Phototruth or Photofiction? : Ethics and Media Imagery in the Digital Age.

By: Wheeler, Thomas H
Publisher: Mahwah : Routledge, 2002Copyright date: ©2002Description: 1 online resource (241 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781410613080Subject(s): Photojournalism -- Moral and ethical aspects.;Image processing -- Digital techniques -- Moral and ethical aspects.;Mass media criticismGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Phototruth or Photofiction? : Ethics and Media Imagery in the Digital AgeDDC classification: 174.907 LOC classification: TR820 -- .W4 2002ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Dedication -- Table of Contents -- Foreword -- Introduction -- I A History of "Phototruth" -- 1 "A Picture of Reality": Qualified Objectivity in Visual Journalism -- Compelling Reflections -- Phototruth": A Kind of Reality -- To Freeze the Visual Spectacle of the World: Milestones in the Invention of Photography -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 2 Old-Fashioned Fakery: Photo Manipulation in the Pre-Digital Era -- Concocted Realities at the Dawn of Photography -- Engravings and Other Artworks -- Composographs -- Now You See Him . . . -- Hillary Clinton Adopts Alien Baby (Official Photo!)" -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- II Implications of the New Digital Age -- 3 The Digital Media Landscape: Liquid Imagery, Shaky Credibility -- No Going Back -- Shifts in Authority -- Is a Photo "Whatever You Want It to Be"? -- Changing Assumptions -- Declining Confidence -- Beyond Print Media -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 4 The New Threat: Digital Deception and the Loss of Faith -- Phototruth―A Quaint Concept? -- Viewer Confusion and Suspicion -- Time's O.J. Simpson Cover -- National Geographic's Relocated Pyramids -- Improving Upon Nature? -- Other Examples in News, Sports, Entertainment, and More -- Subverted Certainties -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 5 Rationales and Excuses: Justifying Staged and Manipulated Photos -- In Defense -- Not that Big a Deal -- Mona Lisa with a Graffiti Mustache -- Could Have Moved the Camera -- No One Believes It Anyway -- In Consideration of Our Readers -- A Matter of Taste -- Too Shocking -- Political Correctness -- We Play by Different Rules -- House and Garden, Fact and Fantasy -- Covers Are Different -- Close Enough to Reality -- It Happened -- It Could Have Happened -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- III Groundwork: Toward a Protocol.
6 Ethical Foundations: Doing the Right Thing -- The Branches of Philosophy -- Ethics" Defined -- The Ninth Commandment -- The Golden Rule -- Aristotle's Golden Mean -- Kant's Categorical Imperative -- The Age of Enlightenment -- John Stuart Mill -- The First Amendment -- Competing Considerations -- The Individual versus the Group -- Absolutes versus Qualifications -- Journalistic Ethics -- Visual Journalism Ethics -- Manipulated Photography -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 7 Taking Journalistic Photographs: Traditions and Techniques -- Photos that "Mean" What They "Say -- The "Moment" -- When the Shutter Snaps -- Soft Feature" Photos: Posing and Staging -- After the Fact: Hoffman and Cruise -- Photojournalism and Documentary Photography -- A Word about Gear -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 8 Processing Journalistic Photographs: Keeping It Real -- Photographic Content -- Traditional Techniques -- Cleaning and Repairing Negatives -- Cropping -- Dodging and Burning -- Color Correction -- Airbrushing, Cosmetic Touch-Ups -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 9 Publishing Journalistic Photographs: Context and Viewer Preconceptions -- Private Uses versus Mass Media -- Photographic Environment -- Can a Photo Be Unethical? -- Photo Editing -- Text and Other Elements -- Viewer Preconceptions -- Readers' Awareness of Retouching -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- IV Developing a Protocol -- 10 The "Nonfiction Photographic Environment": A Range of Implied Authenticity -- Re-Categorizing Images -- First of All, What Is a Photograph? -- Photojournalism: Eyewitness to History -- Do We Still Know What Journalism Is? -- The Disappearing Coke Can -- Re-Examining the Term "Feature" -- Beyond "Hard News" -- The "Nonfiction Photographic Environment": A Proposed Definition -- Nature Photography -- Magazine Covers.
