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Formulaic Language : Volume 1. Distribution and historical change.

By: Contributor(s): Publisher: Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2009Copyright date: ©2009Description: 1 online resource (343 pages)Content type:
  • text
Media type:
  • computer
Carrier type:
  • online resource
ISBN:
  • 9789027290175
Subject(s): Genre/Form: Additional physical formats: Print version:: Formulaic Language : Volume 1. Distribution and historical changeDDC classification:
  • 401.93
LOC classification:
  • P126 -- .F671 2009eb
Online resources:
Contents:
Formulaic Language -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Dedication -- Table of contents -- Preface -- Introduction. Approaches to the study of formulae -- 1. What are formulae? -- 2. Research questions -- 3. Synopsis of the book -- 3.1 Structure and distribution -- 3.2 Historical change -- 3.3 Acquisition and loss -- 3.4 Psychological reality -- 3.5 Explanations -- 4. Conclusions -- References -- Part 1. What is Formulaic Language -- Grammarians' languages versus humanists' languages and the place of speech act formulas in models of -- 1. Languages as problematical constructs 3 -- 2. Speech act formulas 6 -- 3. Grammarians' languages, humanists' languages and the treatment of speech formulas 8 -- 3.1 Grammarians' languages 8 -- 3.2 Humanists' languages 12 -- 4. On some projects from the 1970s investigating formulaic language 15 -- 4.1 Suddenly formulas are in the air everywhere - but why? 15 -- 4.2 Kuiper on oral formulaic genres 16 -- 4.3 Pawley and Syder on the role of formulas in ordinary language 18 -- 5. Have linguists changed their views of language? 21 -- Abstract -- 1. Languages as problematical constructs -- 2. Speech act formulas -- 3. Grammarians' languages, humanists' languages and the treatment of speech formulas -- 3.1 Grammarians' languages -- 3.2 Humanists' languages -- 4. On some projects from the 1970s investigating formulaic language -- 4.1 Suddenly formulas are in the air everywhere - but why? -- 4.2 Kuiper on oral formulaic genres -- 4.3 Pawley and Syder on the role of formulas in ordinary language -- 5. Have linguists changed their views of language? -- References -- Identifying formulaic language -- 1. Introduction 27 -- 2. Approaches to definition 28 -- 2.1 Types of definition 28 -- 2.2 Morpheme-equivalence and the blurring of the boundary between formulaic and non-formulaic material 30.
2.3 Harnessing definitions appropriately in research 34 -- 2.4 Finding examples of formulaic language in text 35 -- 2.4.1 Can you identify formulaic sequences by counting them? 35 -- 2.4.2 Can you hear that something is formulaic? 37 -- 2.4.3 Are formulaic sequences non-canonical? 37 -- 2.4.4 Are formulaic sequences always more than one word long? 38 -- 2.4.5 Does code-switching respect the boundaries of formulaic sequences? 38 -- 2.4.6 Are formulaic sequences uncharacteristic of normal performance? 39 -- 2.4.7 Can we identify formulaic sequences intuitively? 39 -- 2.4.8 Towards a solution for identification of formulaic sequences in text 39 -- 2.5 Embracing the opportunities 40 -- 3. Boundaries 41 -- 3.1 Escaping formulaicity, but at a price 42 -- 3.2 External attempts to control expression and thought 44 -- 3.3 Absence of novelty 45 -- 3.4 Evidence from the boundaries 47 -- 4. Conclusion 48 -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Approaches to definition -- 2.1 Types of definition -- 2.2 Morpheme-equivalence and the blurring of the boundary between formulaic and non-formulaic material -- 2.3 Harnessing definitions appropriately in research -- 2.4 Finding examples of formulaic language in text -- 2.4.1 Can you identify formulaic sequences by counting them? -- 2.4.2 Can you hear that something is formulaic? -- 2.4.3 Are formulaic sequences non-canonical? -- 2.4.4 Are formulaic sequences always more than one word long? -- 2.4.5 Does code-switching respect the boundaries of formulaic sequences? -- 2.4.6 Are formulaic sequences uncharacteristic of normal performance? -- 2.4.7 Can we identify formulaic sequences intuitively? -- 2.4.8 Towards a solution for identification of formulaic sequences in text -- 2.5 Embracing the opportunities -- 3. Boundaries -- 3.1 Escaping formulaicity, but at a price -- 3.2 External attempts to control expression and thought.
