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Knowledge Representation, Reasoning and Declarative Problem Solving.

By: Publisher: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003Copyright date: ©2003Description: 1 online resource (546 pages)Content type:
  • text
Media type:
  • computer
Carrier type:
  • online resource
ISBN:
  • 9780511148910
Subject(s): Genre/Form: Additional physical formats: Print version:: Knowledge Representation, Reasoning and Declarative Problem SolvingDDC classification:
  • 004.0151
LOC classification:
  • QA76.76.E95 B265 2003
Online resources:
Contents:
Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- 0.1 Brief description of the chapters -- Chapter 1: Declarative programming in AnsProlog* : introduction and preliminaries -- Chapter 2: Simple modules for declarative programming with answer sets -- Chapter 3: Principles and properties of declarative programming with answer sets -- Chapter 4: Declarative problem solving and reasoning in AnsProlog* -- Chapter 5: Reasoning about actions and planning in AnsProlog* -- Chapter 6: Complexity, expressiveness and other properties of AnsProlog* programs -- Chapter 7: Answer set computing algorithms -- Chapter 8: Query answering and answer set computing systems -- Chapter 9: Further extensions of and alternatives to AnsProlog* -- Appendices -- Web site -- 0.2 Using it as a textbook -- 0.3 Appreciation and thanks -- Chapter 1 Declarative programming in AnsProlog*: introduction and preliminaries -- 1.1 Motivation: Why AnsProlog*? -- 1.1.1 AnsProlog* vs PROLOG -- 1.1.2 AnsProlog* vs Logic programming -- 1.1.3 AnsProlog* vs Default logic -- 1.1.4 AnsProlog* vs Circumscription and classical logic -- 1.1.5 AnsProlog* as a knowledge representation language -- 1.1.6 AnsProlog* implementations: Both a specification and a programming language -- 1.1.7 Applications of AnsProlog* -- 1.2 Answer set frameworks and programs -- 1.2.1 AnsProlog* programs -- 1.2.2 AnsProlog* notations -- 1.3 Semantics of AnsProlog* programs -- 1.3.1 Answer sets of…programs -- Model theoretic characterization -- Iterated fixpoint characterization -- 1.3.2 Answer sets of AnsProlog and…programs -- 1.3.3 Answer sets of…programs -- 1.3.4 Answer sets of…programs -- 1.3.5 Query entailment -- 1.3.6 A sound approximation: the well-founded semantics -- 1.4 Database queries and AnsProlog* functions -- 1.4.1 Queries and inherent functions.
1.4.2 Parameters, values and literal functions -- 1.4.3 The signature functions -- 1.4.4 An AnsProlog* program being functional -- 1.5 Notes and references -- Chapter 2 Simple modules for declarative programming with answer sets -- 2.1 Declarative problem solving modules -- 2.1.1 Integrity constraints -- 2.1.2 Finite enumeration -- 2.1.3 General enumeration but at least one -- 2.1.4 Choice: general enumeration with exactly one -- 2.1.5 Constrained enumeration -- 2.1.6 Propositional satisfiability -- 2.1.7 Closed first-order queries in… -- 2.1.8 Checking satisfiability of universal quantified boolean formulas (QBFs) -- 2.1.9 Checking satisfiability of existential QBFs -- 2.1.10 Checking satisfiability of Universal-existential QBFs -- 2.1.11 Checking satisfiability of Existential-universal QBFs -- 2.1.12 Smallest, largest, and next in a linear ordering -- 2.1.13 Establishing linear ordering among a set of objects -- 2.1.14 Representing aggregates -- 2.1.15 Representing classical disjunction conclusions using AnsProlog -- 2.1.16 Representing exclusive-or conclusions using AnsProlog -- 2.1.17 Cardinality constraints -- 2.1.18 Weight constraints -- 2.2 Knowledge representation and reasoning modules -- 2.2.1 Normative statements, exceptions, weak exceptions, and direct contradictions: the tweety flies story -- 2.2.2 The frame problem and the Yale Turkey shoot -- 2.2.3 Systematic removal of Close World Assumption: an example -- 2.2.4 Reasoning about what is known and what is not -- 2.3 Notes and references -- Chapter 3 Principles and properties of declarative programming with answer sets -- 3.1 Basic notions and basic properties -- 3.1.1 Categorical and coherent programs -- 3.1.2 Relating answer sets and the program rules -- 3.1.3 Conservative extension -- 3.1.4 I/O specification of a program.
