Theory and Applications of Aerodynamics for Ground Vehicles.

By: Obidi, T. Yomi
Publisher: Warrendale : SAE International, 2014Copyright date: ©2014Description: 1 online resource (290 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780768088250Subject(s): Automobiles-Aerodynamics | Trucks-AerodynamicsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Theory and Applications of Aerodynamics for Ground VehiclesDDC classification: 629.231 LOC classification: TL245 .O253 2014Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction -- Chapter 1 Drag -- 1.1 General Concept of Drag -- 1.2 High Reynolds Number Flow versus Low Reynolds Number Flow -- 1.3 General Airfoil Flow Behavior -- 1.4 Airfoil Geometry -- 1.5 Flow Classification and Continuity: Steady and Unsteady Flow, Streamline -- 1.5.1 Stream Tubes -- 1.5.2 Continuity -- 1.5.3 Bernoulli's Equations -- 1.6 Boundary Layer -- 1.7 Airfoil Theory -- 1.8 Lift, Drag, Side Force, and Moment -- 1.8.1 Form Drag -- 1.8.2 Skin Friction Drag -- 1.8.3 Interference Drag -- 1.8.4 Induced Drag -- 1.8.5 Wave Drag -- 1.9 Sources of Drag in Ground Vehicles -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Important Questions/Application Questions -- Exercises -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 2 Noise and Vehicle Soiling -- 2.1 Sources of Noise -- 2.1.1 Vehicle Body -- 2.1.2 Windshield and Side Glasses -- 2.1.3 Powertrain -- 2.1.4 HVAC System -- 2.1.5 Environment -- 2.1.6 Tire -- 2.2 Types of Aerodynamic Noise -- 2.2.1 Attached Flow Noise -- 2.2.2 Separated Flow Noise -- 2.2.3 Cavity Noise -- 2.2.4 Wind Aspiration Noise -- 2.3 Locating Noise Source -- 2.4 Noise Measurement -- 2.4.1 Microphones -- 2.4.2 Acoustic Dummies -- 2.4.3 Sound Level Meters -- 2.4.4 Accelerometers and Dynamometers -- 2.5 Material-Based Noise Abatement -- 2.5.1 Acoustic Foam -- 2.5.2 Acoustic Barrier -- 2.6 Design-Based Noise Abatement -- 2.6.1 A-pillar -- 2.6.2 Side-View Mirrors -- 2.6.3 Windows and Sunroof -- 2.6.4 Doors and Door Handle -- 2.6.5 Windshield Wiper -- 2.6.6 Gaps -- 2.6.7 Hood Ornament and Radio Antenna -- 2.7 Wind Tunnel Noise -- 2.8 Vehicle Soiling -- 2.8.1 Front Soiling -- 2.8.2 Rear soiling -- 2.8.3 Side Soiling -- 2.8.4 Engine Intake Soiling -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Question -- Exercises -- Projects -- References.
Chapter 3 Experimental Aerodynamics for Ground Vehicles -- 3.1 Wind Tunnel -- 3.1.1 Principles of Operation -- 3.1.2 Wind Tunnel Classification -- 3.1.2.1 Classification by Basic Architecture -- 3.1.2.2 Classification by Speed -- 3.1.2.3 Classification by Air Pressure -- 3.1.2.4 Other Types of Wind Tunnel -- 3.1.3 Wind Tunnel Quality -- 3.1.4 Wind Tunnel Test Floor Modification -- 3.1.4.1 Elevated Ground Plane -- 3.1.4.2 Suction Ahead of Model -- 3.1.4.3 Suction Plate in the Tunnel Floor -- 3.1.4.4 Moving Belt -- 3.1.5 Wind Tunnel Model Size and Wall Correction -- 3.1.6 Mounting Devices -- 3.1.6.1 Model Placement -- 3.1.6.2 Internal Balance -- 3.1.6.3 External Balance -- 3.1.7 Measured and Computed Parameters -- 3.1.8 Instrumentation -- 3.1.9 Flow Visualization -- 3.1.10 Scale Model Testing -- 3.1.11 Scale Effect -- 3.1.12 Effect of Wheels -- 3.1.13 Similarity -- 3.1.14 Reynolds Number -- 3.1.15 Estimating Full-Scale Values from Model Data -- 3.2 Track and Road Testing -- 3.2.1 Aerodynamic Data Acquisition -- 3.2.1.1 Suspension Travel -- 3.2.1.2 Mounting Probe -- 3.2.1.3 Data Acquisition -- 3.2.2 Data Standardization -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercise -- Project -- References -- Chapter 4 Computational Aerodynamics for Ground Vehicles -- 4.1 Making a Case for Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD -- 4.2 Modeling -- 4.3 Methods of Modeling -- 4.4 Meshing -- 4.5 Boundary Conditions -- 4.5.1 Undefined (Unspecified) Boundary Condition -- 4.5.2 Frozen Boundary Condition -- 4.5.3 Reflection Boundary Condition -- 4.5.4 Free Stream Boundary Condition -- 4.5.5 Inflow Boundary Condition -- 4.5.6 Outflow Boundary Condition -- 4.5.7 Viscous Wall Boundary Condition -- 4.5.8 Non-viscous Wall Boundary Condition -- 4.5.9 Bleed Boundary Condition -- 4.5.10 Coupled Boundary Condition -- 4.6 Solution Methods.
