Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations.

By: Kirkham, M. BPublisher: Burlington : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2004Copyright date: ©2005Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (521 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780080492162Subject(s): Plant-water relationships.;Plant-soil relationships.;Groundwater flowGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Principles of Soil and Plant Water RelationsDDC classification: 572.5392 LOC classification: QK870.K57 2005Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Front Cover -- Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Chapter 1. Introduction -- I. Why Study Soil-Plant-Water Relations? -- II. Plant Growth Curves -- III. Appendix: Biography of John Napier -- Chapter 2. Definitions of Physical Units and the International System -- I.Definitions -- II. Le Système International d'Unités -- III. Example: Applying Units of Work and Pressure to a Root -- IV. Appendix: Biography of Isaac Newton -- Chapter 3. Structure and Properties of Water -- I. Structure of Water -- II. Forces That Bind Water Molecules Together -- III. Properties of Water -- IV. Appendix: Biography of Johannes van der Waals -- Chapter 4. Tensiometers -- I. Description of a Tensiometer -- II. Types of Tensiometers -- III. Temperature Effects on Tensiometers -- IV. Applications of Tensiometers -- V. Appendix: Biography of L.A. Richards -- Chapter 5. Soil-Water Terminology and Applications -- I. Water Content -- II. Water Potential -- III. Heads in a Column of Soil -- IV. Movement of Water Between Tensiometers -- V. Appendix: Biography of William L. Powers -- Chapter 6. Static Water in Soil -- I. Surface Tension -- II. Examples of Surface Tension -- III. Rise and Fall of Water in Soil Pores -- IV. Appendix: History of Surface Tension -- V. Appendix: Biography of Marquis de Laplace -- Chapter 7. Water Movement in Saturated Soil -- I. Darcy's Law -- II. Hydraulic Conductivity -- III. Laplace's Equation -- IV. Ellipse Equation -- V. Linear Flow Laws -- VI. Appendix: Biography of Apollonius of Perga -- VII. Appendix: Biography of Henry Darcy -- Chapter 8. Field Capacity, Wilting Point, Available Water, and the Non-Limiting Water Range -- I. Field Capacity -- II. Wilting Point -- III. Available Water -- IV. Non-Limiting Water Range -- V. Biographies of Briggs and Shantz.
Chapter 9. Penetrometer Measurements -- I. Definition, Types of Penetrometers, and Uses -- II. Types of Tests -- III. What Penetrometer Measurements Depend Upon -- IV. Cone Penetrometer -- V. Appendix: Biography of Champ Tanner -- Chapter 10. Measurement of Oxygen Diffusion Rate -- I. The Oxygen Diffusion Rate Method -- II. Electrolysis -- III. Model and Principles of the ODR Method -- IV.Method -- V. Appendix: Biography of Michael Faraday -- Chapter 11. Infiltration -- I. Definition of Infiltration -- II. Four Models of One-Dimensional Infiltration -- III. Two- and Three-Dimensional Infiltration -- IV. Redistribution -- V. Tension Infiltrometer or Disc Permeameter -- VI. Minidisk Infiltrometer -- VII. Measurement of Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Sorptivity with the Tension Infiltrometer -- VIII. Measurement of Repellency with the Tension Infiltrometer -- IX. Measurement of Mobility with the Tension Infiltrometer -- X. Ellipsoidal Description of Water Flow into Soil from a Surface Disc -- XI. Appendix: Biography of John Philip -- Chapter 12. Pore Volume -- I. Definitions -- II. Illustration of Breakthrough Curves and Pore Volumes -- III. Mathematical Analysis of Pore Volume -- IV. Calculation of a Pore Volume -- V. Pore Volumes Based on Length Units -- VI. Miscible Displacement -- VII. Relation Between Mobile Water Content and Pore Volume -- VIII. Appendix: Biography of Donald Nielsen -- Chapter 13. Time Domain Reflectometry to Measure Volumetric Soil Water Content -- I. Definitions -- II. Dielectric Constant, Frequency Domain, and Time Domain -- III. Theory for Use of the Dielectric Constant to Measure Soil Water Content -- IV. Coaxial Cable and Waveguides -- V. Measurement of Soil Water Content Using TDR -- VI. Practical Information When Using TDR to Measure Soil Water Content -- VII. Example of Using TDR to Determine Root Water Uptake.
