Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

By: Leaver, Betty LouContributor(s): Shekhtman, BorisPublisher: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2002Copyright date: ©2002Description: 1 online resource (324 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780511148620Subject(s): Study and teachingGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Developing Professional-Level Language ProficiencyDDC classification: 418.0071 LOC classification: P53 .D395 2002Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Notes on contributors -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Part I Principles, practices, and theory -- 1 Principles and practices in teaching Superior-level language skills: Not just more of the same -- The direction from which we have come -- A paradigmatic overview -- Educational philosophy -- Linguistics and methods -- Psychological research -- Concepts of communicative competence -- The Proficiency Movement -- Contemporary FLED -- A programmatic overview -- Classroom-based language instruction -- Technology-based instruction -- Toward an understanding of the Superior level for foreign language instruction -- Linguistic experience -- Communicative focus -- The significance of CF for students -- The influence of CF on instruction -- Where we seem to be going -- Issues in teaching at the Superior level -- Issues in staffing at the Superior level -- Content knowledge -- Linguistic knowledge -- Being au courant -- Diagnostic skills -- Issues in testing at the Superior level -- Conclusion -- 2 Toward academic-level foreign language abilities: Reconsidering foundational assumptions, expanding pedagogical options -- The advanced learner: Current assumptions and pervasive metaphors -- The influence of the ACTFL Guidelines -- An additive and componential notion of language -- A privileging of the formal features of the language -- The dominance of interactive speech -- The influence of assessment and particular assessment practices -- Profiling the AL2 learner: an expanded conceptual base -- The advanced L2 learner as a multicompetent speaker -- Linking knowledge and language - thinking for speaking -- Genre as typified rhetorical actions in recurrent social situations -- Cognitive fluency, identity, and voice: the ability to make choices -- Principles for teaching at the Advanced level.
A cognitive learner focus -- Explicit teaching -- A pedagogy of modeling, coaching, scaffolding -- A task-based pedagogy -- Concluding reflections -- Part II Programs -- 3 Contexts for advanced foreign language learning: A report on an immersion institute -- General goals -- Application process and selection criteria -- Syllabus and instructional approach -- Topic selection -- Sequencing instructional events -- Creating pedagogical tasks -- Establishing learner centeredness at the AL2 level -- Student comments -- Concluding programmatic considerations -- 4 Bridging the gap between language for general purposes and language for work: An intensive Superior-level language/skill… -- The students -- Profile of Bridge students -- Language needs -- Skills -- Affective variables -- The program -- History -- Administrative details -- Faculty -- Curriculum -- Curricular objectives -- Implementation of the Bridge courses -- Initial testing for Spanish -- Spanish course syllabus -- Spanish Bridge-course materials -- Representative Bridge-course activities -- Representative extramural activities -- Representative classroom activities -- Results -- Discussion -- Implications -- Conclusion -- 5 Learning Chinese in China: Programs for developing Superior- to Distinguished-level Chinese language proficiency in China… -- Current practices in teaching SD-level Chinese -- Description of the students -- Student backgrounds -- Student needs -- Description of the programs -- Associated Colleges in China (ACC) -- American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) -- Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU) -- CET/Beijing (CET/B) -- CET/Harbin (CET/H) -- Foreign Service Institute (FSI/B) -- International Chinese Language Program at National Taiwan University (ICLP) -- Inter-University Program for Chinese Language Studies at Tsinghua University (IUP).
Mandarin Training Center at National Taiwan Normal University (MTC) -- Taipei Language Institute (TLI) -- US/China Links (USCL) -- Curricular features of the programs -- Spoken Chinese -- Formal vocabulary and grammar -- Radio, television, films -- Error correction -- Word study -- Accented Mandarin -- Public speaking -- Interpreting -- Language for Special Purposes (LSP) -- Written Chinese -- Newspapers and magazines -- Modern Chinese literature -- Classical Chinese -- Cursive script -- Composition -- Translation -- Language for Special Purposes -- Curricular structure -- Tutorials -- Content courses -- Practicum -- Internship -- Language pledge -- Chinese roommates -- Instructors with content expertise -- Option for university classes -- Conclusion -- 6 Developing professional-level oral proficiency: The Shekhtman Method of Communicative Teaching -- Speaking tactics for improving communication strategy -- Answer expansion -- Use of islands -- Using questions to continue conversation -- Adherence to the known -- Simplification -- Acceptance of mistakes -- Embellishment -- Complication -- Speaking tactics for teaching foreign languages -- Lesson planning -- Sample exercises -- Answer expansion -- Use of islands -- Using questions -- Adherence to the Known -- Simplification -- Embellishment -- Complication -- Materials -- Development of high CF -- Implementation of the SMCT Framework -- Results -- Discussion -- Conclusion -- 7 The LangNet "Reading to the Four" Project: Applied technology at higher levels of language learning -- The LangNet Initiative -- The "Reading to the Four" Project -- Need for the Project -- The underlying system -- The interface -- The Generic Learner Profiles (GLPs) -- Critical language features: the Language-Specific Profiles (LSPs) -- Learning Plans -- Strategic Activities -- Content Objects -- The challenges.