3.3 Absence of novelty -- 3.4 Evidence from the boundaries -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Part 2. Structure and distribution -- Formulaic tendencies of demonstrative clefts in spoken English -- 1. The demonstrative cleft construction 55 -- 2. Background 57 -- 3. Evidence of formulaic tendencies in demonstrative clefts 61 -- 3.1 Associated with informal conversation 63 -- 3.2 Fixedness 65 -- 3.3 Fluent phonological structure 69 -- 3.4 Non-salient reference 71 -- 4. Summary 73 -- Abstract -- 1. The demonstrative cleft construction -- 2. Background -- 3. Evidence of formulaic tendencies in demonstrative clefts -- 3.1 Associated with informal conversation -- 3.2 Fixedness -- 3.3 Fluent phonological structure -- 3.4 Non-salient reference -- 4. Summary -- Appendix A: Discourse features included in the examples -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Formulaic language and the relater category - the case of about -- 1. Relaters 77 -- 2. Formulaicity and formulaic language 78 -- 3. Construction grammar 81 -- 4. Data and method 82 -- 5. Results 83 -- 5.1 adjective+about 85 -- 5.2 noun+about 87 -- 5.2.1 Substantive constructions (type A) 88 -- 5.2.2 Borderline constructions (type B) 89 -- 5.2.3 Schematic constructions (type C) 90 -- 5.3 verb+about 91 -- 6. Concluding remarks 92 -- Abstract -- 1. Relaters -- 2. Formulaicity and formulaic language -- 3. Construction Grammar -- Anchor 58 -- 5. Results -- 5.1 adjective+about -- 5.2 noun+about -- 5.2.1 Substantive constructions (type A) -- 5.2.2 Borderline constructions (type B) -- 5.2.3 Schematic constructions (type C) -- 5.3 verb+about -- 6. Concluding remarks -- References -- The aim is to analyze NP -- 1. Introduction 97 -- 2. A constructionist approach to formulaic sequences 98 -- 3. Methodological issues 102 -- 4. Case study: the use of research predicates in English academic texts 105.
4.1 The register of academic writing 105 -- 4.2 Formulaic sequences containing research predicates 107 -- 5. Conclusions 112 -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. A constructionist approach to formulaic sequences -- 3. Methodological issues -- 4. Case study: The use of research predicates in English academic texts -- 4.1 The register of academic writing -- 4.2 Formulaic sequences containing research predicates -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Fixedness in Japanese adjectives in conversation -- 1. Introduction 118 -- 2. Theoretical background 118 -- 3. Previous research on Japanese adjectives 119 -- 3.1 Traditional approaches 119 -- 3.2 Usage-based approaches to Japanese adjectives 121 -- 4. Data 121 -- 5. Methodological procedures and overview 121 -- 5.1 Form rather than function 121 -- 5.2 na-adjectives and i-adjectives 122 -- 5.3 Frequency 122 -- 6. Our findings 123 -- 6.1 Claim 1: Predicate adjectives outnumber attributive adjectives 123 -- 6.2 Claim 2: Whether predicative or attributive, an understanding of Japanese adjectives in everyday talk involves various facets of fixedness 123 -- 6.2.1 Claim 2.1: Attributive and predicative adjectives in Japanese show different types of fixedness 124 -- 6.2.2 Claim 2.2: Ongoing lexicalization is a prominent feature of Japanese adjective usage 137 -- 6.2.3 Summary -- 7. Conclusions and implications 140 -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Theoretical background -- 3. Previous research on Japanese adjectives -- 3.1 Traditional approaches -- 3.2 Usage-based approaches to Japanese adjectives -- 4. Data -- 5. Methodological procedures and overview -- 5.1 Form rather than function -- 5.2 na-adjectives and i-adjectives -- 5.3 Frequency -- 6. Our findings -- 6.1 Claim 1: Predicate adjectives outnumber attributive adjectives.
