Materials Selection in Mechanical Design.

By: Ashby, Michael FPublisher: Oxford : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2004Copyright date: ©2005Edition: 3rd edDescription: 1 online resource (622 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780080468648Subject(s): MaterialsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Materials Selection in Mechanical DesignDDC classification: 620.1/1 LOC classification: TA403.6.A74 2005Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Cover -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Features of the Third Edition -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 1.2 Materials in design -- 1.3 The evolution of engineering materials -- 1.4 Case study: the evolution of materials in vacuum cleaners -- 1.5 Summary and conclusions -- 1.6 Further reading -- Chapter 2 The design process -- 2.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 2.2 The design process -- 2.3 Types of design -- 2.4 Design tools and materials data -- 2.5 Function, material, shape, and process -- 2.6 Case study: devices to open corked bottles -- 2.7 Summary and conclusions -- 2.8 Further reading -- Chapter 3 Engineering materials and their properties -- 3.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 3.2 The families of engineering materials -- 3.3 The definitions of material properties -- 3.4 Summary and conclusions -- 3.5 Further reading -- Chapter 4 Material property charts -- 4.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 4.2 Exploring material properties -- 4.3 The material property charts -- 4.4 Summary and conclusions -- 4.5 Further reading -- Chapter 5 Materials selection„the basics -- 5.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 5.2 The selection strategy -- 5.3 Attribute limits and material indices -- 5.4 The selection procedure -- 5.5 Computer-aided selection -- 5.6 The structural index -- 5.7 Summary and conclusions -- 5.8 Further reading -- Chapter 6 Materials selection„case studies -- 6.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 6.2 Materials for oars -- 6.3 Mirrors for large telescopes -- 6.4 Materials for table legs -- 6.5 Cost: structural materials for buildings -- 6.6 Materials for flywheels -- 6.7 Materials for springs -- 6.8 Elastic hinges and couplings -- 6.9 Materials for seals -- 6.10 Deflection-limited design with brittle polymers -- 6.11 Safe pressure vessels -- 6.12 Stiff, high damping materials for shaker tables.
6.13 Insulation for short-term isothermal containers -- 6.14 Energy-efficient kiln walls -- 6.15 Materials for passive solar heating -- 6.16 Materials to minimize thermal distortion in precision devices -- 6.17 Nylon bearings for ships' rudders -- 6.18 Materials for heat exchangers -- 6.19 Materials for radomes -- 6.20 Summary and conclusions -- 6.21 Further reading -- Chapter 7 Processes and process selection -- 7.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 7.2 Classifying processes -- 7.3 The processes: shaping, joining, and finishing -- 7.4 Systematic process selection -- 7.5 Ranking: process cost -- 7.6 Computer-aided process selection -- 7.7 Supporting information -- 7.8 Summary and conclusions -- 7.9 Further reading -- Chapter 8 Process selection case studies -- 8.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 8.2 Forming a fan -- 8.3 Fabricating a pressure vessel -- 8.4 An optical table -- 8.5 Economical casting -- 8.6 Computer-based selection: a manifold jacket -- 8.7 Computer-based selection: a spark plug insulator -- 8.8 Summary and conclusions -- Chapter 9 Multiple constraints and objectives -- 9.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 9.2 Selection with multiple constraints -- 9.3 Conflicting objectives, penalty-functions, and exchange constants -- 9.4 Summary and conclusions -- 9.5 Further reading -- Appendix: Traditional methods of dealing with multiple constraints and objectives -- Chapter 10 Case studies„multiple constraints and conflicting objectives -- 10.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 10.2 Multiple constraints: con-rods for high-performance engines -- 10.3 Multiple constraints: windings for high-field magnets -- 10.4 Conflicting objectives: casings for a mini-disk player -- 10.5 Conflicting objectives: materials for a disk-brake caliper -- 10.6 Summary and conclusions -- Chapter 11 Selection of material and shape -- 11.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 11.2 Shape factors.
