The Iranian Languages.

By: Windfuhr, GernotSeries: Routledge Language Family SerPublisher: Florence : Routledge, 2010Copyright date: ©2009Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (961 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780203641736Subject(s): Iranian languages - SyntaxGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: The Iranian LanguagesDDC classification: 491/.5 LOC classification: PK6021 -- .I73 2009ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- THE IRANIAN LANGUAGES -- Copyright -- BRIEF CONTENTS -- FULL CONTENTS -- List of illustrations -- Notes on contributors -- Foreword -- List of abbreviations -- Chapter 1 Introduction to The Iranian Languages -- 1 Overview -- Bibliography -- Chapter 2 Dialectology and topics -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Origins: The Central Asian component -- 1.2 Ancient non-Iranian contact languages -- 1.3 Listing of Iranian languages -- 1.4 Predecessors of Modern Iranian languages -- 1.5 Modern non-Iranian contact languages -- 2 Phonology -- 2.1 Early Iranian dialects -- 2.2 West Iranian consonantal developments -- 2.3 Innovations: SW drift vs. NW -- 2.4 East and West Iranian -- 2.5 Stress -- 3 Morphology and syntax -- 3.1 Gender and animacy -- 3.2 Cases and personal enclitics -- 3.3 Deixis -- 3.4 The verbal quincunx system -- 3.5 Markers of aspect -- 3.6 Present marker *-ant -- 4 Syntax -- 4.1 Word order typology: adjectival noun phrase -- 4.1.1 Diachrony -- 4.1.2 Urartian and Elamite substrates -- 4.1.3 Iranian as a "buffer zone" -- 4.2 Bundling West Iranian isoglosses -- 4.3 The Iranian ergative construction -- 4.4 Differential object marking -- 4.5 Clause complementation -- Bibliography and references -- A Selected topical references -- B Alphabetical -- Chapter 3 Old Iranian -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 The Old Iranian languages -- 1.1.1 The Old and Young Avesta, Old and Young Avestan -- 1.1.2 The oral background of the Avestan text -- 1.1.3 The Avestan alphabet -- 1.1.4 Stages of Avestan -- 1.1.5 Old Persian -- 1.1.6 The Old Persian script -- 1.1.7 Old Iranian grammars -- 1.2 The phonology of Indo-Iranian -- 1.2.1 Consonants -- 1.2.1.1 IIr. Velars -- 1.2.1.2 IIr. Affricates -- 1.2.1.3 IIr. š ž -- 1.2.1.4 IIr. The laryngeals -- 1.2.1.5 IIr. Liquids and nasals -- 1.2.2 Vowels -- 1.2.3 Proto-Indo-Iranian phoneme inventory -- 1.2.4 Ablaut.
1.3 The phonology of Proto-Iranian -- 1.4 Early Iranian dialects -- 1.5 Writing systems -- 1.5.1 The Avestan script -- 1.5.2 The Old Persian script -- 2 Phonology -- 2.1 The phonology of Avestan -- 2.1.1 Vowel systems -- 2.1.1.1 Notes on the vowels -- 2.1.1.2 Vocalic length -- 2.1.1.3 Diphthongs -- 2.1.1.4 Hiatus -- 2.1.1.5 IIr. r -- 2.1.1.6 Nasalised vowels -- 2.1.2 Consonant systems -- 2.1.2.1 Notes on the consonants -- 2.1.2.2 Sibilants -- 2.1.2.3 'Shibilants' -- 2.1.2.4 Distribution -- 2.2 The phonology of Old Persian -- 2.2.1 The vowels a˘, ı˘, u˘ -- 2.2.2 Consonants -- 2.2.2.1 Notes on the consonants -- 2.2.3 Late Old