3.1.5 Compiling AnsProlog programs to classical logic: Clark's completion -- 3.2 Some AnsProlog* sub-classes and their basic properties -- 3.2.1 Stratification of AnsProlog programs -- 3.2.2 Stratification of…programs -- 3.2.3 Call-consistency -- 3.2.4 Local stratification and perfect model semantics -- 3.2.5 Acyclicity and tightness -- 3.2.6 Atom dependency graph and order-consistency -- 3.2.7 Signing -- 3.2.8 The relation between the AnsProlog sub-classes: a summary -- 3.2.9 Head cycle free…programs -- 3.3 Restricted monotonicity and signed AnsProlog* programs -- 3.3.1 Restricted monotonicity -- 3.3.2 Signed…programs and their properties -- 3.4 Analyzing AnsProlog* programs using 'splitting' -- 3.4.1 Splitting sets -- 3.4.2 Application of splitting -- Conservative extension -- Adding CWA rules -- 3.4.3 Splitting sequences -- 3.4.4 Applications of the splitting sequence theorem -- 3.5 Language independence and language tolerance -- 3.5.1 Adding sorts to answer set frameworks -- 3.5.2 Language independence -- 3.5.3 Language tolerance -- 3.5.4 When sorts can be ignored -- 3.6 Interpolating an AnsProlog program -- 3.6.1 The l-functions of…programs -- 3.6.2 Interpolation of an AnsProlog program and its properties -- 3.6.3 An algorithm for interpolating AnsProlog programs -- Interpolation of the Transitive Closure Program -- The Interpolation Algorithm -- 3.6.4 Properties of the transformation I -- 3.7 Building and refining programs from components: functional specifications and realization theorems -- 3.7.1 Functional specifications and lp-functions -- 3.7.2 The compositional and refinement operators -- 3.7.3 Realization theorem for incremental extension -- 3.7.4 Realization theorem for interpolation -- 3.7.5 Representing domain completion and realization of input opening -- 3.7.6 Realization theorem for input extension -- 3.8 Filter-abducible…programs.
3.8.1 Basic definitions: simple abduction and filtering -- 3.8.2 Abductive reasoning through filtering: semantic conditions -- 3.8.3 Sufficiency conditions for filter-abducibility of…programs -- 3.8.4 Necessary conditions for filter-abducibility -- 3.8.5 Weak abductive reasoning vs filtering -- 3.9 Equivalence of programs and semantics preserving transformations -- 3.9.1 Fold/Unfold transformations -- Substitutions and unifiers -- Folding and unfolding -- 3.9.2 Replacing disjunctions in the head of rules -- 3.9.3 From…and constraints -- 3.9.4 AnsProlog and mixed integer programming -- 3.9.5 Strongly equivalent AnsProlog* programs and the logic of here-and-there -- 3.9.6 Strong equivalence using propositional logic -- 3.9.7 Additional transformations and preservation of strong equivalence -- 3.10 Notes and references -- Chapter 4 Declarative problem solving and reasoning in AnsProlog* -- 4.1 Three well-known problem solving tasks -- 4.1.1 n-queens -- 4.1.2 Tile covering of boards with missing squares -- 4.1.3 Who let the zebra out? -- 4.2 Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) -- 4.2.1 n-queens as a CSP instance -- 4.2.2 Schur as a CSP instance -- 4.3 Dynamic constraint satisfaction problems (DCSPs) -- 4.3.1 Encoding DCSPs in AnsProlog -- 4.4 Combinatorial graph problems -- 4.4.1 K-colorability -- 4.4.2 Hamiltonian circuit -- 4.4.3 k-clique -- 4.4.4 Vertex cover -- 4.4.5 Feedback vertex set -- 4.4.6 Kernel -- 4.4.7 Exercise -- 4.5 Prioritized defaults and inheritance hierarchies -- 4.5.1 The language of prioritized defaults -- 4.5.2 The axioms for reasoning with prioritized defaults -- 4.5.3 Modeling inheritance hierarchies using prioritized defaults -- 4.5.4 Exercise -- 4.6 Notes and references -- Chapter 5 Reasoning about actions and planning in AnsProlog* -- 5.1 Reasoning in the action description language A -- 5.1.1 The language A.