6.2 Claim 2: Whether predicative or attributive, an understanding of Japanese adjectives in everyday talk involves various facets of fixedness -- 6.2.1 Claim 2.1: Attributive and predicative adjectives in Japanese show different types of fixedness. -- 6.2.2 Claim 2.2: Ongoing lexicalization is a prominent feature of Japanese adjective usage -- 6.2.3 Summary -- Anchor 86 -- List of symbols -- References -- Genre-controlled constructions in written language quotatives -- 1. Introduction 148 -- 1.1 Roles of quotations and quotatives in written genres 149 -- 1.2 Quotative constructions and formulaicity 150 -- 1.3 Genre effects and data sources 152 -- 1.4 Annotating quotatives 152 -- 2. Quotatives in written English 153 -- 2.1 Quotative positions 154 -- 2.2 Forms of quotatives 155 -- 2.2.1 Quoting verbs 156 -- 2.2.2 Speaker 158 -- 2.2.3 Adverbs and adjectives 159 -- 2.2.4 Addressee 159 -- 2.3 Quotative inversion 160 -- 2.4 Null quotatives 162 -- 3. Functions of quotatives 163 -- 3.1 Newspapers 163 -- 3.2 Fiction books 164 -- 3.3 Gossip column 164 -- 4. Feature spectrum 165 -- 5. Conclusion 166 -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Roles of quotations and quotatives in written genres -- 1.2 Quotative constructions and formulaicity -- 1.3 Genre effects and data sources -- 1.4 Annotating quotatives -- 2. Quotatives in written English -- 2.1 Quotative positions -- 2.2 Forms of quotatives -- 2.2.1 Quoting verbs -- 2.2.2 Speaker -- 2.2.3 Adverbs and adjectives -- 2.2.4 Addressee -- 2.3 Quotative inversion -- 2.4 Null quotatives -- 3. Functions of quotatives -- 3.1 Newspapers -- 3.2 Fiction books -- 3.3 Gossip column -- 4. Feature spectrum -- 5. Conclusion -- Data sources -- References -- Some remarks on the evaluative connotations of toponymic idioms in a contrastive perspective -- 1. The axiology of toponymic idioms 171.
1.1 The cultural character of idioms 172.
Summary: This study is based on Bybee & Eddington (2006), a synchronic study of the exemplar clusters formed by adjectives in four Spanish verb + adjective combinations used as constructions to denote a change of state (ponerse + adj, hacerse + adj, quedarse + adj, & volverse + adj). One main goal of the current study is to employ the exemplar model in a diachronic setting. This investigation studies the development of exemplar clusters of adjectives in the expression of 'becoming' quedar(se) + adjective in four periods: the 13th, 15th, 17th, and 19th centuries. This study provides evidence that, a.) prefabs serve as the central members of exemplar categories, b.) prefabs have longevity, c.) categories mutate over time by becoming more centralized, changing central members, or by expanding.
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Formulaic Language -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Dedication -- Table of contents -- Preface -- Introduction. Approaches to the study of formulae -- 1. What are formulae? -- 2. Research questions -- 3. Synopsis of the book -- 3.1 Structure and distribution -- 3.2 Historical change -- 3.3 Acquisition and loss -- 3.4 Psychological reality -- 3.5 Explanations -- 4. Conclusions -- References -- Part 1. What is Formulaic Language -- Grammarians' languages versus humanists' languages and the place of speech act formulas in models of -- 1. Languages as problematical constructs 3 -- 2. Speech act formulas 6 -- 3. Grammarians' languages, humanists' languages and the treatment of speech formulas 8 -- 3.1 Grammarians' languages 8 -- 3.2 Humanists' languages 12 -- 4. On some projects from the 1970s investigating formulaic language 15 -- 4.1 Suddenly formulas are in the air everywhere - but why? 15 -- 4.2 Kuiper on oral formulaic genres 16 -- 4.3 Pawley and Syder on the role of formulas in ordinary language 18 -- 5. Have linguists changed their views of language? 21 -- Abstract -- 1. Languages as problematical constructs -- 2. Speech act formulas -- 3. Grammarians' languages, humanists' languages and the treatment of speech formulas -- 3.1 Grammarians' languages -- 3.2 Humanists' languages -- 4. On some projects from the 1970s investigating formulaic language -- 4.1 Suddenly formulas are in the air everywhere - but why? -- 4.2 Kuiper on oral formulaic genres -- 4.3 Pawley and Syder on the role of formulas in ordinary language -- 5. Have linguists changed their views of language? -- References -- Identifying formulaic language -- 1. Introduction 27 -- 2. Approaches to definition 28 -- 2.1 Types of definition 28 -- 2.2 Morpheme-equivalence and the blurring of the boundary between formulaic and non-formulaic material 30.