VIII. HydroSense™ -- IX. Appendix: Biography of Heinrich Hertz -- X. Appendix: Biography of Sergei Schelkunoff -- Chapter 14. Root Anatomy and Poiseuille's Law for Water Flow in Roots -- I. Root Anatomy -- II. Poiseuille's Law -- III. Assumptions of Poiseuille's Law -- IV. Calculations of Flow Based on Poiseuille's Law -- V. Agronomic Applications of Poiseuille's Law -- VI. Appendix: Biography of J.L.M. Poiseuille -- VII. Appendix: Biography of Osborne Reynolds -- Chapter 15. Gardner's Equation for Water Movement to Plant Roots -- I. Description of the Equation -- II. Assumptions -- III. Values for the Rate of Water Uptake -- IV. Examples -- V. Effect of Wet and Dry Soil -- VI. Effect of Root Radius -- VII. Comparison of Matric Potential at Root and in Soil for Different Rates of Water Uptake -- VIII. Effect of Root Distribution on Wilting -- IX. Final Comment -- X. Appendix: Biography of Wilford Gardner -- Chapter 16. Measurement of Water Potential with Thermocouple Psychrometers -- I. Relation Between Water Potential and Relative Humidity -- II. Thermoelectric Effects -- III. Joule Heating -- IV. Thermoelectric Power -- V. Relationship Between Vapor Pressure and Temperature -- VI. Calibration -- VII. Importance of Isothermal Conditions When Making Measurements -- VIII. Types of Thermocouple Psychrometers -- IX. Appendix: Biography of J.C.A. Peltier -- X. Appendix: Biography of James Prescott Joule. -- XI. Appendix: Biography of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin -- Chapter 17. Measurement of Water Potential with Pressure Chambers -- I. Comparison of Measurements Made With the Pressure Chamber and the Thermocouple Psychrometer -- II. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Pressure Chamber -- III. Hydraulic Press -- IV. Pump-Up Pressure Chamber -- V. Appendix: Biography of Per Scholander -- VI. Appendix: Biography of John Boyer.
Chapter 18. Stem Anatomy and Measurement of Osmotic Potential and Turgor Potential Using Pressure-Volume Curves -- I. Stem Anatomy -- II. Measurement of the Components of the Water Potential -- III. Osmotic Potential (ψS) -- IV. Theory of Scholander Pressure-Volume Curves -- V How to Analyze a Pressure-Volume Curve -- VI. Turgor Potential (ψP) -- VII. Measurement of Plant Water Content and Relative Water Content -- VIII.Osmometer -- IX. Appendix: Biography of Wilhelm Pfeffer -- X. Appendix: Biography of Jacobus van't Hoff -- XI. Appendix: Biography of Rudolf Clausius -- Chapter 19. The Ascent of Water in Plants -- I. The Problem -- II. How Water Gets to the Top of Tall Buildings and Animals -- III. Cohesion Theory -- IV. Limitations of the Cohesion Theory -- V. Alternative Theory to the Cohesion Theory -- VI. New Techniques to Confirm the Cohesion Theory -- VII. Controvery About the Cohesion Theory -- VIII. Potentials in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum -- IX. Appendix: Biography of Henry Dixon -- X. Appendix: Biography of John Joly -- Chapter 20. Electrical Analogues for Water Movement through the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum -- I. The Analogy -- II. Measurement of Resistance With the Wheatstone Bridge -- III. Law of Resistance -- IV. Units of Electrical Conductivity -- V. Example of an Electrical Analogue Applied to Soil With Wormholes -- VI. Van den Honert's Equation -- VII. Proof of van den Honert's Equation -- VIII. Appendix: Biography of Georg Ohm -- IX. Appendix: Biography of Charles Wheatstone -- X. Appendix: Biographies of Members of the Siemens Family -- Chapter 21. Leaf Anatomy and Leaf Elasticity -- I. Leaf Anatomy -- II. Internal Water Relations -- III. Elasticity -- IV. Elasticity Applied to Plant Leaves -- V. Appendix: Biography of Robert Hooke -- VI. Appendix: Biography of Thomas Young.
