International Organizations before National Courts.Series: Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative LawPublisher: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2000Copyright date: ©2000Description: 1 online resource (521 pages)Content type:
- online resource
- KZ4850 .R45 2000
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Cover -- Half-title -- Series-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Table of cases -- Argentine -- Austria -- Belgium -- Canada -- Chile -- Colombia -- Egypt -- France -- Germany -- Greece -- India -- Ireland -- Italy -- Jordan -- Lebanon -- Luxembourg -- Malaysia -- Mexico -- Netherlands -- New Zealand -- Nigeria -- Philippines -- Spain -- Switzerland -- Syria -- United Kingdom -- United States -- Arbitration -- European Commission of Human Rights -- European Court of Human Rights -- European Court of Justice -- ILO Administrative Tribunal -- Inter-American Commission on Human Rights -- International Court of Justice -- OAS Administrative Tribunal -- OECD Administrative Tribunal -- Permanent Court of International Justice -- UN Administrative Tribunal -- UN Human Rights Committee -- World Bank Administrative Tribunal -- Table of legal instruments -- Constituent instruments -- Multilateral privileges and immunities treaties -- Bilateral agreements -- Other treaties -- Statutes of international tribunals -- Other international documents -- National legislation -- Australia -- Austria -- Canada -- Denmark -- France -- Germany -- India -- Italy -- Japan -- Spain -- United Kingdom -- United States -- Abbreviations -- 1 Purpose, subject and methodology of this study -- Introduction -- Subject of the study -- International organizations -- Other international bodies -- International tribunals -- International public corporations -- International non-governmental organizations -- Transnational corporations -- Some further terminological clarifications -- Survey of existing material and literature -- Court decisions and other relevant practice -- Literature -- Methods -- Overall solutions versus topical jurisprudence -- Topical method as policy-and interest-based approach.
Types of cases involving international organizations before domestic courts -- Personal services rendered to international organizations -- Provision of movable and immovable property -- Tortious contacts -- Secondary disputes -- Consequences for the methods employed -- Part I Descriptive analysis -- 2 Avoidance techniques -- Non-recognition as a legal person under domestic law -- The problem before the courts -- The normal approach to domestic legal personality -- Different approaches between member and non-member states -- Sources of domestic legal personality -- Treaties -- Custom -- National legal rules -- The relevance of the international legal personality of international organizations for their domestic personality -- International legal personality -- The declarative or constitutive character of the conferment of domestic legal personality -- Judicial practice of avoiding dispute settlement by de-recognizing the domestic legal personality of international… -- Non-recognition of a particular act of an international organization - ultra viresacts and non-attributability -- Scope of domestic legal personality -- Sources determining the scope of domestic legal personality -- Treaties -- Custom -- Domestic legislation -- Resulting legal capacities in the domestic sphere -- Scope of functional international legal personality -- The legal effects of non-functional acts performed by international organizations as domestic legal persons in theory -- Content of domestic law ultra vires doctrine -- International ultra vires doctrine -- Explicitly addressing domestic legal personality -- Avoiding dispute settlement by referring to the limited scope of domestic legal personality in practice -- Prudential judicial abstention through doctrines concerning act of state, political questions, and non-justiciability -- The act of state doctrine.
Act of state considerations in abstaining from adjudicating lawsuits involving international organizations -- Political questions doctrine -- Court decisions using political questions doctrine -- Non-justiciability or acte de gouvernement doctrines -- Acte de gouvernement and non-justiciability considerations in abstaining from adjudicating lawsuits involving international… -- Lack of adjudicative power of domestic courts -- Judicial practice of abstention through respect for an exclusively competent forum -- Respecting choice of forum clauses providing for arbitration or other fora -- Judicial practice of abstention vis-à-vis foreign public law cases -- Judicial practice of abstention vis-à-vis subjects of international law and matters of international law -- Other reasons to deny jurisdiction: refusals to exercise implicit judicial review of decisions of international organizations -- No case or controversy -- Judicial discretion to prevent harassing lawsuits and mock trials -- According immunity to international organizations -- The dual, international and domestic nature of immunity -- Immunity as public international law question -- The potential for controversies -- Dispute settlement mechanisms -- Immunity as domestic legal question -- Domestic legislation -- Immunity and domestic procedural law -- International sources of jurisdictional immunity of international organizations -- Treaty law -- Constituent instruments -- General privileges and immunities treaties -- Bilateral headquarters and host agreements -- Unwritten immunity rules -- Custom as a source of immunities -- Customary immunity from suit of international organizations in non-member countries -- Immunity as a tool to deny jurisdiction in judicial practice -- Absolute immunity -- Applying restrictive immunity concepts widely -- Assuming customary rule of immunity.
3 Strategies of judicial involvement -- Non-qualification as international organization -- No delegation of immunity -- Recognition of an international organization as a legal person under domestic law -- Denying immunity -- Denying the international applicability of immunity instruments -- Denying the domestic direct applicability of international law -- Denying a potential customary rule in the absence of conventional immunity provisions -- Immunity as a non-issue -- Restricting the scope of immunity -- Restrictive immunity -- Restrictive judicial interpretation of treaty provisions according immunity -- The Italian 'reservation' to absolute immunity provisions -- Approximating restrictive immunity to functional immunity -- Applying state immunity standard to international organizations in the absence of any express rules: a 'customary' standard… -- The IOIA: incorporating FSIA standard of restrictive immunity? -- Implicit exceptions concerning real property and counterclaims -- Functional immunity -- Areas covered by functional immunity in court decisions -- Employment disputes -- Lease contracts -- Assertion of jurisdiction by qualifying activities outside the scope of functional immunity -- Broad waiver interpretation -- The possibility of an advance waiver in the absence of provision contemplating it in the relevant immunity regime -- Ad hoc waiver provisions -- Provisions that are silent on the question of waivers -- Waiver of immunity from enforcement measures -- Competent organ -- Implicit waivers -- Choice of law and choice of forum clauses -- Arbitration clauses -- Part II Policy issues -- 4 Rationales for judicial abstention -- The protection of the functioning and independence of an international organization -- Hostile domestic environment: prejudices -- Lack of familiarity with the issues -- Harassment aspect: costs of lawsuits.
A counterbalance to the relative weakness of international organizations -- The influence of states on an international organization should be channelled through its 'internal law' -- Equality of the member states of an international organization -- Securing uniformity in dispute settlement -- Derived or delegated state sovereignty -- Immunity as an inherent quality of international legal personality -- Lack of territory -- Precedent and prestige -- 5 Reasons for asserting jurisdiction -- Judicial protection as a public good sought by and against international organizations -- Making sense of immunity qualifications -- Encroachment on the territorial sovereignty of the forum state -- Higher degree of integration: the federal state analogy -- Enhancing the creditworthiness of international organizations as a functional reason to limit immunity -- No immunity for iure gestionis activities: the same immunity standard as the one used for states -- Equalization with states -- International organizations as subjects of international law -- Commercial activity exception regardless of trading person -- Enhanced judicial protection of private parties: commercial activities of international organizations -- Fairness to third parties -- Immunity as unjustifiable privilege potentially leading to a denial of justice -- Alternative dispute settlement in the case of immunity -- An alternative method: arbitration -- Alternative fora: administrative tribunals -- An international duty to establish administrative tribunals? -- Administrative tribunals extending their jurisdiction in order to avoid a denial of justice -- Do administrative tribunals protect fundamental or constitutional rights? -- Human rights and constitutional limits -- The right of access to court and jurisdictional immunity.
Are alternative fora sufficient to guarantee the right of access to courts?.
This book investigates how national courts 'react' to disputes involving international organizations.
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.