2.3 Harnessing definitions appropriately in research 34 -- 2.4 Finding examples of formulaic language in text 35 -- 2.4.1 Can you identify formulaic sequences by counting them? 35 -- 2.4.2 Can you hear that something is formulaic? 37 -- 2.4.3 Are formulaic sequences non-canonical? 37 -- 2.4.4 Are formulaic sequences always more than one word long? 38 -- 2.4.5 Does code-switching respect the boundaries of formulaic sequences? 38 -- 2.4.6 Are formulaic sequences uncharacteristic of normal performance? 39 -- 2.4.7 Can we identify formulaic sequences intuitively? 39 -- 2.4.8 Towards a solution for identification of formulaic sequences in text 39 -- 2.5 Embracing the opportunities 40 -- 3. Boundaries 41 -- 3.1 Escaping formulaicity, but at a price 42 -- 3.2 External attempts to control expression and thought 44 -- 3.3 Absence of novelty 45 -- 3.4 Evidence from the boundaries 47 -- 4. Conclusion 48 -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Approaches to definition -- 2.1 Types of definition -- 2.2 Morpheme-equivalence and the blurring of the boundary between formulaic and non-formulaic material -- 2.3 Harnessing definitions appropriately in research -- 2.4 Finding examples of formulaic language in text -- 2.4.1 Can you identify formulaic sequences by counting them? -- 2.4.2 Can you hear that something is formulaic? -- 2.4.3 Are formulaic sequences non-canonical? -- 2.4.4 Are formulaic sequences always more than one word long? -- 2.4.5 Does code-switching respect the boundaries of formulaic sequences? -- 2.4.6 Are formulaic sequences uncharacteristic of normal performance? -- 2.4.7 Can we identify formulaic sequences intuitively? -- 2.4.8 Towards a solution for identification of formulaic sequences in text -- 2.5 Embracing the opportunities -- 3. Boundaries -- 3.1 Escaping formulaicity, but at a price -- 3.2 External attempts to control expression and thought.

3.3 Absence of novelty -- 3.4 Evidence from the boundaries -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Part 2. Structure and distribution -- Formulaic tendencies of demonstrative clefts in spoken English -- 1. The demonstrative cleft construction 55 -- 2. Background 57 -- 3. Evidence of formulaic tendencies in demonstrative clefts 61 -- 3.1 Associated with informal conversation 63 -- 3.2 Fixedness 65 -- 3.3 Fluent phonological structure 69 -- 3.4 Non-salient reference 71 -- 4. Summary 73 -- Abstract -- 1. The demonstrative cleft construction -- 2. Background -- 3. Evidence of formulaic tendencies in demonstrative clefts -- 3.1 Associated with informal conversation -- 3.2 Fixedness -- 3.3 Fluent phonological structure -- 3.4 Non-salient reference -- 4. Summary -- Appendix A: Discourse features included in the examples -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Formulaic language and the relater category - the case of about -- 1. Relaters 77 -- 2. Formulaicity and formulaic language 78 -- 3. Construction grammar 81 -- 4. Data and method 82 -- 5. Results 83 -- 5.1 adjective+about 85 -- 5.2 noun+about 87 -- 5.2.1 Substantive constructions (type A) 88 -- 5.2.2 Borderline constructions (type B) 89 -- 5.2.3 Schematic constructions (type C) 90 -- 5.3 verb+about 91 -- 6. Concluding remarks 92 -- Abstract -- 1. Relaters -- 2. Formulaicity and formulaic language -- 3. Construction Grammar -- Anchor 58 -- 5. Results -- 5.1 adjective+about -- 5.2 noun+about -- 5.2.1 Substantive constructions (type A) -- 5.2.2 Borderline constructions (type B) -- 5.2.3 Schematic constructions (type C) -- 5.3 verb+about -- 6. Concluding remarks -- References -- The aim is to analyze NP -- 1. Introduction 97 -- 2. A constructionist approach to formulaic sequences 98 -- 3. Methodological issues 102 -- 4. Case study: the use of research predicates in English academic texts 105.