Chapter 22. Stomata and Measurement of Stomatal Resistance -- I. Definition of Stomata and Their Distribution -- II. Stomatal Anatomy of Dicots and Monocots -- III. Stomatal Density -- IV. Diffusion of Gases Through Stomatal Pores -- V. Guard Cells -- VI. Mechanism of Stomatal Opening -- VII. Boundary Layer -- VIII. Leaf Resistances -- IX. Measurement of Stomatal Aperture and Stomatal Resistance -- X. Theory of Mass-Flow and Diffusion Porometers -- XI. Appendix: Biography of Adolf Fick -- Chapter 23. Solar Radiation, Black Bodies, Heat Budget, and Radiation Balance -- I. Solar Radiation -- II. Terrestrial Radiation -- III. Definition of a Black Body -- IV. Example of a Black Body -- V. Temperature of a Black Body -- VI. Gray Body -- VII. Spectrum of a Black Body -- VIII. Sun's Temperature -- IX. Earth's Temperature -- X. Comparison of Solar and Terrestrial Radiation -- XI. Heat Budget -- XII. Radiation Balance -- XIII. Appendix: Biography of Gustav Kirchhoff -- XIV. Appendix: Biography of Josef Stefan -- XV. Appendix: Biography of Ludwig Boltzmann -- XVI. Appendix: Biography of Wilhelm Wien -- Chapter 24. Measurement of Canopy Temperature with Infrared Thermometers -- I. Infrared Thermometers -- II. Definitions -- III. Principles of Infrared Thermometry -- IV. Use of a Portable Infrared Thermometer -- V. Calibration of Infrared Thermometers -- VI. Advantages of Infrared Thermometers -- VII. Appendix: Biography of Ray Jackson -- Chapter 25. Stress-Degree-Day Concept and Crop-Water-Stress Index -- I. Stress-Degree-Day Procedure -- II. Canopy-Minus-Air Temperature and Evapotranspiration -- III. Crop-Water-Stress Index -- IV. How to Calculate the Crop-Water-Stress Index -- V. Crop-Water-Stress Index for Alfalfa, Soybeans, and Cotton -- VI. Importance of a Wide Range of Vapor-Pressure Deficit Values -- VII. Appendix: Biography of Sherwood Idso.
Chapter 26. Potential Evapotranspiration.
Summary: Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations combines biology and physics to show how water moves through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. This text explores the instrumentation and the methods used to measure the status of water in soil and plants. Principles are clearly presented with the aid of diagrams, anatomical figures, and images of instrumentation. The methods on instrumentation can be used by researchers, consultants, and the military to monitor soil degradation, including measurements of soil compaction, repellency, oxygen diffusion rate, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Intended for graduate students in plant and soil science programs, this book also serves as a useful reference for agronomists, plant ecologists, and agricultural engineers. * Principles are presented in an easy-to-understand style * Heavily illustrated with more than 200 figures; diagrams are professionally drawn * Anatomical figures show root, stem, leaf, and stomata * Figures of instruments show how they work * Book is carefully referenced, giving sources for all information * Struggles and accomplishments of scientists who developed the theories are given in short biographies.
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Front Cover -- Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Chapter 1. Introduction -- I. Why Study Soil-Plant-Water Relations? -- II. Plant Growth Curves -- III. Appendix: Biography of John Napier -- Chapter 2. Definitions of Physical Units and the International System -- I.Definitions -- II. Le Système International d'Unités -- III. Example: Applying Units of Work and Pressure to a Root -- IV. Appendix: Biography of Isaac Newton -- Chapter 3. Structure and Properties of Water -- I. Structure of Water -- II. Forces That Bind Water Molecules Together -- III. Properties of Water -- IV. Appendix: Biography of Johannes van der Waals -- Chapter 4. Tensiometers -- I. Description of a Tensiometer -- II. Types of Tensiometers -- III. Temperature Effects on Tensiometers -- IV. Applications of Tensiometers -- V. Appendix: Biography of L.A. Richards -- Chapter 5. Soil-Water Terminology and Applications -- I. Water Content -- II. Water Potential -- III. Heads in a Column of Soil -- IV. Movement of Water Between Tensiometers -- V. Appendix: Biography of William L. Powers -- Chapter 6. Static Water in Soil -- I. Surface Tension -- II. Examples of Surface Tension -- III. Rise and Fall of Water in Soil Pores -- IV. Appendix: History of Surface Tension -- V. Appendix: Biography of Marquis de Laplace -- Chapter 7. Water Movement in Saturated Soil -- I. Darcy's Law -- II. Hydraulic Conductivity -- III. Laplace's Equation -- IV. Ellipse Equation -- V. Linear Flow Laws -- VI. Appendix: Biography of Apollonius of Perga -- VII. Appendix: Biography of Henry Darcy -- Chapter 8. Field Capacity, Wilting Point, Available Water, and the Non-Limiting Water Range -- I. Field Capacity -- II. Wilting Point -- III. Available Water -- IV. Non-Limiting Water Range -- V. Biographies of Briggs and Shantz.