5.1.2 Temporal projection and its acyclicity in an AnsProlog formulation… -- 5.1.3 Temporal projection in an…formulation… -- 5.1.4 Temporal projection in…in the presence of incompleteness… -- 5.1.5 Sound reasoning with noninitial observations in… -- 5.1.6 Assimilating observations using enumeration and constraints… -- 5.1.7 Ignoring sorts through language tolerance -- 5.1.8 Filter-abducibility of… -- 5.1.9 An alternative formulation of temporal projection in… -- 5.1.10 Modifying… -- 5.2 Reasoning about actions and plan verification in richer domains -- 5.2.1 Allowing executability conditions -- 5.2.2 Allowing static causal propositions -- 5.2.3 Reasoning about parallel execution of actions -- 5.3 Answer set planning examples in extensions of A and STRIPS -- 5.3.1 A blocks world example in PDDL -- 5.3.2 Simple blocks world in… -- 5.3.3 Simple blocks world with domain constraints -- 5.3.4 Adding defined fluents, qualification, and ramification to STRIPS -- 5.3.5 Blocks world with conditional effects -- 5.3.6 Navigating a downtown with one-way streets -- 5.3.7 Downtown navigation: planning while driving -- 5.4 Approximate planning when initial state is incomplete -- 5.5 Planning with procedural constraints -- 5.6 Explaining observations through action occurrences and application to diagnosis -- 5.6.1 Specifying and reasoning with histories -- 5.6.2 From reasoning with histories to agents in a dynamic domain -- 5.6.3 Explaining observations -- 5.6.4 Application to diagnosis -- 5.7 Case study: Planning and plan correctness in a space shuttle reaction control system -- 5.8 Notes and references -- Chapter 6 Complexity, expressiveness, and other properties of AnsProlog* programs -- 6.1 Complexity and expressiveness -- 6.1.1 The polynomial hierarchy -- 6.1.2 Polynomial and exponential classes -- 6.1.3 Arithmetical and analytical hierarchy.
6.1.4 Complexity and expressiveness of languages.
Summary: A practitioner's guide to knowledge representation and reasoning using logic programming.
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Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- 0.1 Brief description of the chapters -- Chapter 1: Declarative programming in AnsProlog* : introduction and preliminaries -- Chapter 2: Simple modules for declarative programming with answer sets -- Chapter 3: Principles and properties of declarative programming with answer sets -- Chapter 4: Declarative problem solving and reasoning in AnsProlog* -- Chapter 5: Reasoning about actions and planning in AnsProlog* -- Chapter 6: Complexity, expressiveness and other properties of AnsProlog* programs -- Chapter 7: Answer set computing algorithms -- Chapter 8: Query answering and answer set computing systems -- Chapter 9: Further extensions of and alternatives to AnsProlog* -- Appendices -- Web site -- 0.2 Using it as a textbook -- 0.3 Appreciation and thanks -- Chapter 1 Declarative programming in AnsProlog*: introduction and preliminaries -- 1.1 Motivation: Why AnsProlog*? -- 1.1.1 AnsProlog* vs PROLOG -- 1.1.2 AnsProlog* vs Logic programming -- 1.1.3 AnsProlog* vs Default logic -- 1.1.4 AnsProlog* vs Circumscription and classical logic -- 1.1.5 AnsProlog* as a knowledge representation language -- 1.1.6 AnsProlog* implementations: Both a specification and a programming language -- 1.1.7 Applications of AnsProlog* -- 1.2 Answer set frameworks and programs -- 1.2.1 AnsProlog* programs -- 1.2.2 AnsProlog* notations -- 1.3 Semantics of AnsProlog* programs -- 1.3.1 Answer sets of…programs -- Model theoretic characterization -- Iterated fixpoint characterization -- 1.3.2 Answer sets of AnsProlog and…programs -- 1.3.3 Answer sets of…programs -- 1.3.4 Answer sets of…programs -- 1.3.5 Query entailment -- 1.3.6 A sound approximation: the well-founded semantics -- 1.4 Database queries and AnsProlog* functions -- 1.4.1 Queries and inherent functions.