Photojournalistic Book Covers -- Nonfiction Television -- The Fashion/Beauty Exclusion -- Other Exclusions -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 11 Introducing the Reader's "Qualified Expectation of Reality": The Quote Standard -- Looking Beyond the "Altered Content" Distinction -- The Quote Standard -- The Reader's "Qualified Expectation of Reality" -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 12 Previewing the Guidelines for Photo Assessment: Defining "Photofiction" -- Defining "Post-Exposure Photofiction" -- Beyond Existing Codes -- Preview: The Photo-Assessment Tests in Brief -- A Set of Adaptable Principles -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 13 Photofiction Tests 1 and 2: The Viewfinder and Nonfiction Photography's Process Tests -- The Viewfinder Test in News Photos -- But It's Just a Tiny Detail . . . -- Beyond "Hard News" -- Nonfiction Photography's Process Test -- Adapting the Darkroom Standard in News Contexts -- Taking the Darkroom Standard Beyond News Contexts -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 14 Photofiction Tests 3 and 4: The Technical Credibility and Obvious Implausibility Tests -- The Technical Credibility Test -- Obvious Implausibility: The "Pregnant Bruce Willis" Test -- Impossible Juxtapositions -- Failing the Test -- When Is Fiction Obvious? -- The Oregon Study -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 15 The Wording of a Disclosure -- In the Interest of Full Disclosure . . . -- The Elements of Disclosure -- Photo-Illustrations" -- How Much Specificity? -- Plain Talk and Larger Truths -- Icons -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 16 The Prominence of a Disclosure Test 5: The "Essence of the Image" -- Sometimes Fine Print Is Insufficient -- Tonya and Nancy -- Implications of Authenticity and the Essence of the Image -- Visual Speculation -- Location of Disclosures -- Battered Nicole" -- Priming the Public.
Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 17 Cosmetic Retouching: Skin Deep? -- Addressing Cosmetic Retouching-Why Bother? -- Bad Hair Day -- But What about the Viewfinder Test? -- Even News Magazines Do It (Sometimes) -- Tori Spelling in Details -- Michelle Pfeiffer in Esquire -- Demi Moore on the Cover of Rolling Stone -- Cumulative Effects and Stereotypes -- If the Text Is Nonfiction, Why Not the Images? -- One Magazine, Several Standards? -- A Sliding Scale -- Virtually Impossible Standards -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 18 Applying the Guidelines: Case Studies -- Recapping the Photo-Assessment Steps -- Three Questions, One Issue -- Case Study: Hurricane Survivors -- Hurricane Survivors, Round One -- Hurricane Survivors, Round Two -- Synopsis: Hurricane Survivors, Rounds One and Two -- One Possible Assessment -- The Importance of Process -- Hurricane Survivors, Round Three -- Why Not Just Call It a Portrait? -- Case Study: Presidential Portrait -- Presidential Portrait, Questions -- One Possible Assessment -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 19 Journalistic Photography Online: A Possible Future -- Silver Lining: A New Visual Journalism? -- Out with the Old? -- In with the New? -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 20 A Fragile Fortress of Credibility -- Deeper Meanings -- A New Vigilance -- A Proactive Approach -- Taking the Pledge -- Sample Pledge -- Beyond Hard News -- Photographs Still Matter -- Authenticity Might Make a Stand -- Endnotes -- Credits -- Name Index -- Subject Index.
Summary: This text examines the use of images in journalistic contexts and the manipulation of these images to accomplish varying objectives. It provides a framework for critical discussion among professionals, educators, students, and concerned consumers of newspapers, magazines, online journals, and other nonfiction media. It also offers a method of assessing the ethics of mass-media photos, which will help visual journalists to embrace new technologies while preserving their credibility. Phototruth or Photofiction? also: *recounts the invention of photography and how it came to be accorded an extraordinary degree of trust; *details how photos were staged, painted, composited and otherwise faked, long before digital technology; *lists contemporary image-altering products and practices; *details many examples of manipulated images in nonfiction media and lists rationales offered in defense of them; *explains how current ethical principles have been derived; *lays groundwork for an ethical protocol by explaining conventions of taking, processing, and publishing journalistic photos; and *offers tests for assessing the appropriateness of altered images in non-fiction media. Each chapter is followed by "Explorations" designed to facilitate classroom discussion and to integrate into those interactions the students' own perceptions and experiences. The book is intended for students and others interested in the manipulation of images.