Persian -- 2.3 The morphophonology of Avestan and Old Persian -- 2.3.1 Vowels -- 2.3.1.1 Centralising of a, ā > ə ( ‾ ) -- 2.3.1.2 Rounding of a, ā > ‾ or o‾ -- 2.3.1.2a Old Avestan initial ‾ ā- e -- 2.3.1.4 Combined centralising and raising and rounding of a -- 2.3.1.5 Shortening of ā and lengthening of a -- 2.3.2 Consonants -- 2.3.2.1 Assimilation and dissimilation -- 2.3.2.1a Voice assimilation -- 2.3.2.1b 'Bartholomae's law' -- 2.3.2.1c Geminates -- 2.3.2.1d Dissimilation -- 2.3.2.2 Spirantisation -- 2.3.2.2a Unvoiced stops and the unvoiced fricatives f θ x -- 2.3.2.2b Voiced stops b d g and voiced spirants β δ γ -- 2.3.2.3 Consonant groups and anaptyxis -- 2.3.2.3a Groups at morpheme boundary -- 2.3.2.3b Anaptyxis in Old Persian -- 2.3.2.4 Palatalisation and labialisation of consonants -- 2.3.2.4a i- and u-epenthesis in Avestan -- 2.3.2.4b Dissimilation of ii and uu to i , ai , and u -- 2.3.2.4c Epenthesis in Old Persian -- 2.3.2.5 Glides -- 2.3.2.6 Simplification of consonant groups -- 2.3.3 Sandhi -- 2.3.3.1 Anaptyxis in sandhi -- 2.3.3.2 Final vowels and diphthongs in sandhi -- 2.3.4 Stress-related alternations -- 2.3.5 Metro-phonology.
2.3.5.1 Disyllabic long vowels and diphthongs -- 2.3.5.2 Siever's law -- 2.3.6 Phonological changes associated with in.ection and endings -- 3 Morphology i: Nominal morphology -- 3.1 Nouns -- 3.1.1 Gender -- 3.1.2 Number and case -- 3.1.3 Stem classes and declensions -- 3.1.3.1 Derived feminine adjectives and nouns -- 3.1.4 Protero-, hystero- and holo-kinetic declensions -- 3.1.5 Case endings -- 3.1.5.1 The zero ending -- 3.1.5.2 Endings in b- -- 3.1.5.3 Added -a˘ -- 3.1.6 Individual declensions -- 3.1.6.1 The i- and u-stems -- 3.1.6.2 Monosyllabic and polysyllabic ai- and au-stems -- 3.1.6.3 Holo-kinetic stems -- 3.1.6.4 r-stems -- 3.1.6.5 Stem-formants containing n -- 3.1.6.5a Stems in -an- -- 3.1.6.5b Stems in -ian- -- 3.1.6.5c Stems in -u an-, -man-, -Han- -- 3.1.6.5d Stems in -ant - -- 3.1.6.5e Stems in -u uant-, -mant-, -Hant- -- 3.1.6.5f Stems in -Hank, -iHank- -- 3.1.6.6 Stems in -ah-, -iiah-, -u uah- -- 3.1.6.7 Neuter r/n-stems -- 3.1.6.8 Stems in laryngeals -- 3.1.6.9 Other consonant stems -- 3.1.6.10 Suppletive stem-systems -- 3.2 Adjectives: comparative and superlative -- 3.3 Adverbs -- 3.4 Pronouns -- 3.4.1 Personal pronouns -- 3.4.2 Possessive pronouns (adjectives) -- 3.4.3 Demonstrative pronouns -- 3.4.4 Relative pronoun -- 3.4.5 Interrogative and inde.nite pronouns -- 3.4.6 Reflexive pronouns and reciprocity -- 3.4.7 Pronominal case endings -- 3.5 Adpositions -- 3.6 Numerals and measure -- 3.6.1 'One' to 'four' -- 3.6.2 The remaining numerals -- 3.6.3 Derived numerals -- 3.6.3.1 Multiplicatives -- 3.6.3.2 '-th time' -- 3.6.3.3 Fractions -- 4 Morphology ii: Verbal morphology -- 4.1 Stem classes -- 4.1.1 Present stems -- 4.1.1.1 Athematic present stems -- 4.1.1.2 Thematic present stems -- 4.1.1.3 The future stem -- 4.1.1.4 Passive stem -- 4.1.1.5 Causative stem -- 4.1.1.6 Denominative stem -- 4.1.2 Aorist stems -- 4.1.3 Perfect stems.