1.4.2 Parameters, values and literal functions -- 1.4.3 The signature functions -- 1.4.4 An AnsProlog* program being functional -- 1.5 Notes and references -- Chapter 2 Simple modules for declarative programming with answer sets -- 2.1 Declarative problem solving modules -- 2.1.1 Integrity constraints -- 2.1.2 Finite enumeration -- 2.1.3 General enumeration but at least one -- 2.1.4 Choice: general enumeration with exactly one -- 2.1.5 Constrained enumeration -- 2.1.6 Propositional satisfiability -- 2.1.7 Closed first-order queries in… -- 2.1.8 Checking satisfiability of universal quantified boolean formulas (QBFs) -- 2.1.9 Checking satisfiability of existential QBFs -- 2.1.10 Checking satisfiability of Universal-existential QBFs -- 2.1.11 Checking satisfiability of Existential-universal QBFs -- 2.1.12 Smallest, largest, and next in a linear ordering -- 2.1.13 Establishing linear ordering among a set of objects -- 2.1.14 Representing aggregates -- 2.1.15 Representing classical disjunction conclusions using AnsProlog -- 2.1.16 Representing exclusive-or conclusions using AnsProlog -- 2.1.17 Cardinality constraints -- 2.1.18 Weight constraints -- 2.2 Knowledge representation and reasoning modules -- 2.2.1 Normative statements, exceptions, weak exceptions, and direct contradictions: the tweety flies story -- 2.2.2 The frame problem and the Yale Turkey shoot -- 2.2.3 Systematic removal of Close World Assumption: an example -- 2.2.4 Reasoning about what is known and what is not -- 2.3 Notes and references -- Chapter 3 Principles and properties of declarative programming with answer sets -- 3.1 Basic notions and basic properties -- 3.1.1 Categorical and coherent programs -- 3.1.2 Relating answer sets and the program rules -- 3.1.3 Conservative extension -- 3.1.4 I/O specification of a program.

3.1.5 Compiling AnsProlog programs to classical logic: Clark's completion -- 3.2 Some AnsProlog* sub-classes and their basic properties -- 3.2.1 Stratification of AnsProlog programs -- 3.2.2 Stratification of…programs -- 3.2.3 Call-consistency -- 3.2.4 Local stratification and perfect model semantics -- 3.2.5 Acyclicity and tightness -- 3.2.6 Atom dependency graph and order-consistency -- 3.2.7 Signing -- 3.2.8 The relation between the AnsProlog sub-classes: a summary -- 3.2.9 Head cycle free…programs -- 3.3 Restricted monotonicity and signed AnsProlog* programs -- 3.3.1 Restricted monotonicity -- 3.3.2 Signed…programs and their properties -- 3.4 Analyzing AnsProlog* programs using 'splitting' -- 3.4.1 Splitting sets -- 3.4.2 Application of splitting -- Conservative extension -- Adding CWA rules -- 3.4.3 Splitting sequences -- 3.4.4 Applications of the splitting sequence theorem -- 3.5 Language independence and language tolerance -- 3.5.1 Adding sorts to answer set frameworks -- 3.5.2 Language independence -- 3.5.3 Language tolerance -- 3.5.4 When sorts can be ignored -- 3.6 Interpolating an AnsProlog program -- 3.6.1 The l-functions of…programs -- 3.6.2 Interpolation of an AnsProlog program and its properties -- 3.6.3 An algorithm for interpolating AnsProlog programs -- Interpolation of the Transitive Closure Program -- The Interpolation Algorithm -- 3.6.4 Properties of the transformation I -- 3.7 Building and refining programs from components: functional specifications and realization theorems -- 3.7.1 Functional specifications and lp-functions -- 3.7.2 The compositional and refinement operators -- 3.7.3 Realization theorem for incremental extension -- 3.7.4 Realization theorem for interpolation -- 3.7.5 Representing domain completion and realization of input opening -- 3.7.6 Realization theorem for input extension -- 3.8 Filter-abducible…programs.

