Media and the American Child.

By: Comstock, GeorgeContributor(s): Scharrer, EricaPublisher: San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2007Copyright date: ©2007Description: 1 online resource (388 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780080479378Subject(s): KinderenGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Media and the American ChildDDC classification: 302.23083/0973 LOC classification: HQ784.T4 -- C69 2007ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Front Cover -- Media and the American Child -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Chapter I: Demographics and Preferences in Media Use, with Special Attention to the Very Young -- I. Media Exposure: Print -- A. Use of Print Media -- B. Demographic Variables That Impact Use of Print Media -- C. Print Preferences among Children and Teenagers -- D. Print Use and Preferences of the Very Young -- II. Media Exposure: Audio -- A. Use of Audio Media -- B. Demographic Differences in Audio Use -- C. Audio Preferences of Children and Teenagers -- D. Audio Use and Preferences of the Very Young -- III. Media Exposure: Screen -- A. Television Exposure -- B. Demographic Differences in Television Use -- C. Viewing Preferences among Children and Teenagers -- D. Television Viewing by the Very Young -- IV. Media Exposure: Interactive Media -- A. Use of Interactive Media by Young People -- B. Interactive Media Use and Demographics -- C. Preferences in Interactive Media by Children and Teens -- D. Interactive Media Use by the Very Young -- V. Putting it all Together -- A. Total Time Spent with Each Type of Media -- B. How Time Spent Using Media Is Divided -- C. Prevalence of Media in the Home -- 1. The Media Environment -- 2. Media Use in the Bedroom -- D. Orientations toward Media -- 1. Rules and Norms of Media Use in the Home -- 2. Typology of Media Behavior among Young People -- Chapter II: The Extraordinary Appeal of Screen Media -- I. Purposes and Motives of Television Viewing -- A. Ritualistic versus Instrumental Viewing -- B. Gratifications for Viewing -- II. Modes of Response -- A. Content Indifference -- B. Low Involvement -- C. Monitoring less versus Viewing -- D. Equilibrium: Understanding versus Inattention -- III. Developmental Factors that Influence Viewing -- A. Viewing Preferences of Children and Teenagers.
1. Three-phase Model -- 2. Cognitive Stages and Media Use -- 3. Gender, Race, and Socioeconomic Status -- 4. Perceptual Filters -- B. Reactions to the Screen -- 1. Fright -- 2. Maturity of the Viewer -- IV. The Influence of Viewing on Other Activities -- A. Introduction of Television -- B. Contemporary Use of Television Viewing -- 1. Realities of Television Viewing -- 2. The Effect of Viewing on Leisure Activities -- 3. Suppression of Viewing -- 4. Recent Data Regarding Viewing Trends -- V. Social Circumstances of Television Viewing -- Chapter III: The World as Portrayed by Media -- I. Media Content -- II. Studying the Attributes of Television Characters -- A. Gender Representation -- 1. Gender Disparity in Television and Film -- 2. Gender Bias in Video and Computer Games -- B. Race and Ethnicity in Media -- C. Age Distribution in Primetime Programming -- D. Characters with Disabilities -- E. Depiction of Sexual Orientation -- F. Beauty and Body Images in Media -- III. Behavior of Media Characters -- A. Violence and Aggression -- 1. Presence of Violence in General Audience Television -- 2. Violence in Commercials -- 3. Violence in Children's Television -- 4. Violence in Children's Films -- 5. Violence in Video and Computer Games -- B. Prosocial Behavior in Media -- C. Prevalence of Alcohol and Tobacco in Media -- D. Influence of Food and Beverages in Media -- E. Exposure to Sex and Profane Language in Media -- IV. Two Worlds of Content: For the Very Young Versus the General Audience -- Chapter IV: Effects of Media on Scholastic Performance and the Developing Intellect -- I. Effects of Television Viewing on Scholastic Performance -- A. The Studies -- B. Explanations of Television's Impact on Academic Performance -- 1. The Effects of Television on Homework -- 2. The Effects of Television on Reading and Mental Effort.
3. The Effects of Television on Attention and Arousal -- 4. The Learning Hypothesis -- C. Caveats and Corollaries -- 1. Caveats -- 2. Corollaries -- II. Exposure to Educational Television -- A. Setting the Stage -- B. Sesame Street-A Pioneer in Children's Programming -- 1. Academic Effects of Sesame Street -- 2. Prosocial Effects of Sesame Street -- C. Other Educational Television Programs -- 1. Mister Rogers' Neighborhood -- 2. BlueŁs Clues -- 3. Barney and Friends -- D. Concepts, Models, and Theory of Television Viewing -- 1. Attention and Comprehension -- 2. Properties of Attention -- 3. Very Young Children and the Impact of Television -- 4. The Capacity Model -- 5. Our Interpretation of the Studies -- III. Television's Influence on the Developing Intellect of the Child -- A. Fantasy Play and Daydreaming -- 1. Fantasy Play -- 2. Daydreaming -- B. Television's Effect on Creativity and Imaginative Thinking -- C. Television's Effect on Language Acquisition -- IV. The Effect of Media on Cognitive and Social Development -- Chapter V: Young Customers-Creating the Modern Consumer through Advertising and Marketing -- I. Evolution of the Issue of Television Advertising -- A. Public Displeasure of Advertising in Primetime Programming -- B. NSF and FTC -- II. The Evidentiary Record -- A. Points of Contention -- 1. Recognition and Comprehension of Advertising -- 2. Harmfulness of Advertising to Young Viewers -- 3. The Effect of Advertising on Parent-Child Relations -- 4. Should Advertising Drive Programming? -- 5. Does Advertising Take Advantage of Program Content? -- B. Evidence of the Effects of Television Advertising -- 1. Recognizing, Comprehending, and Evaluating Commercials -- 2. Accepting the Message of a Commercial -- 3. Exchanges between Parent and Child -- III. The Buying Machine -- A. The Influence of Other Media.