4.1.4 Suppletive stem systems -- 4.1.5 Periphrastic formations -- 4.2 Moods -- 4.2.1 The subjunctive -- 4.2.2 The optative -- 4.3 Voice -- 4.3.1 The passive in -ia- -- 4.3.2 The 3rd singular passive in -i -- 4.4 Person marking (endings) -- 4.5 Preverbs -- 4.6 Nominal forms of the verb -- 4.6.1 Participles -- 4.6.1.1 Present, future and aorist active participles -- 4.6.1.2 Perfect active participles -- 4.6.1.3 Middle participles -- 4.6.1.4 Past participles in -ta- -- 4.6.2 Verbal adjectives in -θa-, -θβa-, -iia- -- 4.6.3 Infi nitives -- 5 Syntax i: Word order and clause structure -- 5.1 Word order -- 5.1.1 Adpositions -- 5.1.2 Preverbs -- 5.1.3 Repetition of preverb in tmesis -- 5.2 Topicalisation: 'raising' and 'lowering' -- 5.2.1 Raising of verb -- 5.2.2 Raising of direct object -- 5.2.3 Lowering of subject -- 5.2.4 Lowering of direct/indirect object -- 5.2.5 Lowering of adverbial complements -- 5.3 Special types of clauses -- 5.3.1 Questions -- 5.3.2 Exhortations and commands -- 5.3.3 Parenthetical clauses in the nominative -- 5.3.4 Reported speech -- 6 Syntax ii: Nominals -- 6.1 Specificity and reference -- 6.1.1 The Young Avestan and Old Persian connecting relative and the relative particle -- 6.1.1.1 Antecedent outside the relative phrase -- 6.1.1.1a With invariable yat -- 6.1.1.2 Antecedent inside the relative phrase -- 6.2 Number -- 6.2.1 Neuter plural -- 6.2.2 Dual -- 6.3 Grammatical concord -- 6.3.1 Gender -- 6.3.2 Dual determinants -- 6.3.3 Plural subject and singular verb -- 6.4 Uses of the cases -- 6.4.1 Nominative -- 6.4.1.1 The Old Persian nominative naming phrase -- 6.4.2 Vocative -- 6.4.3 Accusative -- 6.4.3.1 Direct object and predicate of direct object -- 6.4.3.2 Direct objects with nouns and adjectives expressing actions -- 6.4.3.3 Double accusative -- 6.4.3.4 Accusative with impersonal verbs -- 6.4.3.5 Adverbial accusative.
6.4.3.6 Accusative of length of time, space, and measure -- 6.4.3.7 Accusative 'of respect' -- 6.4.3.8 Accusative with adposition -- 6.4.3.9 Young Avestan nominative for accusative -- 6.4.4 Genitive -- 6.4.4.1 Possessive genitive -- 6.4.4.2 Subjective and objective genitive -- 6.4.4.3 Defining or descriptive genitive -- 6.4.4.5 Partitive genitive -- 6.4.4.6 Genitive with adjectives and verbs -- 6.4.4.7 Genitive with adpositions -- 6.4.5 Dative -- 6.4.5.1 Indirect object -- 6.4.5.2 Final dative -- 6.4.5.3 Dativus commodi -- 6.4.5.4 Dative with nouns and adjectives -- 6.4.5.5 Dative of agent -- 6.4.6 Ablative -- 6.4.6.1 Ablative of separation -- 6.4.6.2 Ablative of comparison, difference, and preference -- 6.4.6.3 Ablative of time or place throughout which -- 6.4.6.4 Ablative with adpositions -- 6.4.6.5 Young Avestan ablative = genitive -- 6.4.7 Instrumental -- 6.4.7.1 Instrumental of means -- 6.4.7.1a Instrumental of space through which -- 6.4.7.1b Instrumental of reason and cause -- 6.4.7.1c Instrumental of respect -- 6.4.7.1d Measure and price -- 6.4.7.2 Instrumental of accompaniment and dissociation/ deprivation -- 6.4.7.2a Accompaniment -- 6.4.7.2b Dissociation/deprivation -- 6.4.7.3 Instrumental with adpositions -- 6.4.7.4 Case replacements -- 6.4.8 Locative -- 6.4.8.1 Locative of place and time -- 6.4.8.2 Locative of prize won -- 6.4.8.3 Locative with adpositions -- 6.5 Uses of pronouns and pronominal forms -- 6.5.1 Personal pronouns -- 6.5.1.1 1st and 2nd persons, tonic forms -- 6.5.1.2 3rd person -- 6.5.2.2a ha-, ta- -- 6.5.2.2b The oblique pronominal stem a- -- 6.5.2.2c i-, hi-/sˇi-, di- -- 6.5.1.3 Enclitic pronouns 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person -- 6.5.1.3a Nominative -- 6.5.1.3b Accusative -- 6.5.1.3c Genitive-dative -- 6.5.1.3d Ablative -- 6.5.2 Possessive pronouns -- 6.5.3 Demonstrative pronouns -- 6.5.3.1 The near-deictic ima-/a.