11.3 Microscopic or micro-structural shape factors -- 11.4 Limits to shape efficiency -- 11.5 Exploring and comparing structural sections -- 11.6 Material indices that include shape -- 11.7 Co-selecting material and shape -- 11.8 Summary and conclusions -- 11.9 Further reading -- Chapter 12 Selection of material and shape: case studies -- 12.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 12.2 Spars for man-powered planes -- 12.3 Ultra-efficient springs -- 12.4 Forks for a racing bicycle -- 12.5 Floor joists: wood, bamboo or steel? -- 12.6 Increasing the stiffness of steel sheet -- 12.7 Table legs again: thin or light? -- 12.8 Shapes that flex: leaf and strand structures -- 12.9 Summary and conclusions -- Chapter 13 Designing hybrid materials -- 13.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 13.2 Filling holes in material-property space -- 13.3 The method: "A + B + configuration + scale -- 13.4 Composites: hybrids of type 1 -- 13.5 Sandwich structures: hybrids of type 2 -- 13.6 Lattices: hybrids of type 3 -- 13.7 Segmented structures: hybrids of type 4 -- 13.8 Summary and conclusions -- 13.9 Further reading -- Chapter 14 Hybrid case studies -- 14.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 14.2 Designing metal matrix composites -- 14.3 Refrigerator walls -- 14.4 Connectors that do not relax their grip -- 14.5 Extreme combinations of thermal and electrical conduction -- 14.6 Materials for microwave-transparent enclosures -- 14.7 Exploiting anisotropy: heat spreading surfaces -- 14.8 The mechanical efficiency of natural materials -- 14.9 Further reading: natural materials (see also Appendix D) -- Chapter 15 Information and knowledge sources for design -- 15.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 15.2 Information for materials and processes -- 15.3 Screening information: structure and sources -- 15.4 Supporting information: structure and sources -- 15.5 Ways of checking and estimating data.
15.6 Summary and conclusions -- 15.7 Further reading -- Chapter 16 Materials and the environment -- 16.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 16.2 The material life cycle -- 16.3 Material and energy-consuming systems -- 16.4 The eco-attributes of materials -- 16.5 Eco-selection -- 16.6 Case studies: drink containers and crash barriers -- 16.7 Summary and conclusions -- 16.8 Further reading -- Chapter 17 Materials and industrial design -- 17.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 17.2 The requirements pyramid -- 17.3 Product character -- 17.4 Using materials and processes to create product personality -- 17.5 Summary and conclusions -- 17.6 Further reading -- Chapter 18 Forces for change -- 18.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 18.2 Market-pull and science-push (extreme right and left of Figure 18.1) -- 18.3 Growing population and wealth, and market saturation (sector 1, Figure 18.1) -- 18.4 Product liability and service provision (sector 2, Figure 18.1) -- 18.5 Miniaturization and multi-functionality (sector 3, Figure 18.1) -- 18.6 Concern for the environment and for the individual (sector 4, Figure 18.1) -- 18.7 Summary and conclusions -- 18.8 Further reading -- Appendix A Useful solutions to standard problems -- A.1 Constitutive equations for mechanical response -- A.2 Moments of sections -- A.3 Elastic bending of beams -- A.4 Failure of beams and panels -- A.5 Buckling of columns, plates, and shells -- A.6 Torsion of shafts -- A.7 Static and spinning disks -- A.8 Contact stresses -- A.9 Estimates for stress concentrations -- A.10 Sharp cracks -- A.11 Pressure vessels -- A.12 Vibrating beams, tubes, and disks -- A.13 Creep and creep fracture -- A.14 Flow of heat and matter -- A.15 Solutions for diffusion equations -- A.16 Further reading -- Appendix B Material indices -- B.1 Introduction and synopsis -- B.2 Uses of material indices.