4.6.1 Panel Method -- 4.6.2 Euler Method -- 4.6.3 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) -- 4.6.4 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) -- 4.6.5 Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) -- 4.7 Interpretation of Results -- 4.8 CFD Packages -- 4.9 Turbulence Modeling -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Question -- Exercise -- Project -- References -- Chapter 5 Vehicle Stability and Performance -- 5.1 Traction -- 5.1.1 Passenger Car -- 5.1.2 Tractor-Trailer -- 5.2 Power Requirement -- 5.3 Tire Contribution -- 5.4 Sideslip and Turning -- 5.5 Trailing Vortices -- 5.6 Control Surfaces -- 5.7 Car Underbody Flow -- 5.8 Cross Wind -- 5.9 Truck-Car Passing Interaction -- 5.10 Effect of the Environment on Aerodynamic Drag -- 5.11 Effect of Aerodynamic Drag on Fuel Consumption -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercises -- Project -- References -- Chapter 6 Vehicle Sectional Design -- 6.1 Car Front and Mid Sections -- 6.1.1 Effect of γ on the Flow -- 6.1.2 Effect of Hood and Windscreen Curvature -- 6.1.3 Nose and Fascia Design -- 6.1.4 Roof and Mid-section Pillars -- 6.1.5 Side-View Mirror -- 6.2 Car Rear Section -- 6.3 Downforce Devices -- 6.4 Underside -- 6.5 Vehicle Height -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 7 Trucks, Trailers, and Buses -- 7.1 Light Trucks, Minivans, and Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) -- 7.1.1 Front Design -- 7.1.2 Truck Tailgate -- 7.2 Medium Trucks -- 7.3 Large Trucks and Buses -- 7.3.1 Large Trucks -- 7.3.2 Buses -- 7.3.2.1 Articulated (Accordion) Buses -- 7.3.2.2 Double-Decker Buses -- 7.4 Side Skirts -- 7.5 Truck-Car Interaction-A Further Treatment -- 7.5.1 Northeast Headwind Condition -- 7.5.2 Northwest Headwind Condition -- 7.6 Applications of Computational Aerodynamics to Large Ground Vehicles -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions.
Application Questions -- Exercises -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 8 Railroad Train Aerodynamics -- 8.1 Low-Speed Passenger Train -- 8.2 High-Speed Passenger Train -- 8.3 Vibration in High-Speed Trains -- 8.4 Freight Train -- 8.5 Aerodynamic Considerations in Engine Module Design -- 8.6 Aerodynamic Considerations in Train Car Design -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercises -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 9 Severe Service and Off-Road Vehicles -- 9.1 Construction Trucks -- 9.1.1 Front Design -- 9.1.2 Side Design -- 9.2 Garbage Collection Trucks -- 9.3 Farm Machinery -- 9.4 In-Plant Carts -- 9.5 Sections of Severe Service and Off-Road Vehicles -- 9.6 Sectional Aerodynamic Design -- 9.7 Underbody Design -- 9.8 Soiling in Severe Service Vehicles -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Question -- Exercises -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 10 Race Cars, Sports Cars, and Convertibles -- 10.1 Race Cars and Sports Cars -- 10.1.1 Race Car Design Envelope -- 10.1.2 Performance and Dynamic Stability -- 10.1.3 Control Surfaces -- 10.1.4 Soiling in Race Cars -- 10.1.5 Race Car Overall Aerodynamics -- 10.1.6 Supercars -- 10.2 Rally Cars and Dragsters -- 10.3 Convertibles -- 10.3.1 Side Windows -- 10.3.2 Sunroof -- 10.3.3 Cloth-Top -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercises -- Project -- References -- Chapter 11 Motorcycles -- 11.1 Motorcycle Classifications -- 11.1.1 Cruisers -- 11.1.2 Sport -- 11.1.3 Touring -- 11.1.4 Standard (Street) -- 11.1.5 Dual Purpose -- 11.1.6 Dirt Bikes -- 11.2 Design for Aerodynamics -- 11.3 Motorcycle Stability and Control -- 11.4 Soiling in Motorcycles -- 11.5 Noise Generation and Effect -- 11.5.1 Windshield Noise Generation -- 11.5.2 Helmet Noise Generation -- 11.5.3 Body Noise Generation.