Chapter 9. Penetrometer Measurements -- I. Definition, Types of Penetrometers, and Uses -- II. Types of Tests -- III. What Penetrometer Measurements Depend Upon -- IV. Cone Penetrometer -- V. Appendix: Biography of Champ Tanner -- Chapter 10. Measurement of Oxygen Diffusion Rate -- I. The Oxygen Diffusion Rate Method -- II. Electrolysis -- III. Model and Principles of the ODR Method -- IV.Method -- V. Appendix: Biography of Michael Faraday -- Chapter 11. Infiltration -- I. Definition of Infiltration -- II. Four Models of One-Dimensional Infiltration -- III. Two- and Three-Dimensional Infiltration -- IV. Redistribution -- V. Tension Infiltrometer or Disc Permeameter -- VI. Minidisk Infiltrometer -- VII. Measurement of Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Sorptivity with the Tension Infiltrometer -- VIII. Measurement of Repellency with the Tension Infiltrometer -- IX. Measurement of Mobility with the Tension Infiltrometer -- X. Ellipsoidal Description of Water Flow into Soil from a Surface Disc -- XI. Appendix: Biography of John Philip -- Chapter 12. Pore Volume -- I. Definitions -- II. Illustration of Breakthrough Curves and Pore Volumes -- III. Mathematical Analysis of Pore Volume -- IV. Calculation of a Pore Volume -- V. Pore Volumes Based on Length Units -- VI. Miscible Displacement -- VII. Relation Between Mobile Water Content and Pore Volume -- VIII. Appendix: Biography of Donald Nielsen -- Chapter 13. Time Domain Reflectometry to Measure Volumetric Soil Water Content -- I. Definitions -- II. Dielectric Constant, Frequency Domain, and Time Domain -- III. Theory for Use of the Dielectric Constant to Measure Soil Water Content -- IV. Coaxial Cable and Waveguides -- V. Measurement of Soil Water Content Using TDR -- VI. Practical Information When Using TDR to Measure Soil Water Content -- VII. Example of Using TDR to Determine Root Water Uptake.

VIII. HydroSense™ -- IX. Appendix: Biography of Heinrich Hertz -- X. Appendix: Biography of Sergei Schelkunoff -- Chapter 14. Root Anatomy and Poiseuille's Law for Water Flow in Roots -- I. Root Anatomy -- II. Poiseuille's Law -- III. Assumptions of Poiseuille's Law -- IV. Calculations of Flow Based on Poiseuille's Law -- V. Agronomic Applications of Poiseuille's Law -- VI. Appendix: Biography of J.L.M. Poiseuille -- VII. Appendix: Biography of Osborne Reynolds -- Chapter 15. Gardner's Equation for Water Movement to Plant Roots -- I. Description of the Equation -- II. Assumptions -- III. Values for the Rate of Water Uptake -- IV. Examples -- V. Effect of Wet and Dry Soil -- VI. Effect of Root Radius -- VII. Comparison of Matric Potential at Root and in Soil for Different Rates of Water Uptake -- VIII. Effect of Root Distribution on Wilting -- IX. Final Comment -- X. Appendix: Biography of Wilford Gardner -- Chapter 16. Measurement of Water Potential with Thermocouple Psychrometers -- I. Relation Between Water Potential and Relative Humidity -- II. Thermoelectric Effects -- III. Joule Heating -- IV. Thermoelectric Power -- V. Relationship Between Vapor Pressure and Temperature -- VI. Calibration -- VII. Importance of Isothermal Conditions When Making Measurements -- VIII. Types of Thermocouple Psychrometers -- IX. Appendix: Biography of J.C.A. Peltier -- X. Appendix: Biography of James Prescott Joule. -- XI. Appendix: Biography of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin -- Chapter 17. Measurement of Water Potential with Pressure Chambers -- I. Comparison of Measurements Made With the Pressure Chamber and the Thermocouple Psychrometer -- II. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Pressure Chamber -- III. Hydraulic Press -- IV. Pump-Up Pressure Chamber -- V. Appendix: Biography of Per Scholander -- VI. Appendix: Biography of John Boyer.