Appendix C Data and information for engineering materials -- C.1 Names and applications: metals and alloys -- C.2 Names and applications: polymers and foams -- C.3 Names and applications: composites, ceramics, glasses, and natural materials -- C.4 Melting temperature, Tm , and glass temperature, Tg1 -- C.5 Density, r -- C.6 Young's modulus, E -- C.7 Yield strength, ry , and tensile strength, rts -- C.8 Fracture toughness (plane-strain), K1C -- C.9 Thermal conductivity, l -- C.10 Thermal expansion, a -- C.11 Approximate production energies and CO2 burden -- C.12 Environmental resistance -- Appendix D Information and knowledge sources for materials and processes -- D.1 Introduction -- D.2 Information sources for materials -- D.3 Information for manufacturing processes -- D.4 Databases and expert systems in software -- D.5 Additional useful internet sites -- D.6 Supplier registers, government organizations, standards and professional societies -- Appendix E Exercises -- E.1 Introduction to the exercises -- E.2 Devising concepts -- E.3 Use of material selection charts -- E.4 Translation: constraints and objectives -- E.5 Deriving and using material indices -- E.6 Selecting processes -- E.7 Multiple constraints and objectives -- E.8 Selecting material and shape -- E.9 Hybrid materials -- Index.
Summary: Understanding materials, their properties and behavior is fundamental to engineering design, and a key application of materials science. Written for all students of engineering, materials science and design, this book describes the procedures for material selection in mechanical design in order to ensure that the most suitable materials for a given application are identified from the full range of materials and section shapes available. Fully revised and expanded for this third edition, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design is recognized as one of the leading texts, and provides a unique and genuinely innovative resource. Features new to this edition New chapters on topics including process selection, material and shape selection, design of hybrid materials, environmental factors and industrial design. Online tutor resources -- fully worked Instructor's Manual, full color materials selection charts, image bank for lecture presentations. Reader-friendly approach and attractive, easy to use two-color presentation. The methods developed in the book are implemented in Granta Design's widely used CES Educational software. Materials are introduced through their properties; materials selection charts (now available on line) capture the important features of all materials, allowing rapid retrieval of information and application of selection techniques. Merit indices, combined with charts, allow optimization of the materials selection process. Sources of material property data are reviewed and approaches to their use are given. Material processing and its influence on the design are discussed. New chapters on environmental issues, industrial engineering and materials design are included, as are new worked examples, exercise materials and a separate, online Instructor's Manual. New case studies have been developed to further illustrate proceduresSummary: and to add to the practical implementation of the text. *The new edition of the leading materials selection text *Expanded and fully revised throughout, with new material on key emerging topics, an even more student-friendly approach, and attractive, easy to use two-color presentation *Improved tutor resources, plus supporting online materials and Instructor's Manual.
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Cover -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Features of the Third Edition -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 1.2 Materials in design -- 1.3 The evolution of engineering materials -- 1.4 Case study: the evolution of materials in vacuum cleaners -- 1.5 Summary and conclusions -- 1.6 Further reading -- Chapter 2 The design process -- 2.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 2.2 The design process -- 2.3 Types of design -- 2.4 Design tools and materials data -- 2.5 Function, material, shape, and process -- 2.6 Case study: devices to open corked bottles -- 2.7 Summary and conclusions -- 2.8 Further reading -- Chapter 3 Engineering materials and their properties -- 3.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 3.2 The families of engineering materials -- 3.3 The definitions of material properties -- 3.4 Summary and conclusions -- 3.5 Further reading -- Chapter 4 Material property charts -- 4.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 4.2 Exploring material properties -- 4.3 The material property charts -- 4.4 Summary and conclusions -- 4.5 Further reading -- Chapter 5 Materials selection„the basics -- 5.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 5.2 The selection strategy -- 5.3 Attribute limits and material indices -- 5.4 The selection procedure -- 5.5 Computer-aided selection -- 5.6 The structural index -- 5.7 Summary and conclusions -- 5.8 Further reading -- Chapter 6 Materials selection„case studies -- 6.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 6.2 Materials for oars -- 6.3 Mirrors for large telescopes -- 6.4 Materials for table legs -- 6.5 Cost: structural materials for buildings -- 6.6 Materials for flywheels -- 6.7 Materials for springs -- 6.8 Elastic hinges and couplings -- 6.9 Materials for seals -- 6.10 Deflection-limited design with brittle polymers -- 6.11 Safe pressure vessels -- 6.12 Stiff, high damping materials for shaker tables.