Finding experienced users and teachers to inform the process -- Defining Level-4 behaviors -- Selecting appropriate tasks (strategic objectives) for learning -- Selecting relevant texts -- Planned next steps -- Conclusion -- 8 In the quest for the Level 4+ in Arabic: Training Level 2-3 learners in independent reading -- Preliminary considerations -- Centrality of reading in foreign language acquisition -- The polyglossic nature of Arabic -- The bi-polar competence of the educated Arab as a model for the Level 4+ learner of Arabic -- Suggested strategy for learning polyglossic Arabic -- The Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program -- Organization -- The CASA curriculum before 1970 -- The CASA curriculum 1970-1977 -- General -- Eight-week summer program (first semester) -- Fourteen-week fall program (second semester) -- Fourteen-week spring program (third semester) -- The IR course -- Material selection -- The students -- The teachers -- The reading texts -- The reading procedure -- Evaluations -- Conclusions -- 9 Teaching high-level writing skills in English at a Danish university -- Background: university students in Denmark -- Answering the need for Distinguished-level second language writing skills -- Writing and choice -- Teaching approach at Aarhus -- Concepts -- Development of awareness of text types -- Clear specification of writing tasks -- Development of thinking techniques -- Focus on making conscious choices -- Development of linguistic sophistication and precision -- Discussion -- Teaching materials and exercise types -- Awareness of differences -- Reading and text analysis -- Writing -- Other activities -- Work with reference materials -- Vocabulary-building exercises -- Sentence manipulation exercises -- Writing to artificial rules -- Conclusion.
10 Heritage speakers as learners at the Superior level: Differences and similarities between Spanish and Russian student… -- The student population: toward a description -- The status quo -- Programs for Russian heritage speakers at UCLA and Barnard/Columbia -- The program at UCLA -- Course content -- Approaches to teaching -- The program at Columbia University / Barnard College -- SD elements common to the UCLA and Columbia University / Barnard College courses -- Materials -- Instructional techniques -- Evaluation/results -- Spanish for home-background speakers at Stanford University -- Enrollment mechanism -- The faculty -- The curriculum -- A sample course: Structure of Spanish -- Course objectives -- Course content and activities -- Materials -- Evaluation/results -- Discussion -- Program design -- An appropriate curriculum -- Appropriate assessment instruments -- Qualified instructors -- Positive attitudes toward heritage languages -- Teaching methods -- Communicative approaches -- Content-Based Instruction -- Conclusion -- 11 Teaching Russian language teachers in eight summer Institutes in Russian language and culture -- The setting and the history -- The program -- The goals -- Enhancing language skills and cultural knowledge -- Learning about the latest methodology -- Assistance with adapting/developing supplemental materials -- Networking -- Development of the Russian field -- The participants -- Institute overview -- The schedule -- Skills enhancement -- Vocabulary enrichment -- Lexical precision and stylistics -- Complexification of expression -- Speaking fluency -- Reading fluency -- Genre studies -- Text organization in writing -- Idioms/acronyms -- Methodology -- Course content -- Manner of instruction -- Materials -- Materials Adaptation/Development -- Materials evaluation -- Materials adaptation/development -- Grammar lectures.
Evening activities.
Summary: This 2002 book examines approaches to teaching students making the transition from 'advanced' or 'superior' proficiency in a foreign language to 'near-native' ability.
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Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Notes on contributors -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Part I Principles, practices, and theory -- 1 Principles and practices in teaching Superior-level language skills: Not just more of the same -- The direction from which we have come -- A paradigmatic overview -- Educational philosophy -- Linguistics and methods -- Psychological research -- Concepts of communicative competence -- The Proficiency Movement -- Contemporary FLED -- A programmatic overview -- Classroom-based language instruction -- Technology-based instruction -- Toward an understanding of the Superior level for foreign language instruction -- Linguistic experience -- Communicative focus -- The significance of CF for students -- The influence of CF on instruction -- Where we seem to be going -- Issues in teaching at the Superior level -- Issues in staffing at the Superior level -- Content knowledge -- Linguistic knowledge -- Being au courant -- Diagnostic skills -- Issues in testing at the Superior level -- Conclusion -- 2 Toward academic-level foreign language abilities: Reconsidering foundational assumptions, expanding pedagogical options -- The advanced learner: Current assumptions and pervasive metaphors -- The influence of the ACTFL Guidelines -- An additive and componential notion of language -- A privileging of the formal features of the language -- The dominance of interactive speech -- The influence of assessment and particular assessment practices -- Profiling the AL2 learner: an expanded conceptual base -- The advanced L2 learner as a multicompetent speaker -- Linking knowledge and language - thinking for speaking -- Genre as typified rhetorical actions in recurrent social situations -- Cognitive fluency, identity, and voice: the ability to make choices -- Principles for teaching at the Advanced level.

