Hormones, Gender and the Aging Brain : The Endocrine Basis of Geriatric Psychiatry.

By: Morrison, Mary FPublisher: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2000Copyright date: ©2000Description: 1 online resource (379 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780511149115Subject(s): Geriatric psychiatryGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Hormones, Gender and the Aging Brain : The Endocrine Basis of Geriatric PsychiatryDDC classification: 618.9768 LOC classification: RC451.4.A5 H67 2000Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- Contributors -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Part I Overview -- 1 Summary chapter. The endocrine basis of geriatric psychiatry: an integrative approach -- Introduction -- Endocrine disorders as a cause of mental illness -- Hormones and aging -- Estrogen and cognitive dysfunction -- Testosterone and behavior -- Depression and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis -- Anorexia of aging and hormones -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- 2 Overview of steroids in the aging brain -- Introduction -- Biosynthesis, release, and serum transport -- Endocrine steroid synthesis -- Neurosteroids -- Thyroid hormones -- Receptors -- General principles -- CNS Localization and subtypes -- Biological effects of steroids -- Classical effects involve changes in neurotransmission -- Novel effects of steroids -- Sexual dimorphisms -- Interactions with other steroids -- Summary and conclusions -- REFERENCES -- Part II Hormones and mental health in the elderly -- 3 The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in aging: preclinical and clinical studies -- Introduction -- The physiology of the HPA axis -- The HPA axis in aging -- Animal studies -- Human studies -- The HPA axis in human disease states associated with aging -- Conclusions and future directions -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 4 The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis -- Introduction -- Physiology of the thyroid axis -- Regulation -- Effects of HPT-axis hormones on the brain: TRH and metabolites -- The HPT axis in the elderly -- Mood disorders related to the HPT axis in the elderly -- Hypothyroidism -- Hyperthyroidism -- Euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) -- Geriatric depression -- Therapeutic effects of HPT axis-related hormones in affective disorders -- Relationship between treatment modalities for affective disorders and the thyroid axis.
Cognitive effects of HPT axis in aging -- Summary and conclusions -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 5 Estrogen and depression in aging women -- Introduction -- Epidemiology of depressive disorders in aging -- The estrogen deficiency hypothesis of depression -- Epidemiologic evidence that estrogen use is protective against depression -- Neuroprotective role of estrogen in aging women -- Estrogen therapy for mood disorders -- Early attempts to determine if estrogen affects mood -- Recent clinical trials of estrogen replacement to improve mood -- Selective estrogen receptor modulators -- Tamoxifen -- Raloxifene -- Neurotransmitters that mediate estrogen's effects on mood -- Serotonin -- Basic scientific evidence -- Estrogen and 5-HT1A receptors -- Estrogen and 5-HT2 receptors -- Estrogen and the serotonin transporter -- Clinical evidence -- Estrogen and serotonergic antidepressant response -- Imaging data -- Estrogen and norepinephrine -- Nitric oxide -- Interactions between estrogen and other hormones in regulating mood -- Progestin -- The role of the HPA and HPG axes in mood -- Systemic effects of estrogen replacement therapy -- Physiology and biochemistry of estrogen -- Genomic and non-genomic actions of estrogen -- Estrogen metabolism -- Symptoms of menopause -- Effects of estrogen on peripheral target tissues -- Estrogen replacement therapy regimens -- Risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy -- Compliance with ERT -- Conclusions -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 6 The role of testosterone in male depression -- Introduction -- Overview -- Methodologic problems -- Male HPG physiology -- Testosterone secretion -- Testosterone levels through life -- Testosterone actions -- Metabolic effects -- Neuropsychiatric effects -- Prenatal organizing effects -- Postpubertal behavioral effects -- Dominance and submission -- Sexual behavior.