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Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Dedication -- Table of Contents -- Foreword -- Introduction -- I A History of "Phototruth" -- 1 "A Picture of Reality": Qualified Objectivity in Visual Journalism -- Compelling Reflections -- Phototruth": A Kind of Reality -- To Freeze the Visual Spectacle of the World: Milestones in the Invention of Photography -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 2 Old-Fashioned Fakery: Photo Manipulation in the Pre-Digital Era -- Concocted Realities at the Dawn of Photography -- Engravings and Other Artworks -- Composographs -- Now You See Him . . . -- Hillary Clinton Adopts Alien Baby (Official Photo!)" -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- II Implications of the New Digital Age -- 3 The Digital Media Landscape: Liquid Imagery, Shaky Credibility -- No Going Back -- Shifts in Authority -- Is a Photo "Whatever You Want It to Be"? -- Changing Assumptions -- Declining Confidence -- Beyond Print Media -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 4 The New Threat: Digital Deception and the Loss of Faith -- Phototruth―A Quaint Concept? -- Viewer Confusion and Suspicion -- Time's O.J. Simpson Cover -- National Geographic's Relocated Pyramids -- Improving Upon Nature? -- Other Examples in News, Sports, Entertainment, and More -- Subverted Certainties -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 5 Rationales and Excuses: Justifying Staged and Manipulated Photos -- In Defense -- Not that Big a Deal -- Mona Lisa with a Graffiti Mustache -- Could Have Moved the Camera -- No One Believes It Anyway -- In Consideration of Our Readers -- A Matter of Taste -- Too Shocking -- Political Correctness -- We Play by Different Rules -- House and Garden, Fact and Fantasy -- Covers Are Different -- Close Enough to Reality -- It Happened -- It Could Have Happened -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- III Groundwork: Toward a Protocol.

6 Ethical Foundations: Doing the Right Thing -- The Branches of Philosophy -- Ethics" Defined -- The Ninth Commandment -- The Golden Rule -- Aristotle's Golden Mean -- Kant's Categorical Imperative -- The Age of Enlightenment -- John Stuart Mill -- The First Amendment -- Competing Considerations -- The Individual versus the Group -- Absolutes versus Qualifications -- Journalistic Ethics -- Visual Journalism Ethics -- Manipulated Photography -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 7 Taking Journalistic Photographs: Traditions and Techniques -- Photos that "Mean" What They "Say -- The "Moment" -- When the Shutter Snaps -- Soft Feature" Photos: Posing and Staging -- After the Fact: Hoffman and Cruise -- Photojournalism and Documentary Photography -- A Word about Gear -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 8 Processing Journalistic Photographs: Keeping It Real -- Photographic Content -- Traditional Techniques -- Cleaning and Repairing Negatives -- Cropping -- Dodging and Burning -- Color Correction -- Airbrushing, Cosmetic Touch-Ups -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 9 Publishing Journalistic Photographs: Context and Viewer Preconceptions -- Private Uses versus Mass Media -- Photographic Environment -- Can a Photo Be Unethical? -- Photo Editing -- Text and Other Elements -- Viewer Preconceptions -- Readers' Awareness of Retouching -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- IV Developing a Protocol -- 10 The "Nonfiction Photographic Environment": A Range of Implied Authenticity -- Re-Categorizing Images -- First of All, What Is a Photograph? -- Photojournalism: Eyewitness to History -- Do We Still Know What Journalism Is? -- The Disappearing Coke Can -- Re-Examining the Term "Feature" -- Beyond "Hard News" -- The "Nonfiction Photographic Environment": A Proposed Definition -- Nature Photography -- Magazine Covers.