A cognitive learner focus -- Explicit teaching -- A pedagogy of modeling, coaching, scaffolding -- A task-based pedagogy -- Concluding reflections -- Part II Programs -- 3 Contexts for advanced foreign language learning: A report on an immersion institute -- General goals -- Application process and selection criteria -- Syllabus and instructional approach -- Topic selection -- Sequencing instructional events -- Creating pedagogical tasks -- Establishing learner centeredness at the AL2 level -- Student comments -- Concluding programmatic considerations -- 4 Bridging the gap between language for general purposes and language for work: An intensive Superior-level language/skill… -- The students -- Profile of Bridge students -- Language needs -- Skills -- Affective variables -- The program -- History -- Administrative details -- Faculty -- Curriculum -- Curricular objectives -- Implementation of the Bridge courses -- Initial testing for Spanish -- Spanish course syllabus -- Spanish Bridge-course materials -- Representative Bridge-course activities -- Representative extramural activities -- Representative classroom activities -- Results -- Discussion -- Implications -- Conclusion -- 5 Learning Chinese in China: Programs for developing Superior- to Distinguished-level Chinese language proficiency in China… -- Current practices in teaching SD-level Chinese -- Description of the students -- Student backgrounds -- Student needs -- Description of the programs -- Associated Colleges in China (ACC) -- American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) -- Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU) -- CET/Beijing (CET/B) -- CET/Harbin (CET/H) -- Foreign Service Institute (FSI/B) -- International Chinese Language Program at National Taiwan University (ICLP) -- Inter-University Program for Chinese Language Studies at Tsinghua University (IUP).

Mandarin Training Center at National Taiwan Normal University (MTC) -- Taipei Language Institute (TLI) -- US/China Links (USCL) -- Curricular features of the programs -- Spoken Chinese -- Formal vocabulary and grammar -- Radio, television, films -- Error correction -- Word study -- Accented Mandarin -- Public speaking -- Interpreting -- Language for Special Purposes (LSP) -- Written Chinese -- Newspapers and magazines -- Modern Chinese literature -- Classical Chinese -- Cursive script -- Composition -- Translation -- Language for Special Purposes -- Curricular structure -- Tutorials -- Content courses -- Practicum -- Internship -- Language pledge -- Chinese roommates -- Instructors with content expertise -- Option for university classes -- Conclusion -- 6 Developing professional-level oral proficiency: The Shekhtman Method of Communicative Teaching -- Speaking tactics for improving communication strategy -- Answer expansion -- Use of islands -- Using questions to continue conversation -- Adherence to the known -- Simplification -- Acceptance of mistakes -- Embellishment -- Complication -- Speaking tactics for teaching foreign languages -- Lesson planning -- Sample exercises -- Answer expansion -- Use of islands -- Using questions -- Adherence to the Known -- Simplification -- Embellishment -- Complication -- Materials -- Development of high CF -- Implementation of the SMCT Framework -- Results -- Discussion -- Conclusion -- 7 The LangNet "Reading to the Four" Project: Applied technology at higher levels of language learning -- The LangNet Initiative -- The "Reading to the Four" Project -- Need for the Project -- The underlying system -- The interface -- The Generic Learner Profiles (GLPs) -- Critical language features: the Language-Specific Profiles (LSPs) -- Learning Plans -- Strategic Activities -- Content Objects -- The challenges.