6.5.3.2 The near deictic aēša-/aēta.
Summary: The Iranian languages form the major eastern branch of the Indo-European group of languages, itself part of the larger Indo-Iranian family. Estimated to have between 150 and 200 million native speakers, the Iranian languages constitute one of the world's major language families. This comprehensive volume offers a detailed overview of the principle languages which make up this group: Old Iranian, Middle Iranian, and New Iranian. The Iranian Languages is divided into fifteen chapters. The introductory chapters by the editor present a general overview and a detailed discussion of the linguistic typology of Iranian. The individual chapters which follow are written by leading experts in the field. These provide the reader with concise, non-technical descriptions of a range of Iranian languages. Each chapter follows the same pattern and sequence of topics, taking the reader through the significant features not only of phonology and morphology but also of syntax; from phrase level to complex sentences and pragmatics. Ample examples on all levels are provided with detailed annotation for the non-specialist reader. In addition, each chapter covers lexis, sociolinguistic and typological issues, and concludes with annotated sample texts. This unique resource is the ideal companion for undergraduate and postgraduate students of linguistics and language. It will also be of interest to researchers or anyone with an interest in historical linguistics, linguistics anthropology and language development. Gernot Windfuhr is Professor of Iranian Studies at the University of Michigan; he has published widely on Persian and Iranian languages and linguistics and related languages, as well as on other aspects of Iranian culture including Persian literature and Pre-Islamic Iranian religions.
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Intro -- THE IRANIAN LANGUAGES -- Copyright -- BRIEF CONTENTS -- FULL CONTENTS -- List of illustrations -- Notes on contributors -- Foreword -- List of abbreviations -- Chapter 1 Introduction to The Iranian Languages -- 1 Overview -- Bibliography -- Chapter 2 Dialectology and topics -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Origins: The Central Asian component -- 1.2 Ancient non-Iranian contact languages -- 1.3 Listing of Iranian languages -- 1.4 Predecessors of Modern Iranian languages -- 1.5 Modern non-Iranian contact languages -- 2 Phonology -- 2.1 Early Iranian dialects -- 2.2 West Iranian consonantal developments -- 2.3 Innovations: SW drift vs. NW -- 2.4 East and West Iranian -- 2.5 Stress -- 3 Morphology and syntax -- 3.1 Gender and animacy -- 3.2 Cases and personal enclitics -- 3.3 Deixis -- 3.4 The verbal quincunx system -- 3.5 Markers of aspect -- 3.6 Present marker *-ant -- 4 Syntax -- 4.1 Word order typology: adjectival noun phrase -- 4.1.1 Diachrony -- 4.1.2 Urartian and Elamite substrates -- 4.1.3 Iranian as a "buffer zone" -- 4.2 Bundling West Iranian isoglosses -- 4.3 The Iranian ergative construction -- 4.4 Differential object marking -- 4.5 Clause complementation -- Bibliography and references -- A Selected topical references -- B Alphabetical -- Chapter 3 Old Iranian -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 The Old Iranian languages -- 1.1.1 The Old and Young Avesta, Old and Young Avestan -- 1.1.2 The oral background of the Avestan text -- 1.1.3 The Avestan alphabet -- 1.1.4 Stages of Avestan -- 1.1.5 Old Persian -- 1.1.6 The Old Persian script -- 1.1.7 Old Iranian grammars -- 1.2 The phonology of Indo-Iranian -- 1.2.1 Consonants -- 1.2.1.1 IIr. Velars -- 1.2.1.2 IIr. Affricates -- 1.2.1.3 IIr. š ž -- 1.2.1.4 IIr. The laryngeals -- 1.2.1.5 IIr. Liquids and nasals -- 1.2.2 Vowels -- 1.2.3 Proto-Indo-Iranian phoneme inventory -- 1.2.4 Ablaut.

