TO A HEMINGWAY TEXT) -- SUMMARY -- 1. DEEP STRUCTURE -- 2. LIST OF CASES -- 3. VERB TYPES -- 4. DERIVATION -- 5. COVERT CASE ROLES -- 6. CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- STIMULUS AS A SEMANTIC ROLE -- SUMMARY -- 1. THE REAPPEARANCE OF SYNTACTIC SEMANTICS -- 2. VALIDATION OF HYPOTHESES IN SYNTACTIC SEMANTICS -- 3. PATIENT (OR OBJECT): A HETEROGENEOUS GROUP OF HYPER-ROLES -- 4. THE STIMULUS-EXPERIENCER ROLE CONFIGURATION -- REFERENCES -- CAN 'AREA' BE TAKEN OUT OF THE WASTE-BASKET? -- SUMMARY -- 1. OBJECTIVE VERSUS AREA -- 2. AREA VERBS -- 3. THE WORLD OF AREAS -- 4. CLASSIFYING FUNCTION OF AREAS -- REFERENCES -- DEFINING SEMANTIC ROLES IN DERIVED ADJECTIVES -- SUMMARY -- 1. UNDERLYING MATERIAL DEEPER THAN SINGLE CASES -- 2. RELEXICALISATION DUE TO GROWING COMPLEXITY OF SCENES -- 3. LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC FRAMES FOR CROSS-CULTURAL SCENES -- CONCLUSION -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- 1ST DER UNIVERSALITÄTSANSPRUCH DER KASUS-GRAMMATIK BERECHTIGT? -- SUMMARY -- ANMERKUNGEN -- LITERATUR -- 3. THE INTERLOCKING OF CODING AND CONTROL FEATURES WITH GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS -- DIE BEZIEHUNG ZWISCHEN SEMANTISCHEN KASUSRELATIONEN UND SYNTAKTISCHEN SATZGLIEDFUNKTIONEN: DER FREIE DATIV -- SUMMARY -- ANMERKUNGEN -- LITERATURVERWEISE -- CASE-GRAMMAR AS COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS -- SUMMARY -- 1 Hypothesis and Argument of the Paper -- 2 Case -- 3 Voice and Word-Order -- 4 Componential Analysis -- REFERENCES.

THE ONE PER SENT SOLUTION -- SUMMARY -- CONTENTS -- 1.0. Introduction -- 2.0. ORGANIZATION -- 3.0. LEXICAS -- 4.0 CASE -- 4.1 ROLES AND RELATIONS -- 4.1.1 CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING CASE RELATIONS -- 4.1.2.Patient (PAT) -- 4.1.3 AGENT (AGT) -- 4.1.4 INSTRUMENT (INS) -- 4.1.5. FORCE -- 4.1.6. PLACE (PLC) and LOCUS (LOC) -- 4.1.7. CORRESPONDENT (COR) -- 4.1.8. REFERENCE (REF) -- 4.2. CASE FORMS -- 5.0. PERSPECTIVE -- 6.0. THE ALTERNATIVES -- 7.0 VERB SUBCATEGORIZATION -- 7.1 VERB CLASSES -- 7.2. CASE FRAME SUBCATEGORIZATION -- 7.3 TRANSITIVITY -- 8.0 CAUSATION -- 8.1 THE LEXICASE APPROACH -- 8.2. THE PARADIGM CASE -- 8.3 EXCEPTIONS TO THE PARADIGM CASE -- 8.3.1 CAUSATIVE BLOCKAGE -- 8.3.2 DOUBLING -- 8.3.3 EXTENDED DEMOTION -- 9.0 CONCLUSION -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- NOMINALINFLECTION IN PAMANYUNGAN -- A Case Study in Relational Grammar -- SUMMARY -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. ERGATIVE -- 3 . ACCUSATIVE AND SPLIT ERGATIVITY -- 4. DATIVE -- 5. DIRECT OBJECTS AND DATIVE -- 6. ANTIPASSIVE -- 7. THE ANCESTRAL ERGATIVE HYPOTHESIS -- 8. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- RESTRUCTURING OF NOUN-CASES IN SYNTAX, WHY 'ANTI-' WILL NOT DO -- SUMMARY -- REFERENCES -- ERGATIVE LANGUAGES, ACCESSIBILITY HIERARCHIES GOVERNING REFLEXIVES AND QUESTIONS OF FORMAL ANALYSIS -- SUMMARY -- 1 INTRODUCTION -- 2. ERGATIVE-ABSOLUTIVE LANGUAGES -- 3. REFLEXIVES CROSS-LINGUISTICALLY -- 4. QUESTIONS OF FORMAL GRAMMAR -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- ON THE DERIVATIVE STATUS OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- REFERENCES -- VALENCEAND CASE: REMARKS ON THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS -- SUMMARY -- NOTES -- REFERENCES.

The papers in this volume have been grouped in three thematic parts: Valence which plays a key concept in the syntactic classification of verbs and adjectives, provides a necessary link for decoding and encoding grammatical relations, and is an important requisite for the evaluation of formal languages for the purpose of describing and explaining phenomena of natural language. The second group of papers concerns the notion of (deep) case and the implications of tracing a grammatical theory on semantic case. The final series of papers is distinguished by the degree of accent it puts on the link between linguistic surface phenomena, including semantic case, and grammatical relations, in the sense that it has been postulated by Universal Grammar.

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