B. The Latent Role of Children as Consumers -- C. The Nag Factor -- IV. Consideration of Cognitive Development in Advertising -- A. The Boundary of Comprehension -- B. The Child and Teenage Marketplace -- C. The Scholarly View of the Influence of Advertising -- Chapter VI: Television Violence, Aggression, and Other Behavioral Effects -- I. Evidence of Increased Aggressiveness Caused by Television Violence -- A. Experiments with Young Children -- B. Experiments with Teenagers and Young Adults -- C. Using Surveys for Causal Inference -- D. Meta-analyses -- E. The Role of Mediating Factors -- 1. Developmental Pattern -- 2. Predisposition to Aggressive or Violent Behavior -- 3. Does Gender Play a Role? -- 4. Seriousness of Aggressive or Violent Acts -- 5. Effect Size -- II. Reverse hypothesis: Do aggressive personalities seek out violent entertainment? -- III. Explanation of the Influence of Violence in Television and Film -- A. Social Cognition -- B. Neoassociationism and Neural Circuitry -- C. Excitation Transfer -- D. General Aggression Model -- IV. The Effects of Violence in Video Games -- V. Other Hypotheses Regarding Media Influence -- A. Fear -- B. Desensitization -- C. Cultivation -- D. Sexual Activity -- VI. Generalizability from Experimental Designs -- Chapter VII: Learning Rules and Norms-Further Evidence of Media Effects -- I. Roles and Norms as Influenced by Media -- A. Politics -- 1. Autonomy in the Development of Political Dispositions -- 2. School -- 3. Participation in the Political Process -- B. The Impact of Gender Differences -- 1. Gender Differences in Politics -- 2. Gender-biased Roles -- 3. Gender Bias in Occupational Roles -- C. Media's Influence on Physical Presence -- 1. The Importance of Appearance in Early and Middle Childhood -- 2. The Importance of Appearance in Adolescence.
II. Theoretical Explanations for how and why Media Contribute to Socialization -- A. The Role of Social Comparison -- 1. Case Study -- B. The Role of Social Identity -- 1. Case Study -- C. The Role of Social Cognition -- 1. Case Study -- D. The Role of Cultivation -- 1. Case Study -- Chapter VIII: Knowledge for What? -- I. Using the Social and Behavioral Sciences -- II. The Actors that Influence the Role of Media -- A. The Role of Federal Regulation -- B. The Role of Industries -- C. The Role of Parents -- III. Where the Data Point -- A. Media Use -- 1. Early Media Use -- 2. Media Use in Isolation -- 3. Media Use Apart from Family -- 4. Preference for Screen Media -- B. Data on Television Viewing -- C. Messages Disseminated by Media -- D. Converting Young People to Customers -- E. The Effect of Viewing on Academic Achievement -- F. Influence of Screen Media on Behavior -- G. Socialization -- IV. The Three M's-Strategies to Encourage a Critical Stance -- References -- Author Index -- Subject Index.
Summary: How do young people use media and what effects result from this usage?.
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Front Cover -- Media and the American Child -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Chapter I: Demographics and Preferences in Media Use, with Special Attention to the Very Young -- I. Media Exposure: Print -- A. Use of Print Media -- B. Demographic Variables That Impact Use of Print Media -- C. Print Preferences among Children and Teenagers -- D. Print Use and Preferences of the Very Young -- II. Media Exposure: Audio -- A. Use of Audio Media -- B. Demographic Differences in Audio Use -- C. Audio Preferences of Children and Teenagers -- D. Audio Use and Preferences of the Very Young -- III. Media Exposure: Screen -- A. Television Exposure -- B. Demographic Differences in Television Use -- C. Viewing Preferences among Children and Teenagers -- D. Television Viewing by the Very Young -- IV. Media Exposure: Interactive Media -- A. Use of Interactive Media by Young People -- B. Interactive Media Use and Demographics -- C. Preferences in Interactive Media by Children and Teens -- D. Interactive Media Use by the Very Young -- V. Putting it all Together -- A. Total Time Spent with Each Type of Media -- B. How Time Spent Using Media Is Divided -- C. Prevalence of Media in the Home -- 1. The Media Environment -- 2. Media Use in the Bedroom -- D. Orientations toward Media -- 1. Rules and Norms of Media Use in the Home -- 2. Typology of Media Behavior among Young People -- Chapter II: The Extraordinary Appeal of Screen Media -- I. Purposes and Motives of Television Viewing -- A. Ritualistic versus Instrumental Viewing -- B. Gratifications for Viewing -- II. Modes of Response -- A. Content Indifference -- B. Low Involvement -- C. Monitoring less versus Viewing -- D. Equilibrium: Understanding versus Inattention -- III. Developmental Factors that Influence Viewing -- A. Viewing Preferences of Children and Teenagers.