Aggression -- Cognition -- Testosterone in aging men -- Testosterone and male depressive illness -- Depression in hypogonadal men -- The HPG axis in depressed men -- Exogenous testosterone administration -- Androgen administration to non-depressed eugonadal men -- Androgen administration to non-depressed hypogonadal men -- Androgen administration to depressed men -- Treatment with exogenous testosterone -- Summary -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 7 Dehydroepiandrosterone in aging and mental health -- Introduction -- DHEA(S) as a neurosteroid -- DHEA(S) levels decrease as a function of aging, chronic stress and illness -- DHEA(S) improves learning and memory in animals -- Antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects in animals -- Neurotrophic potential of DHEA(S) -- DHEA(S) levels correlate with mood, memory and functional abilities in humans -- Mood -- Response to antidepressant and antianxiety medication -- General functional abilities and sense of well-being -- Cognitive function -- DHEA Treatment effects on well-being, mood, and memory in humans -- Well-being and general functioning -- Mood -- Memory -- Summary -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 8 Sex hormones, cognition, and dementia in the elderly -- Introduction -- Possible biological mechanisms of estrogen's effect on cognition -- Estrogen and cognition in non-demented women -- Estrogen therapy and dementia risk -- Estrogen for treatment of Alzheimer's disease -- Estrogen and Apolipoptrotein E -- Selective estrogen receptor modulators -- Testosterone -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- 9 Effects of estrogen on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognition: implications for brain aging and dementia in… -- Introduction -- Cholinergic neurons and cognition -- Estrogen and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons -- Estrogen replacement and acetylcholine release.
Estrogen replacement and learning and memory -- Mechanisms of estrogen effects on cholinergic neurons -- Effects on growth factors and growth factor receptors -- Changes in cholinergic parameters associated with long-term loss of ovarian function -- Summary of effects of estrogen on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons -- Other effects of estrogen -- Effects on other neurotransmitter systems -- Effects on hippocampal connectivity -- Effects on ß-amyloid processing -- Neuroprotective effects -- Summary and conclusions -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 10 Gender and schizophrenia -- Introduction -- Age of onset of schizophrenia -- Symptom presentation -- Course of illness -- Cognitive performance -- Neuroradiological abnormalities -- Response to antipyschotic medication -- Tardive dyskinesia -- Report of ongoing studies assessing gender differences in clinical and neuropsychological variables of schizophrenia -- Materials and methods -- Clinical evaluation -- Neuropsychological assessment -- Statistical methods -- Results -- Discussion and summary -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 11 Sex steroids and anxiety disorders -- Introduction -- Anxiety disorder overview -- Specific anxiety disorders: Gender differences and aging effects -- Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) -- Panic disorder -- Simple phobia -- Social phobia -- OCD -- PTSD -- Sex steroids and neurotransmission -- Estrogen -- Progesterone -- Female reproductive cycles impact on course of anxiety -- REFERENCES -- 12 Gender and hormonal factors in pain and pain inhibition -- Introduction -- Sex differences in the response to noxious stimuli in the laboratory -- Sex differences in health care utilization and chronic pain conditions -- Sex differences in responses to analgesic drugs -- Hormonal factors in human pain sensitivity.
Sex differences and hormonal factors in pain sensitivity in animal subjects -- Animal sex differences and hormonal factors in the analgesic responses to environmental stress and pharmaceuticals -- Magnitudinal differences in analgesia between the sexes -- Qualitative differences in analgesia between the sexes -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- Part III Effects of hormones and behavior on immune function -- 13 Estrogens, stress, and psychoneuroimmunology in women over the lifespan -- Stress, sex hormones, and psychoneuroimmunology -- Estrogen and immune function -- Estrogen-related differences in physiological reactivity to brief stressors -- Estrogen-related differences in immune reactivity to stress: possible pathways -- REFERENCES -- 14 Gender differences in immune function at the cellular level -- Introduction -- Sex differences in the neuroendocrine stress response: the role of glucocorticoids and their receptors. -- Mechanism of glucocorticoid regulation of immune function -- Mechanism of sex steroid regulation of immune function -- Cellular events induced by sex steroids -- Direct effects of sex steroids on immune function -- Aging -- Areas for further study -- REFERENCES -- Part IV Hormones and gender differences in psychotropic drug metabolism -- 15 Gender differences in psychotropic drug metabolism -- Introduction -- Non-metabolic factors affecting drug disposition -- Clearance vs. half-life -- Gastric effects -- Protein binding -- Metabolic differences -- Phase one and phase two metabolism -- Effects of exogenous estrogen -- Menstrual cycle effects -- Effects of pregnancy -- Summary -- Recommendations -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 16 The influence of progesterone on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamma-aminobutyric acid-active drugs -- Introduction -- Influence of aging on benzodiazepine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Influence of oral contraceptives on benzodiazepine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Summary: This clinical reference addresses the hormonal basis of mental disorders in older people.