Photojournalistic Book Covers -- Nonfiction Television -- The Fashion/Beauty Exclusion -- Other Exclusions -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 11 Introducing the Reader's "Qualified Expectation of Reality": The Quote Standard -- Looking Beyond the "Altered Content" Distinction -- The Quote Standard -- The Reader's "Qualified Expectation of Reality" -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 12 Previewing the Guidelines for Photo Assessment: Defining "Photofiction" -- Defining "Post-Exposure Photofiction" -- Beyond Existing Codes -- Preview: The Photo-Assessment Tests in Brief -- A Set of Adaptable Principles -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 13 Photofiction Tests 1 and 2: The Viewfinder and Nonfiction Photography's Process Tests -- The Viewfinder Test in News Photos -- But It's Just a Tiny Detail . . . -- Beyond "Hard News" -- Nonfiction Photography's Process Test -- Adapting the Darkroom Standard in News Contexts -- Taking the Darkroom Standard Beyond News Contexts -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 14 Photofiction Tests 3 and 4: The Technical Credibility and Obvious Implausibility Tests -- The Technical Credibility Test -- Obvious Implausibility: The "Pregnant Bruce Willis" Test -- Impossible Juxtapositions -- Failing the Test -- When Is Fiction Obvious? -- The Oregon Study -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 15 The Wording of a Disclosure -- In the Interest of Full Disclosure . . . -- The Elements of Disclosure -- Photo-Illustrations" -- How Much Specificity? -- Plain Talk and Larger Truths -- Icons -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 16 The Prominence of a Disclosure Test 5: The "Essence of the Image" -- Sometimes Fine Print Is Insufficient -- Tonya and Nancy -- Implications of Authenticity and the Essence of the Image -- Visual Speculation -- Location of Disclosures -- Battered Nicole" -- Priming the Public.

Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 17 Cosmetic Retouching: Skin Deep? -- Addressing Cosmetic Retouching-Why Bother? -- Bad Hair Day -- But What about the Viewfinder Test? -- Even News Magazines Do It (Sometimes) -- Tori Spelling in Details -- Michelle Pfeiffer in Esquire -- Demi Moore on the Cover of Rolling Stone -- Cumulative Effects and Stereotypes -- If the Text Is Nonfiction, Why Not the Images? -- One Magazine, Several Standards? -- A Sliding Scale -- Virtually Impossible Standards -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 18 Applying the Guidelines: Case Studies -- Recapping the Photo-Assessment Steps -- Three Questions, One Issue -- Case Study: Hurricane Survivors -- Hurricane Survivors, Round One -- Hurricane Survivors, Round Two -- Synopsis: Hurricane Survivors, Rounds One and Two -- One Possible Assessment -- The Importance of Process -- Hurricane Survivors, Round Three -- Why Not Just Call It a Portrait? -- Case Study: Presidential Portrait -- Presidential Portrait, Questions -- One Possible Assessment -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 19 Journalistic Photography Online: A Possible Future -- Silver Lining: A New Visual Journalism? -- Out with the Old? -- In with the New? -- Summary -- Explorations -- Endnotes -- 20 A Fragile Fortress of Credibility -- Deeper Meanings -- A New Vigilance -- A Proactive Approach -- Taking the Pledge -- Sample Pledge -- Beyond Hard News -- Photographs Still Matter -- Authenticity Might Make a Stand -- Endnotes -- Credits -- Name Index -- Subject Index.

This text examines the use of images in journalistic contexts and the manipulation of these images to accomplish varying objectives. It provides a framework for critical discussion among professionals, educators, students, and concerned consumers of newspapers, magazines, online journals, and other nonfiction media. It also offers a method of assessing the ethics of mass-media photos, which will help visual journalists to embrace new technologies while preserving their credibility. Phototruth or Photofiction? also: *recounts the invention of photography and how it came to be accorded an extraordinary degree of trust; *details how photos were staged, painted, composited and otherwise faked, long before digital technology; *lists contemporary image-altering products and practices; *details many examples of manipulated images in nonfiction media and lists rationales offered in defense of them; *explains how current ethical principles have been derived; *lays groundwork for an ethical protocol by explaining conventions of taking, processing, and publishing journalistic photos; and *offers tests for assessing the appropriateness of altered images in non-fiction media. Each chapter is followed by "Explorations" designed to facilitate classroom discussion and to integrate into those interactions the students' own perceptions and experiences. The book is intended for students and others interested in the manipulation of images.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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