1. Three-phase Model -- 2. Cognitive Stages and Media Use -- 3. Gender, Race, and Socioeconomic Status -- 4. Perceptual Filters -- B. Reactions to the Screen -- 1. Fright -- 2. Maturity of the Viewer -- IV. The Influence of Viewing on Other Activities -- A. Introduction of Television -- B. Contemporary Use of Television Viewing -- 1. Realities of Television Viewing -- 2. The Effect of Viewing on Leisure Activities -- 3. Suppression of Viewing -- 4. Recent Data Regarding Viewing Trends -- V. Social Circumstances of Television Viewing -- Chapter III: The World as Portrayed by Media -- I. Media Content -- II. Studying the Attributes of Television Characters -- A. Gender Representation -- 1. Gender Disparity in Television and Film -- 2. Gender Bias in Video and Computer Games -- B. Race and Ethnicity in Media -- C. Age Distribution in Primetime Programming -- D. Characters with Disabilities -- E. Depiction of Sexual Orientation -- F. Beauty and Body Images in Media -- III. Behavior of Media Characters -- A. Violence and Aggression -- 1. Presence of Violence in General Audience Television -- 2. Violence in Commercials -- 3. Violence in Children's Television -- 4. Violence in Children's Films -- 5. Violence in Video and Computer Games -- B. Prosocial Behavior in Media -- C. Prevalence of Alcohol and Tobacco in Media -- D. Influence of Food and Beverages in Media -- E. Exposure to Sex and Profane Language in Media -- IV. Two Worlds of Content: For the Very Young Versus the General Audience -- Chapter IV: Effects of Media on Scholastic Performance and the Developing Intellect -- I. Effects of Television Viewing on Scholastic Performance -- A. The Studies -- B. Explanations of Television's Impact on Academic Performance -- 1. The Effects of Television on Homework -- 2. The Effects of Television on Reading and Mental Effort.