11.6 Aerodynamic Effects of the Track and the Pack -- 11.7 Motorcycle-Truck Interaction at High Speed -- 11.8 Motorcycle Engine Cooling -- 11.9 Three-Wheeled Motorcycle -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercises -- Project -- References -- Chapter 12 Internal Aerodynamics and Cooling System -- 12.1 Underhood Initiated Underbody Flow -- 12.2 Internal Air Flow -- 12.2.1 Flow Through Pipe Systems -- 12.2.2 Curved Pipes -- 12.3 Radiator Air Flow -- 12.3.1 Cooling System Drag -- 12.3.2 Sizing Cooling System Port -- 12.4 Thermal Effect -- 12.5 Cabin Air Conditioning -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercise -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 13 Concept Ground Vehicles -- 13.1 Passenger Car -- 13.2 Race Car -- 13.3 Trucks and Trailers -- 13.4 Motorcycles -- 13.5 Train -- 13.6 Severe Service and Off-Road Vehicles -- 13.7 Aerocars and Amphibians -- Reference -- Nomenclature -- Conversion Table -- Index -- About the Author.
Summary: This best-selling book provides an introduction to ground vehicle aerodynamics and methodically guides the reader through the various aspects of the subject. Those needing specific information or a refresher can easily jump to the material of interest. There is a particular emphasis on various vehicle types (passenger cars, trucks, trains, motorcycles, race cars, etc.). However, the book is focused on cars and trucks, which are the most common vehicles in the speed range in which the study of ground vehicle aerodynamics is beneficial. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of the topic, which will help them design vehicles that have improved aerodynamics; this will lead to better fuel efficiency, improved performance, and increased passenger comfort. The author's basic approach to the presentation of the material is complemented with review questions, application questions, exercises, and suggested projects at the end of most of the chapters, which helps the reader apply the information presented, either in the classroom or for self-study. Aside from offering a solid understanding of ground vehicle aerodynamics, the book also offers more thorough study of several key topics. One such topic is car-truck interaction, when one vehicle (usually the smaller one) is overtaking the other. There is a direct and instant benefit in terms of safety on the highway from understanding the forces at play when one vehicle passes the other in the same direction and sense.
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Intro -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Introduction -- Chapter 1 Drag -- 1.1 General Concept of Drag -- 1.2 High Reynolds Number Flow versus Low Reynolds Number Flow -- 1.3 General Airfoil Flow Behavior -- 1.4 Airfoil Geometry -- 1.5 Flow Classification and Continuity: Steady and Unsteady Flow, Streamline -- 1.5.1 Stream Tubes -- 1.5.2 Continuity -- 1.5.3 Bernoulli's Equations -- 1.6 Boundary Layer -- 1.7 Airfoil Theory -- 1.8 Lift, Drag, Side Force, and Moment -- 1.8.1 Form Drag -- 1.8.2 Skin Friction Drag -- 1.8.3 Interference Drag -- 1.8.4 Induced Drag -- 1.8.5 Wave Drag -- 1.9 Sources of Drag in Ground Vehicles -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Important Questions/Application Questions -- Exercises -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 2 Noise and Vehicle Soiling -- 2.1 Sources of Noise -- 2.1.1 Vehicle Body -- 2.1.2 Windshield and Side Glasses -- 2.1.3 Powertrain -- 2.1.4 HVAC System -- 2.1.5 Environment -- 2.1.6 Tire -- 2.2 Types of Aerodynamic Noise -- 2.2.1 Attached Flow Noise -- 2.2.2 Separated Flow Noise -- 2.2.3 Cavity Noise -- 2.2.4 Wind Aspiration Noise -- 2.3 Locating Noise Source -- 2.4 Noise Measurement -- 2.4.1 Microphones -- 2.4.2 Acoustic Dummies -- 2.4.3 Sound Level Meters -- 2.4.4 Accelerometers and Dynamometers -- 2.5 Material-Based Noise Abatement -- 2.5.1 Acoustic Foam -- 2.5.2 Acoustic Barrier -- 2.6 Design-Based Noise Abatement -- 2.6.1 A-pillar -- 2.6.2 Side-View Mirrors -- 2.6.3 Windows and Sunroof -- 2.6.4 Doors and Door Handle -- 2.6.5 Windshield Wiper -- 2.6.6 Gaps -- 2.6.7 Hood Ornament and Radio Antenna -- 2.7 Wind Tunnel Noise -- 2.8 Vehicle Soiling -- 2.8.1 Front Soiling -- 2.8.2 Rear soiling -- 2.8.3 Side Soiling -- 2.8.4 Engine Intake Soiling -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Question -- Exercises -- Projects -- References.