1.3 The phonology of Proto-Iranian -- 1.4 Early Iranian dialects -- 1.5 Writing systems -- 1.5.1 The Avestan script -- 1.5.2 The Old Persian script -- 2 Phonology -- 2.1 The phonology of Avestan -- 2.1.1 Vowel systems -- 2.1.1.1 Notes on the vowels -- 2.1.1.2 Vocalic length -- 2.1.1.3 Diphthongs -- 2.1.1.4 Hiatus -- 2.1.1.5 IIr. r -- 2.1.1.6 Nasalised vowels -- 2.1.2 Consonant systems -- 2.1.2.1 Notes on the consonants -- 2.1.2.2 Sibilants -- 2.1.2.3 'Shibilants' -- 2.1.2.4 Distribution -- 2.2 The phonology of Old Persian -- 2.2.1 The vowels a˘, ı˘, u˘ -- 2.2.2 Consonants -- 2.2.2.1 Notes on the consonants -- 2.2.3 Late Old Persian -- 2.3 The morphophonology of Avestan and Old Persian -- 2.3.1 Vowels -- 2.3.1.1 Centralising of a, ā > ə ( ‾ ) -- 2.3.1.2 Rounding of a, ā > ‾ or o‾ -- 2.3.1.2a Old Avestan initial ‾ ā- e -- 2.3.1.4 Combined centralising and raising and rounding of a -- 2.3.1.5 Shortening of ā and lengthening of a -- 2.3.2 Consonants -- 2.3.2.1 Assimilation and dissimilation -- 2.3.2.1a Voice assimilation -- 2.3.2.1b 'Bartholomae's law' -- 2.3.2.1c Geminates -- 2.3.2.1d Dissimilation -- 2.3.2.2 Spirantisation -- 2.3.2.2a Unvoiced stops and the unvoiced fricatives f θ x -- 2.3.2.2b Voiced stops b d g and voiced spirants β δ γ -- 2.3.2.3 Consonant groups and anaptyxis -- 2.3.2.3a Groups at morpheme boundary -- 2.3.2.3b Anaptyxis in Old Persian -- 2.3.2.4 Palatalisation and labialisation of consonants -- 2.3.2.4a i- and u-epenthesis in Avestan -- 2.3.2.4b Dissimilation of ii and uu to i , ai , and u -- 2.3.2.4c Epenthesis in Old Persian -- 2.3.2.5 Glides -- 2.3.2.6 Simplification of consonant groups -- 2.3.3 Sandhi -- 2.3.3.1 Anaptyxis in sandhi -- 2.3.3.2 Final vowels and diphthongs in sandhi -- 2.3.4 Stress-related alternations -- 2.3.5 Metro-phonology.