4.1 The register of academic writing 105 -- 4.2 Formulaic sequences containing research predicates 107 -- 5. Conclusions 112 -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. A constructionist approach to formulaic sequences -- 3. Methodological issues -- 4. Case study: The use of research predicates in English academic texts -- 4.1 The register of academic writing -- 4.2 Formulaic sequences containing research predicates -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Fixedness in Japanese adjectives in conversation -- 1. Introduction 118 -- 2. Theoretical background 118 -- 3. Previous research on Japanese adjectives 119 -- 3.1 Traditional approaches 119 -- 3.2 Usage-based approaches to Japanese adjectives 121 -- 4. Data 121 -- 5. Methodological procedures and overview 121 -- 5.1 Form rather than function 121 -- 5.2 na-adjectives and i-adjectives 122 -- 5.3 Frequency 122 -- 6. Our findings 123 -- 6.1 Claim 1: Predicate adjectives outnumber attributive adjectives 123 -- 6.2 Claim 2: Whether predicative or attributive, an understanding of Japanese adjectives in everyday talk involves various facets of fixedness 123 -- 6.2.1 Claim 2.1: Attributive and predicative adjectives in Japanese show different types of fixedness 124 -- 6.2.2 Claim 2.2: Ongoing lexicalization is a prominent feature of Japanese adjective usage 137 -- 6.2.3 Summary -- 7. Conclusions and implications 140 -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Theoretical background -- 3. Previous research on Japanese adjectives -- 3.1 Traditional approaches -- 3.2 Usage-based approaches to Japanese adjectives -- 4. Data -- 5. Methodological procedures and overview -- 5.1 Form rather than function -- 5.2 na-adjectives and i-adjectives -- 5.3 Frequency -- 6. Our findings -- 6.1 Claim 1: Predicate adjectives outnumber attributive adjectives.

6.2 Claim 2: Whether predicative or attributive, an understanding of Japanese adjectives in everyday talk involves various facets of fixedness -- 6.2.1 Claim 2.1: Attributive and predicative adjectives in Japanese show different types of fixedness. -- 6.2.2 Claim 2.2: Ongoing lexicalization is a prominent feature of Japanese adjective usage -- 6.2.3 Summary -- Anchor 86 -- List of symbols -- References -- Genre-controlled constructions in written language quotatives -- 1. Introduction 148 -- 1.1 Roles of quotations and quotatives in written genres 149 -- 1.2 Quotative constructions and formulaicity 150 -- 1.3 Genre effects and data sources 152 -- 1.4 Annotating quotatives 152 -- 2. Quotatives in written English 153 -- 2.1 Quotative positions 154 -- 2.2 Forms of quotatives 155 -- 2.2.1 Quoting verbs 156 -- 2.2.2 Speaker 158 -- 2.2.3 Adverbs and adjectives 159 -- 2.2.4 Addressee 159 -- 2.3 Quotative inversion 160 -- 2.4 Null quotatives 162 -- 3. Functions of quotatives 163 -- 3.1 Newspapers 163 -- 3.2 Fiction books 164 -- 3.3 Gossip column 164 -- 4. Feature spectrum 165 -- 5. Conclusion 166 -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Roles of quotations and quotatives in written genres -- 1.2 Quotative constructions and formulaicity -- 1.3 Genre effects and data sources -- 1.4 Annotating quotatives -- 2. Quotatives in written English -- 2.1 Quotative positions -- 2.2 Forms of quotatives -- 2.2.1 Quoting verbs -- 2.2.2 Speaker -- 2.2.3 Adverbs and adjectives -- 2.2.4 Addressee -- 2.3 Quotative inversion -- 2.4 Null quotatives -- 3. Functions of quotatives -- 3.1 Newspapers -- 3.2 Fiction books -- 3.3 Gossip column -- 4. Feature spectrum -- 5. Conclusion -- Data sources -- References -- Some remarks on the evaluative connotations of toponymic idioms in a contrastive perspective -- 1. The axiology of toponymic idioms 171.

1.1 The cultural character of idioms 172.

This study is based on Bybee & Eddington (2006), a synchronic study of the exemplar clusters formed by adjectives in four Spanish verb + adjective combinations used as constructions to denote a change of state (ponerse + adj, hacerse + adj, quedarse + adj, & volverse + adj). One main goal of the current study is to employ the exemplar model in a diachronic setting. This investigation studies the development of exemplar clusters of adjectives in the expression of 'becoming' quedar(se) + adjective in four periods: the 13th, 15th, 17th, and 19th centuries. This study provides evidence that, a.) prefabs serve as the central members of exemplar categories, b.) prefabs have longevity, c.) categories mutate over time by becoming more centralized, changing central members, or by expanding.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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