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Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- Contributors -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Part I Overview -- 1 Summary chapter. The endocrine basis of geriatric psychiatry: an integrative approach -- Introduction -- Endocrine disorders as a cause of mental illness -- Hormones and aging -- Estrogen and cognitive dysfunction -- Testosterone and behavior -- Depression and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis -- Anorexia of aging and hormones -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- 2 Overview of steroids in the aging brain -- Introduction -- Biosynthesis, release, and serum transport -- Endocrine steroid synthesis -- Neurosteroids -- Thyroid hormones -- Receptors -- General principles -- CNS Localization and subtypes -- Biological effects of steroids -- Classical effects involve changes in neurotransmission -- Novel effects of steroids -- Sexual dimorphisms -- Interactions with other steroids -- Summary and conclusions -- REFERENCES -- Part II Hormones and mental health in the elderly -- 3 The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in aging: preclinical and clinical studies -- Introduction -- The physiology of the HPA axis -- The HPA axis in aging -- Animal studies -- Human studies -- The HPA axis in human disease states associated with aging -- Conclusions and future directions -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 4 The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis -- Introduction -- Physiology of the thyroid axis -- Regulation -- Effects of HPT-axis hormones on the brain: TRH and metabolites -- The HPT axis in the elderly -- Mood disorders related to the HPT axis in the elderly -- Hypothyroidism -- Hyperthyroidism -- Euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) -- Geriatric depression -- Therapeutic effects of HPT axis-related hormones in affective disorders -- Relationship between treatment modalities for affective disorders and the thyroid axis.

Cognitive effects of HPT axis in aging -- Summary and conclusions -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 5 Estrogen and depression in aging women -- Introduction -- Epidemiology of depressive disorders in aging -- The estrogen deficiency hypothesis of depression -- Epidemiologic evidence that estrogen use is protective against depression -- Neuroprotective role of estrogen in aging women -- Estrogen therapy for mood disorders -- Early attempts to determine if estrogen affects mood -- Recent clinical trials of estrogen replacement to improve mood -- Selective estrogen receptor modulators -- Tamoxifen -- Raloxifene -- Neurotransmitters that mediate estrogen's effects on mood -- Serotonin -- Basic scientific evidence -- Estrogen and 5-HT1A receptors -- Estrogen and 5-HT2 receptors -- Estrogen and the serotonin transporter -- Clinical evidence -- Estrogen and serotonergic antidepressant response -- Imaging data -- Estrogen and norepinephrine -- Nitric oxide -- Interactions between estrogen and other hormones in regulating mood -- Progestin -- The role of the HPA and HPG axes in mood -- Systemic effects of estrogen replacement therapy -- Physiology and biochemistry of estrogen -- Genomic and non-genomic actions of estrogen -- Estrogen metabolism -- Symptoms of menopause -- Effects of estrogen on peripheral target tissues -- Estrogen replacement therapy regimens -- Risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy -- Compliance with ERT -- Conclusions -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 6 The role of testosterone in male depression -- Introduction -- Overview -- Methodologic problems -- Male HPG physiology -- Testosterone secretion -- Testosterone levels through life -- Testosterone actions -- Metabolic effects -- Neuropsychiatric effects -- Prenatal organizing effects -- Postpubertal behavioral effects -- Dominance and submission -- Sexual behavior.