6.13 Insulation for short-term isothermal containers -- 6.14 Energy-efficient kiln walls -- 6.15 Materials for passive solar heating -- 6.16 Materials to minimize thermal distortion in precision devices -- 6.17 Nylon bearings for ships' rudders -- 6.18 Materials for heat exchangers -- 6.19 Materials for radomes -- 6.20 Summary and conclusions -- 6.21 Further reading -- Chapter 7 Processes and process selection -- 7.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 7.2 Classifying processes -- 7.3 The processes: shaping, joining, and finishing -- 7.4 Systematic process selection -- 7.5 Ranking: process cost -- 7.6 Computer-aided process selection -- 7.7 Supporting information -- 7.8 Summary and conclusions -- 7.9 Further reading -- Chapter 8 Process selection case studies -- 8.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 8.2 Forming a fan -- 8.3 Fabricating a pressure vessel -- 8.4 An optical table -- 8.5 Economical casting -- 8.6 Computer-based selection: a manifold jacket -- 8.7 Computer-based selection: a spark plug insulator -- 8.8 Summary and conclusions -- Chapter 9 Multiple constraints and objectives -- 9.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 9.2 Selection with multiple constraints -- 9.3 Conflicting objectives, penalty-functions, and exchange constants -- 9.4 Summary and conclusions -- 9.5 Further reading -- Appendix: Traditional methods of dealing with multiple constraints and objectives -- Chapter 10 Case studies„multiple constraints and conflicting objectives -- 10.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 10.2 Multiple constraints: con-rods for high-performance engines -- 10.3 Multiple constraints: windings for high-field magnets -- 10.4 Conflicting objectives: casings for a mini-disk player -- 10.5 Conflicting objectives: materials for a disk-brake caliper -- 10.6 Summary and conclusions -- Chapter 11 Selection of material and shape -- 11.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 11.2 Shape factors.

11.3 Microscopic or micro-structural shape factors -- 11.4 Limits to shape efficiency -- 11.5 Exploring and comparing structural sections -- 11.6 Material indices that include shape -- 11.7 Co-selecting material and shape -- 11.8 Summary and conclusions -- 11.9 Further reading -- Chapter 12 Selection of material and shape: case studies -- 12.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 12.2 Spars for man-powered planes -- 12.3 Ultra-efficient springs -- 12.4 Forks for a racing bicycle -- 12.5 Floor joists: wood, bamboo or steel? -- 12.6 Increasing the stiffness of steel sheet -- 12.7 Table legs again: thin or light? -- 12.8 Shapes that flex: leaf and strand structures -- 12.9 Summary and conclusions -- Chapter 13 Designing hybrid materials -- 13.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 13.2 Filling holes in material-property space -- 13.3 The method: "A + B + configuration + scale -- 13.4 Composites: hybrids of type 1 -- 13.5 Sandwich structures: hybrids of type 2 -- 13.6 Lattices: hybrids of type 3 -- 13.7 Segmented structures: hybrids of type 4 -- 13.8 Summary and conclusions -- 13.9 Further reading -- Chapter 14 Hybrid case studies -- 14.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 14.2 Designing metal matrix composites -- 14.3 Refrigerator walls -- 14.4 Connectors that do not relax their grip -- 14.5 Extreme combinations of thermal and electrical conduction -- 14.6 Materials for microwave-transparent enclosures -- 14.7 Exploiting anisotropy: heat spreading surfaces -- 14.8 The mechanical efficiency of natural materials -- 14.9 Further reading: natural materials (see also Appendix D) -- Chapter 15 Information and knowledge sources for design -- 15.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 15.2 Information for materials and processes -- 15.3 Screening information: structure and sources -- 15.4 Supporting information: structure and sources -- 15.5 Ways of checking and estimating data.