2.3.5.1 Disyllabic long vowels and diphthongs -- 2.3.5.2 Siever's law -- 2.3.6 Phonological changes associated with in.ection and endings -- 3 Morphology i: Nominal morphology -- 3.1 Nouns -- 3.1.1 Gender -- 3.1.2 Number and case -- 3.1.3 Stem classes and declensions -- 3.1.3.1 Derived feminine adjectives and nouns -- 3.1.4 Protero-, hystero- and holo-kinetic declensions -- 3.1.5 Case endings -- 3.1.5.1 The zero ending -- 3.1.5.2 Endings in b- -- 3.1.5.3 Added -a˘ -- 3.1.6 Individual declensions -- 3.1.6.1 The i- and u-stems -- 3.1.6.2 Monosyllabic and polysyllabic ai- and au-stems -- 3.1.6.3 Holo-kinetic stems -- 3.1.6.4 r-stems -- 3.1.6.5 Stem-formants containing n -- 3.1.6.5a Stems in -an- -- 3.1.6.5b Stems in -ian- -- 3.1.6.5c Stems in -u an-, -man-, -Han- -- 3.1.6.5d Stems in -ant - -- 3.1.6.5e Stems in -u uant-, -mant-, -Hant- -- 3.1.6.5f Stems in -Hank, -iHank- -- 3.1.6.6 Stems in -ah-, -iiah-, -u uah- -- 3.1.6.7 Neuter r/n-stems -- 3.1.6.8 Stems in laryngeals -- 3.1.6.9 Other consonant stems -- 3.1.6.10 Suppletive stem-systems -- 3.2 Adjectives: comparative and superlative -- 3.3 Adverbs -- 3.4 Pronouns -- 3.4.1 Personal pronouns -- 3.4.2 Possessive pronouns (adjectives) -- 3.4.3 Demonstrative pronouns -- 3.4.4 Relative pronoun -- 3.4.5 Interrogative and inde.nite pronouns -- 3.4.6 Reflexive pronouns and reciprocity -- 3.4.7 Pronominal case endings -- 3.5 Adpositions -- 3.6 Numerals and measure -- 3.6.1 'One' to 'four' -- 3.6.2 The remaining numerals -- 3.6.3 Derived numerals -- 3.6.3.1 Multiplicatives -- 3.6.3.2 '-th time' -- 3.6.3.3 Fractions -- 4 Morphology ii: Verbal morphology -- 4.1 Stem classes -- 4.1.1 Present stems -- 4.1.1.1 Athematic present stems -- 4.1.1.2 Thematic present stems -- 4.1.1.3 The future stem -- 4.1.1.4 Passive stem -- 4.1.1.5 Causative stem -- 4.1.1.6 Denominative stem -- 4.1.2 Aorist stems -- 4.1.3 Perfect stems.

4.1.4 Suppletive stem systems -- 4.1.5 Periphrastic formations -- 4.2 Moods -- 4.2.1 The subjunctive -- 4.2.2 The optative -- 4.3 Voice -- 4.3.1 The passive in -ia- -- 4.3.2 The 3rd singular passive in -i -- 4.4 Person marking (endings) -- 4.5 Preverbs -- 4.6 Nominal forms of the verb -- 4.6.1 Participles -- 4.6.1.1 Present, future and aorist active participles -- 4.6.1.2 Perfect active participles -- 4.6.1.3 Middle participles -- 4.6.1.4 Past participles in -ta- -- 4.6.2 Verbal adjectives in -θa-, -θβa-, -iia- -- 4.6.3 Infi nitives -- 5 Syntax i: Word order and clause structure -- 5.1 Word order -- 5.1.1 Adpositions -- 5.1.2 Preverbs -- 5.1.3 Repetition of preverb in tmesis -- 5.2 Topicalisation: 'raising' and 'lowering' -- 5.2.1 Raising of verb -- 5.2.2 Raising of direct object -- 5.2.3 Lowering of subject -- 5.2.4 Lowering of direct/indirect object -- 5.2.5 Lowering of adverbial complements -- 5.3 Special types of clauses -- 5.3.1 Questions -- 5.3.2 Exhortations and commands -- 5.3.3 Parenthetical clauses in the nominative -- 5.3.4 Reported speech -- 6 Syntax ii: Nominals -- 6.1 Specificity and reference -- 6.1.1 The Young Avestan and Old Persian connecting relative and the relative particle -- 6.1.1.1 Antecedent outside the relative phrase -- 6.1.1.1a With invariable yat -- 6.1.1.2 Antecedent inside the relative phrase -- 6.2 Number -- 6.2.1 Neuter plural -- 6.2.2 Dual -- 6.3 Grammatical concord -- 6.3.1 Gender -- 6.3.2 Dual determinants -- 6.3.3 Plural subject and singular verb -- 6.4 Uses of the cases -- 6.4.1 Nominative -- 6.4.1.1 The Old Persian nominative naming phrase -- 6.4.2 Vocative -- 6.4.3 Accusative -- 6.4.3.1 Direct object and predicate of direct object -- 6.4.3.2 Direct objects with nouns and adjectives expressing actions -- 6.4.3.3 Double accusative -- 6.4.3.4 Accusative with impersonal verbs -- 6.4.3.5 Adverbial accusative.