3.8.1 Basic definitions: simple abduction and filtering -- 3.8.2 Abductive reasoning through filtering: semantic conditions -- 3.8.3 Sufficiency conditions for filter-abducibility of…programs -- 3.8.4 Necessary conditions for filter-abducibility -- 3.8.5 Weak abductive reasoning vs filtering -- 3.9 Equivalence of programs and semantics preserving transformations -- 3.9.1 Fold/Unfold transformations -- Substitutions and unifiers -- Folding and unfolding -- 3.9.2 Replacing disjunctions in the head of rules -- 3.9.3 From…and constraints -- 3.9.4 AnsProlog and mixed integer programming -- 3.9.5 Strongly equivalent AnsProlog* programs and the logic of here-and-there -- 3.9.6 Strong equivalence using propositional logic -- 3.9.7 Additional transformations and preservation of strong equivalence -- 3.10 Notes and references -- Chapter 4 Declarative problem solving and reasoning in AnsProlog* -- 4.1 Three well-known problem solving tasks -- 4.1.1 n-queens -- 4.1.2 Tile covering of boards with missing squares -- 4.1.3 Who let the zebra out? -- 4.2 Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) -- 4.2.1 n-queens as a CSP instance -- 4.2.2 Schur as a CSP instance -- 4.3 Dynamic constraint satisfaction problems (DCSPs) -- 4.3.1 Encoding DCSPs in AnsProlog -- 4.4 Combinatorial graph problems -- 4.4.1 K-colorability -- 4.4.2 Hamiltonian circuit -- 4.4.3 k-clique -- 4.4.4 Vertex cover -- 4.4.5 Feedback vertex set -- 4.4.6 Kernel -- 4.4.7 Exercise -- 4.5 Prioritized defaults and inheritance hierarchies -- 4.5.1 The language of prioritized defaults -- 4.5.2 The axioms for reasoning with prioritized defaults -- 4.5.3 Modeling inheritance hierarchies using prioritized defaults -- 4.5.4 Exercise -- 4.6 Notes and references -- Chapter 5 Reasoning about actions and planning in AnsProlog* -- 5.1 Reasoning in the action description language A -- 5.1.1 The language A.

5.1.2 Temporal projection and its acyclicity in an AnsProlog formulation… -- 5.1.3 Temporal projection in an…formulation… -- 5.1.4 Temporal projection in…in the presence of incompleteness… -- 5.1.5 Sound reasoning with noninitial observations in… -- 5.1.6 Assimilating observations using enumeration and constraints… -- 5.1.7 Ignoring sorts through language tolerance -- 5.1.8 Filter-abducibility of… -- 5.1.9 An alternative formulation of temporal projection in… -- 5.1.10 Modifying… -- 5.2 Reasoning about actions and plan verification in richer domains -- 5.2.1 Allowing executability conditions -- 5.2.2 Allowing static causal propositions -- 5.2.3 Reasoning about parallel execution of actions -- 5.3 Answer set planning examples in extensions of A and STRIPS -- 5.3.1 A blocks world example in PDDL -- 5.3.2 Simple blocks world in… -- 5.3.3 Simple blocks world with domain constraints -- 5.3.4 Adding defined fluents, qualification, and ramification to STRIPS -- 5.3.5 Blocks world with conditional effects -- 5.3.6 Navigating a downtown with one-way streets -- 5.3.7 Downtown navigation: planning while driving -- 5.4 Approximate planning when initial state is incomplete -- 5.5 Planning with procedural constraints -- 5.6 Explaining observations through action occurrences and application to diagnosis -- 5.6.1 Specifying and reasoning with histories -- 5.6.2 From reasoning with histories to agents in a dynamic domain -- 5.6.3 Explaining observations -- 5.6.4 Application to diagnosis -- 5.7 Case study: Planning and plan correctness in a space shuttle reaction control system -- 5.8 Notes and references -- Chapter 6 Complexity, expressiveness, and other properties of AnsProlog* programs -- 6.1 Complexity and expressiveness -- 6.1.1 The polynomial hierarchy -- 6.1.2 Polynomial and exponential classes -- 6.1.3 Arithmetical and analytical hierarchy.

6.1.4 Complexity and expressiveness of languages.

A practitioner's guide to knowledge representation and reasoning using logic programming.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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