3. The Effects of Television on Attention and Arousal -- 4. The Learning Hypothesis -- C. Caveats and Corollaries -- 1. Caveats -- 2. Corollaries -- II. Exposure to Educational Television -- A. Setting the Stage -- B. Sesame Street-A Pioneer in Children's Programming -- 1. Academic Effects of Sesame Street -- 2. Prosocial Effects of Sesame Street -- C. Other Educational Television Programs -- 1. Mister Rogers' Neighborhood -- 2. BlueŁs Clues -- 3. Barney and Friends -- D. Concepts, Models, and Theory of Television Viewing -- 1. Attention and Comprehension -- 2. Properties of Attention -- 3. Very Young Children and the Impact of Television -- 4. The Capacity Model -- 5. Our Interpretation of the Studies -- III. Television's Influence on the Developing Intellect of the Child -- A. Fantasy Play and Daydreaming -- 1. Fantasy Play -- 2. Daydreaming -- B. Television's Effect on Creativity and Imaginative Thinking -- C. Television's Effect on Language Acquisition -- IV. The Effect of Media on Cognitive and Social Development -- Chapter V: Young Customers-Creating the Modern Consumer through Advertising and Marketing -- I. Evolution of the Issue of Television Advertising -- A. Public Displeasure of Advertising in Primetime Programming -- B. NSF and FTC -- II. The Evidentiary Record -- A. Points of Contention -- 1. Recognition and Comprehension of Advertising -- 2. Harmfulness of Advertising to Young Viewers -- 3. The Effect of Advertising on Parent-Child Relations -- 4. Should Advertising Drive Programming? -- 5. Does Advertising Take Advantage of Program Content? -- B. Evidence of the Effects of Television Advertising -- 1. Recognizing, Comprehending, and Evaluating Commercials -- 2. Accepting the Message of a Commercial -- 3. Exchanges between Parent and Child -- III. The Buying Machine -- A. The Influence of Other Media.

B. The Latent Role of Children as Consumers -- C. The Nag Factor -- IV. Consideration of Cognitive Development in Advertising -- A. The Boundary of Comprehension -- B. The Child and Teenage Marketplace -- C. The Scholarly View of the Influence of Advertising -- Chapter VI: Television Violence, Aggression, and Other Behavioral Effects -- I. Evidence of Increased Aggressiveness Caused by Television Violence -- A. Experiments with Young Children -- B. Experiments with Teenagers and Young Adults -- C. Using Surveys for Causal Inference -- D. Meta-analyses -- E. The Role of Mediating Factors -- 1. Developmental Pattern -- 2. Predisposition to Aggressive or Violent Behavior -- 3. Does Gender Play a Role? -- 4. Seriousness of Aggressive or Violent Acts -- 5. Effect Size -- II. Reverse hypothesis: Do aggressive personalities seek out violent entertainment? -- III. Explanation of the Influence of Violence in Television and Film -- A. Social Cognition -- B. Neoassociationism and Neural Circuitry -- C. Excitation Transfer -- D. General Aggression Model -- IV. The Effects of Violence in Video Games -- V. Other Hypotheses Regarding Media Influence -- A. Fear -- B. Desensitization -- C. Cultivation -- D. Sexual Activity -- VI. Generalizability from Experimental Designs -- Chapter VII: Learning Rules and Norms-Further Evidence of Media Effects -- I. Roles and Norms as Influenced by Media -- A. Politics -- 1. Autonomy in the Development of Political Dispositions -- 2. School -- 3. Participation in the Political Process -- B. The Impact of Gender Differences -- 1. Gender Differences in Politics -- 2. Gender-biased Roles -- 3. Gender Bias in Occupational Roles -- C. Media's Influence on Physical Presence -- 1. The Importance of Appearance in Early and Middle Childhood -- 2. The Importance of Appearance in Adolescence.

II. Theoretical Explanations for how and why Media Contribute to Socialization -- A. The Role of Social Comparison -- 1. Case Study -- B. The Role of Social Identity -- 1. Case Study -- C. The Role of Social Cognition -- 1. Case Study -- D. The Role of Cultivation -- 1. Case Study -- Chapter VIII: Knowledge for What? -- I. Using the Social and Behavioral Sciences -- II. The Actors that Influence the Role of Media -- A. The Role of Federal Regulation -- B. The Role of Industries -- C. The Role of Parents -- III. Where the Data Point -- A. Media Use -- 1. Early Media Use -- 2. Media Use in Isolation -- 3. Media Use Apart from Family -- 4. Preference for Screen Media -- B. Data on Television Viewing -- C. Messages Disseminated by Media -- D. Converting Young People to Customers -- E. The Effect of Viewing on Academic Achievement -- F. Influence of Screen Media on Behavior -- G. Socialization -- IV. The Three M's-Strategies to Encourage a Critical Stance -- References -- Author Index -- Subject Index.

How do young people use media and what effects result from this usage?.

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