6.4.3.6 Accusative of length of time, space, and measure -- 6.4.3.7 Accusative 'of respect' -- 6.4.3.8 Accusative with adposition -- 6.4.3.9 Young Avestan nominative for accusative -- 6.4.4 Genitive -- 6.4.4.1 Possessive genitive -- 6.4.4.2 Subjective and objective genitive -- 6.4.4.3 Defining or descriptive genitive -- 6.4.4.5 Partitive genitive -- 6.4.4.6 Genitive with adjectives and verbs -- 6.4.4.7 Genitive with adpositions -- 6.4.5 Dative -- 6.4.5.1 Indirect object -- 6.4.5.2 Final dative -- 6.4.5.3 Dativus commodi -- 6.4.5.4 Dative with nouns and adjectives -- 6.4.5.5 Dative of agent -- 6.4.6 Ablative -- 6.4.6.1 Ablative of separation -- 6.4.6.2 Ablative of comparison, difference, and preference -- 6.4.6.3 Ablative of time or place throughout which -- 6.4.6.4 Ablative with adpositions -- 6.4.6.5 Young Avestan ablative = genitive -- 6.4.7 Instrumental -- 6.4.7.1 Instrumental of means -- 6.4.7.1a Instrumental of space through which -- 6.4.7.1b Instrumental of reason and cause -- 6.4.7.1c Instrumental of respect -- 6.4.7.1d Measure and price -- 6.4.7.2 Instrumental of accompaniment and dissociation/ deprivation -- 6.4.7.2a Accompaniment -- 6.4.7.2b Dissociation/deprivation -- 6.4.7.3 Instrumental with adpositions -- 6.4.7.4 Case replacements -- 6.4.8 Locative -- 6.4.8.1 Locative of place and time -- 6.4.8.2 Locative of prize won -- 6.4.8.3 Locative with adpositions -- 6.5 Uses of pronouns and pronominal forms -- 6.5.1 Personal pronouns -- 6.5.1.1 1st and 2nd persons, tonic forms -- 6.5.1.2 3rd person -- 6.5.2.2a ha-, ta- -- 6.5.2.2b The oblique pronominal stem a- -- 6.5.2.2c i-, hi-/sˇi-, di- -- 6.5.1.3 Enclitic pronouns 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person -- 6.5.1.3a Nominative -- 6.5.1.3b Accusative -- 6.5.1.3c Genitive-dative -- 6.5.1.3d Ablative -- 6.5.2 Possessive pronouns -- 6.5.3 Demonstrative pronouns -- 6.5.3.1 The near-deictic ima-/a.

6.5.3.2 The near deictic aēša-/aēta.

The Iranian languages form the major eastern branch of the Indo-European group of languages, itself part of the larger Indo-Iranian family. Estimated to have between 150 and 200 million native speakers, the Iranian languages constitute one of the world's major language families. This comprehensive volume offers a detailed overview of the principle languages which make up this group: Old Iranian, Middle Iranian, and New Iranian. The Iranian Languages is divided into fifteen chapters. The introductory chapters by the editor present a general overview and a detailed discussion of the linguistic typology of Iranian. The individual chapters which follow are written by leading experts in the field. These provide the reader with concise, non-technical descriptions of a range of Iranian languages. Each chapter follows the same pattern and sequence of topics, taking the reader through the significant features not only of phonology and morphology but also of syntax; from phrase level to complex sentences and pragmatics. Ample examples on all levels are provided with detailed annotation for the non-specialist reader. In addition, each chapter covers lexis, sociolinguistic and typological issues, and concludes with annotated sample texts. This unique resource is the ideal companion for undergraduate and postgraduate students of linguistics and language. It will also be of interest to researchers or anyone with an interest in historical linguistics, linguistics anthropology and language development. Gernot Windfuhr is Professor of Iranian Studies at the University of Michigan; he has published widely on Persian and Iranian languages and linguistics and related languages, as well as on other aspects of Iranian culture including Persian literature and Pre-Islamic Iranian religions.

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