Finding experienced users and teachers to inform the process -- Defining Level-4 behaviors -- Selecting appropriate tasks (strategic objectives) for learning -- Selecting relevant texts -- Planned next steps -- Conclusion -- 8 In the quest for the Level 4+ in Arabic: Training Level 2-3 learners in independent reading -- Preliminary considerations -- Centrality of reading in foreign language acquisition -- The polyglossic nature of Arabic -- The bi-polar competence of the educated Arab as a model for the Level 4+ learner of Arabic -- Suggested strategy for learning polyglossic Arabic -- The Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program -- Organization -- The CASA curriculum before 1970 -- The CASA curriculum 1970-1977 -- General -- Eight-week summer program (first semester) -- Fourteen-week fall program (second semester) -- Fourteen-week spring program (third semester) -- The IR course -- Material selection -- The students -- The teachers -- The reading texts -- The reading procedure -- Evaluations -- Conclusions -- 9 Teaching high-level writing skills in English at a Danish university -- Background: university students in Denmark -- Answering the need for Distinguished-level second language writing skills -- Writing and choice -- Teaching approach at Aarhus -- Concepts -- Development of awareness of text types -- Clear specification of writing tasks -- Development of thinking techniques -- Focus on making conscious choices -- Development of linguistic sophistication and precision -- Discussion -- Teaching materials and exercise types -- Awareness of differences -- Reading and text analysis -- Writing -- Other activities -- Work with reference materials -- Vocabulary-building exercises -- Sentence manipulation exercises -- Writing to artificial rules -- Conclusion.

10 Heritage speakers as learners at the Superior level: Differences and similarities between Spanish and Russian student… -- The student population: toward a description -- The status quo -- Programs for Russian heritage speakers at UCLA and Barnard/Columbia -- The program at UCLA -- Course content -- Approaches to teaching -- The program at Columbia University / Barnard College -- SD elements common to the UCLA and Columbia University / Barnard College courses -- Materials -- Instructional techniques -- Evaluation/results -- Spanish for home-background speakers at Stanford University -- Enrollment mechanism -- The faculty -- The curriculum -- A sample course: Structure of Spanish -- Course objectives -- Course content and activities -- Materials -- Evaluation/results -- Discussion -- Program design -- An appropriate curriculum -- Appropriate assessment instruments -- Qualified instructors -- Positive attitudes toward heritage languages -- Teaching methods -- Communicative approaches -- Content-Based Instruction -- Conclusion -- 11 Teaching Russian language teachers in eight summer Institutes in Russian language and culture -- The setting and the history -- The program -- The goals -- Enhancing language skills and cultural knowledge -- Learning about the latest methodology -- Assistance with adapting/developing supplemental materials -- Networking -- Development of the Russian field -- The participants -- Institute overview -- The schedule -- Skills enhancement -- Vocabulary enrichment -- Lexical precision and stylistics -- Complexification of expression -- Speaking fluency -- Reading fluency -- Genre studies -- Text organization in writing -- Idioms/acronyms -- Methodology -- Course content -- Manner of instruction -- Materials -- Materials Adaptation/Development -- Materials evaluation -- Materials adaptation/development -- Grammar lectures.

Evening activities.

This 2002 book examines approaches to teaching students making the transition from 'advanced' or 'superior' proficiency in a foreign language to 'near-native' ability.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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