15.6 Summary and conclusions -- 15.7 Further reading -- Chapter 16 Materials and the environment -- 16.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 16.2 The material life cycle -- 16.3 Material and energy-consuming systems -- 16.4 The eco-attributes of materials -- 16.5 Eco-selection -- 16.6 Case studies: drink containers and crash barriers -- 16.7 Summary and conclusions -- 16.8 Further reading -- Chapter 17 Materials and industrial design -- 17.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 17.2 The requirements pyramid -- 17.3 Product character -- 17.4 Using materials and processes to create product personality -- 17.5 Summary and conclusions -- 17.6 Further reading -- Chapter 18 Forces for change -- 18.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 18.2 Market-pull and science-push (extreme right and left of Figure 18.1) -- 18.3 Growing population and wealth, and market saturation (sector 1, Figure 18.1) -- 18.4 Product liability and service provision (sector 2, Figure 18.1) -- 18.5 Miniaturization and multi-functionality (sector 3, Figure 18.1) -- 18.6 Concern for the environment and for the individual (sector 4, Figure 18.1) -- 18.7 Summary and conclusions -- 18.8 Further reading -- Appendix A Useful solutions to standard problems -- A.1 Constitutive equations for mechanical response -- A.2 Moments of sections -- A.3 Elastic bending of beams -- A.4 Failure of beams and panels -- A.5 Buckling of columns, plates, and shells -- A.6 Torsion of shafts -- A.7 Static and spinning disks -- A.8 Contact stresses -- A.9 Estimates for stress concentrations -- A.10 Sharp cracks -- A.11 Pressure vessels -- A.12 Vibrating beams, tubes, and disks -- A.13 Creep and creep fracture -- A.14 Flow of heat and matter -- A.15 Solutions for diffusion equations -- A.16 Further reading -- Appendix B Material indices -- B.1 Introduction and synopsis -- B.2 Uses of material indices.

Appendix C Data and information for engineering materials -- C.1 Names and applications: metals and alloys -- C.2 Names and applications: polymers and foams -- C.3 Names and applications: composites, ceramics, glasses, and natural materials -- C.4 Melting temperature, Tm , and glass temperature, Tg1 -- C.5 Density, r -- C.6 Young's modulus, E -- C.7 Yield strength, ry , and tensile strength, rts -- C.8 Fracture toughness (plane-strain), K1C -- C.9 Thermal conductivity, l -- C.10 Thermal expansion, a -- C.11 Approximate production energies and CO2 burden -- C.12 Environmental resistance -- Appendix D Information and knowledge sources for materials and processes -- D.1 Introduction -- D.2 Information sources for materials -- D.3 Information for manufacturing processes -- D.4 Databases and expert systems in software -- D.5 Additional useful internet sites -- D.6 Supplier registers, government organizations, standards and professional societies -- Appendix E Exercises -- E.1 Introduction to the exercises -- E.2 Devising concepts -- E.3 Use of material selection charts -- E.4 Translation: constraints and objectives -- E.5 Deriving and using material indices -- E.6 Selecting processes -- E.7 Multiple constraints and objectives -- E.8 Selecting material and shape -- E.9 Hybrid materials -- Index.

Understanding materials, their properties and behavior is fundamental to engineering design, and a key application of materials science. Written for all students of engineering, materials science and design, this book describes the procedures for material selection in mechanical design in order to ensure that the most suitable materials for a given application are identified from the full range of materials and section shapes available. Fully revised and expanded for this third edition, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design is recognized as one of the leading texts, and provides a unique and genuinely innovative resource. Features new to this edition New chapters on topics including process selection, material and shape selection, design of hybrid materials, environmental factors and industrial design. Online tutor resources -- fully worked Instructor's Manual, full color materials selection charts, image bank for lecture presentations. Reader-friendly approach and attractive, easy to use two-color presentation. The methods developed in the book are implemented in Granta Design's widely used CES Educational software. Materials are introduced through their properties; materials selection charts (now available on line) capture the important features of all materials, allowing rapid retrieval of information and application of selection techniques. Merit indices, combined with charts, allow optimization of the materials selection process. Sources of material property data are reviewed and approaches to their use are given. Material processing and its influence on the design are discussed. New chapters on environmental issues, industrial engineering and materials design are included, as are new worked examples, exercise materials and a separate, online Instructor's Manual. New case studies have been developed to further illustrate procedures

and to add to the practical implementation of the text. *The new edition of the leading materials selection text *Expanded and fully revised throughout, with new material on key emerging topics, an even more student-friendly approach, and attractive, easy to use two-color presentation *Improved tutor resources, plus supporting online materials and Instructor's Manual.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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