Aggression -- Cognition -- Testosterone in aging men -- Testosterone and male depressive illness -- Depression in hypogonadal men -- The HPG axis in depressed men -- Exogenous testosterone administration -- Androgen administration to non-depressed eugonadal men -- Androgen administration to non-depressed hypogonadal men -- Androgen administration to depressed men -- Treatment with exogenous testosterone -- Summary -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 7 Dehydroepiandrosterone in aging and mental health -- Introduction -- DHEA(S) as a neurosteroid -- DHEA(S) levels decrease as a function of aging, chronic stress and illness -- DHEA(S) improves learning and memory in animals -- Antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects in animals -- Neurotrophic potential of DHEA(S) -- DHEA(S) levels correlate with mood, memory and functional abilities in humans -- Mood -- Response to antidepressant and antianxiety medication -- General functional abilities and sense of well-being -- Cognitive function -- DHEA Treatment effects on well-being, mood, and memory in humans -- Well-being and general functioning -- Mood -- Memory -- Summary -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 8 Sex hormones, cognition, and dementia in the elderly -- Introduction -- Possible biological mechanisms of estrogen's effect on cognition -- Estrogen and cognition in non-demented women -- Estrogen therapy and dementia risk -- Estrogen for treatment of Alzheimer's disease -- Estrogen and Apolipoptrotein E -- Selective estrogen receptor modulators -- Testosterone -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- 9 Effects of estrogen on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognition: implications for brain aging and dementia in… -- Introduction -- Cholinergic neurons and cognition -- Estrogen and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons -- Estrogen replacement and acetylcholine release.

Estrogen replacement and learning and memory -- Mechanisms of estrogen effects on cholinergic neurons -- Effects on growth factors and growth factor receptors -- Changes in cholinergic parameters associated with long-term loss of ovarian function -- Summary of effects of estrogen on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons -- Other effects of estrogen -- Effects on other neurotransmitter systems -- Effects on hippocampal connectivity -- Effects on ß-amyloid processing -- Neuroprotective effects -- Summary and conclusions -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 10 Gender and schizophrenia -- Introduction -- Age of onset of schizophrenia -- Symptom presentation -- Course of illness -- Cognitive performance -- Neuroradiological abnormalities -- Response to antipyschotic medication -- Tardive dyskinesia -- Report of ongoing studies assessing gender differences in clinical and neuropsychological variables of schizophrenia -- Materials and methods -- Clinical evaluation -- Neuropsychological assessment -- Statistical methods -- Results -- Discussion and summary -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 11 Sex steroids and anxiety disorders -- Introduction -- Anxiety disorder overview -- Specific anxiety disorders: Gender differences and aging effects -- Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) -- Panic disorder -- Simple phobia -- Social phobia -- OCD -- PTSD -- Sex steroids and neurotransmission -- Estrogen -- Progesterone -- Female reproductive cycles impact on course of anxiety -- REFERENCES -- 12 Gender and hormonal factors in pain and pain inhibition -- Introduction -- Sex differences in the response to noxious stimuli in the laboratory -- Sex differences in health care utilization and chronic pain conditions -- Sex differences in responses to analgesic drugs -- Hormonal factors in human pain sensitivity.

Sex differences and hormonal factors in pain sensitivity in animal subjects -- Animal sex differences and hormonal factors in the analgesic responses to environmental stress and pharmaceuticals -- Magnitudinal differences in analgesia between the sexes -- Qualitative differences in analgesia between the sexes -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- Part III Effects of hormones and behavior on immune function -- 13 Estrogens, stress, and psychoneuroimmunology in women over the lifespan -- Stress, sex hormones, and psychoneuroimmunology -- Estrogen and immune function -- Estrogen-related differences in physiological reactivity to brief stressors -- Estrogen-related differences in immune reactivity to stress: possible pathways -- REFERENCES -- 14 Gender differences in immune function at the cellular level -- Introduction -- Sex differences in the neuroendocrine stress response: the role of glucocorticoids and their receptors. -- Mechanism of glucocorticoid regulation of immune function -- Mechanism of sex steroid regulation of immune function -- Cellular events induced by sex steroids -- Direct effects of sex steroids on immune function -- Aging -- Areas for further study -- REFERENCES -- Part IV Hormones and gender differences in psychotropic drug metabolism -- 15 Gender differences in psychotropic drug metabolism -- Introduction -- Non-metabolic factors affecting drug disposition -- Clearance vs. half-life -- Gastric effects -- Protein binding -- Metabolic differences -- Phase one and phase two metabolism -- Effects of exogenous estrogen -- Menstrual cycle effects -- Effects of pregnancy -- Summary -- Recommendations -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- 16 The influence of progesterone on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamma-aminobutyric acid-active drugs -- Introduction -- Influence of aging on benzodiazepine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Influence of oral contraceptives on benzodiazepine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

This clinical reference addresses the hormonal basis of mental disorders in older people.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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