Chapter 18. Stem Anatomy and Measurement of Osmotic Potential and Turgor Potential Using Pressure-Volume Curves -- I. Stem Anatomy -- II. Measurement of the Components of the Water Potential -- III. Osmotic Potential (ψS) -- IV. Theory of Scholander Pressure-Volume Curves -- V How to Analyze a Pressure-Volume Curve -- VI. Turgor Potential (ψP) -- VII. Measurement of Plant Water Content and Relative Water Content -- VIII.Osmometer -- IX. Appendix: Biography of Wilhelm Pfeffer -- X. Appendix: Biography of Jacobus van't Hoff -- XI. Appendix: Biography of Rudolf Clausius -- Chapter 19. The Ascent of Water in Plants -- I. The Problem -- II. How Water Gets to the Top of Tall Buildings and Animals -- III. Cohesion Theory -- IV. Limitations of the Cohesion Theory -- V. Alternative Theory to the Cohesion Theory -- VI. New Techniques to Confirm the Cohesion Theory -- VII. Controvery About the Cohesion Theory -- VIII. Potentials in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum -- IX. Appendix: Biography of Henry Dixon -- X. Appendix: Biography of John Joly -- Chapter 20. Electrical Analogues for Water Movement through the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum -- I. The Analogy -- II. Measurement of Resistance With the Wheatstone Bridge -- III. Law of Resistance -- IV. Units of Electrical Conductivity -- V. Example of an Electrical Analogue Applied to Soil With Wormholes -- VI. Van den Honert's Equation -- VII. Proof of van den Honert's Equation -- VIII. Appendix: Biography of Georg Ohm -- IX. Appendix: Biography of Charles Wheatstone -- X. Appendix: Biographies of Members of the Siemens Family -- Chapter 21. Leaf Anatomy and Leaf Elasticity -- I. Leaf Anatomy -- II. Internal Water Relations -- III. Elasticity -- IV. Elasticity Applied to Plant Leaves -- V. Appendix: Biography of Robert Hooke -- VI. Appendix: Biography of Thomas Young.

Chapter 22. Stomata and Measurement of Stomatal Resistance -- I. Definition of Stomata and Their Distribution -- II. Stomatal Anatomy of Dicots and Monocots -- III. Stomatal Density -- IV. Diffusion of Gases Through Stomatal Pores -- V. Guard Cells -- VI. Mechanism of Stomatal Opening -- VII. Boundary Layer -- VIII. Leaf Resistances -- IX. Measurement of Stomatal Aperture and Stomatal Resistance -- X. Theory of Mass-Flow and Diffusion Porometers -- XI. Appendix: Biography of Adolf Fick -- Chapter 23. Solar Radiation, Black Bodies, Heat Budget, and Radiation Balance -- I. Solar Radiation -- II. Terrestrial Radiation -- III. Definition of a Black Body -- IV. Example of a Black Body -- V. Temperature of a Black Body -- VI. Gray Body -- VII. Spectrum of a Black Body -- VIII. Sun's Temperature -- IX. Earth's Temperature -- X. Comparison of Solar and Terrestrial Radiation -- XI. Heat Budget -- XII. Radiation Balance -- XIII. Appendix: Biography of Gustav Kirchhoff -- XIV. Appendix: Biography of Josef Stefan -- XV. Appendix: Biography of Ludwig Boltzmann -- XVI. Appendix: Biography of Wilhelm Wien -- Chapter 24. Measurement of Canopy Temperature with Infrared Thermometers -- I. Infrared Thermometers -- II. Definitions -- III. Principles of Infrared Thermometry -- IV. Use of a Portable Infrared Thermometer -- V. Calibration of Infrared Thermometers -- VI. Advantages of Infrared Thermometers -- VII. Appendix: Biography of Ray Jackson -- Chapter 25. Stress-Degree-Day Concept and Crop-Water-Stress Index -- I. Stress-Degree-Day Procedure -- II. Canopy-Minus-Air Temperature and Evapotranspiration -- III. Crop-Water-Stress Index -- IV. How to Calculate the Crop-Water-Stress Index -- V. Crop-Water-Stress Index for Alfalfa, Soybeans, and Cotton -- VI. Importance of a Wide Range of Vapor-Pressure Deficit Values -- VII. Appendix: Biography of Sherwood Idso.

Chapter 26. Potential Evapotranspiration.

Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations combines biology and physics to show how water moves through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. This text explores the instrumentation and the methods used to measure the status of water in soil and plants. Principles are clearly presented with the aid of diagrams, anatomical figures, and images of instrumentation. The methods on instrumentation can be used by researchers, consultants, and the military to monitor soil degradation, including measurements of soil compaction, repellency, oxygen diffusion rate, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Intended for graduate students in plant and soil science programs, this book also serves as a useful reference for agronomists, plant ecologists, and agricultural engineers. * Principles are presented in an easy-to-understand style * Heavily illustrated with more than 200 figures; diagrams are professionally drawn * Anatomical figures show root, stem, leaf, and stomata * Figures of instruments show how they work * Book is carefully referenced, giving sources for all information * Struggles and accomplishments of scientists who developed the theories are given in short biographies.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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