Chapter 3 Experimental Aerodynamics for Ground Vehicles -- 3.1 Wind Tunnel -- 3.1.1 Principles of Operation -- 3.1.2 Wind Tunnel Classification -- 3.1.2.1 Classification by Basic Architecture -- 3.1.2.2 Classification by Speed -- 3.1.2.3 Classification by Air Pressure -- 3.1.2.4 Other Types of Wind Tunnel -- 3.1.3 Wind Tunnel Quality -- 3.1.4 Wind Tunnel Test Floor Modification -- 3.1.4.1 Elevated Ground Plane -- 3.1.4.2 Suction Ahead of Model -- 3.1.4.3 Suction Plate in the Tunnel Floor -- 3.1.4.4 Moving Belt -- 3.1.5 Wind Tunnel Model Size and Wall Correction -- 3.1.6 Mounting Devices -- 3.1.6.1 Model Placement -- 3.1.6.2 Internal Balance -- 3.1.6.3 External Balance -- 3.1.7 Measured and Computed Parameters -- 3.1.8 Instrumentation -- 3.1.9 Flow Visualization -- 3.1.10 Scale Model Testing -- 3.1.11 Scale Effect -- 3.1.12 Effect of Wheels -- 3.1.13 Similarity -- 3.1.14 Reynolds Number -- 3.1.15 Estimating Full-Scale Values from Model Data -- 3.2 Track and Road Testing -- 3.2.1 Aerodynamic Data Acquisition -- 3.2.1.1 Suspension Travel -- 3.2.1.2 Mounting Probe -- 3.2.1.3 Data Acquisition -- 3.2.2 Data Standardization -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercise -- Project -- References -- Chapter 4 Computational Aerodynamics for Ground Vehicles -- 4.1 Making a Case for Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD -- 4.2 Modeling -- 4.3 Methods of Modeling -- 4.4 Meshing -- 4.5 Boundary Conditions -- 4.5.1 Undefined (Unspecified) Boundary Condition -- 4.5.2 Frozen Boundary Condition -- 4.5.3 Reflection Boundary Condition -- 4.5.4 Free Stream Boundary Condition -- 4.5.5 Inflow Boundary Condition -- 4.5.6 Outflow Boundary Condition -- 4.5.7 Viscous Wall Boundary Condition -- 4.5.8 Non-viscous Wall Boundary Condition -- 4.5.9 Bleed Boundary Condition -- 4.5.10 Coupled Boundary Condition -- 4.6 Solution Methods.

4.6.1 Panel Method -- 4.6.2 Euler Method -- 4.6.3 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) -- 4.6.4 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) -- 4.6.5 Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) -- 4.7 Interpretation of Results -- 4.8 CFD Packages -- 4.9 Turbulence Modeling -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Question -- Exercise -- Project -- References -- Chapter 5 Vehicle Stability and Performance -- 5.1 Traction -- 5.1.1 Passenger Car -- 5.1.2 Tractor-Trailer -- 5.2 Power Requirement -- 5.3 Tire Contribution -- 5.4 Sideslip and Turning -- 5.5 Trailing Vortices -- 5.6 Control Surfaces -- 5.7 Car Underbody Flow -- 5.8 Cross Wind -- 5.9 Truck-Car Passing Interaction -- 5.10 Effect of the Environment on Aerodynamic Drag -- 5.11 Effect of Aerodynamic Drag on Fuel Consumption -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercises -- Project -- References -- Chapter 6 Vehicle Sectional Design -- 6.1 Car Front and Mid Sections -- 6.1.1 Effect of γ on the Flow -- 6.1.2 Effect of Hood and Windscreen Curvature -- 6.1.3 Nose and Fascia Design -- 6.1.4 Roof and Mid-section Pillars -- 6.1.5 Side-View Mirror -- 6.2 Car Rear Section -- 6.3 Downforce Devices -- 6.4 Underside -- 6.5 Vehicle Height -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 7 Trucks, Trailers, and Buses -- 7.1 Light Trucks, Minivans, and Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) -- 7.1.1 Front Design -- 7.1.2 Truck Tailgate -- 7.2 Medium Trucks -- 7.3 Large Trucks and Buses -- 7.3.1 Large Trucks -- 7.3.2 Buses -- 7.3.2.1 Articulated (Accordion) Buses -- 7.3.2.2 Double-Decker Buses -- 7.4 Side Skirts -- 7.5 Truck-Car Interaction-A Further Treatment -- 7.5.1 Northeast Headwind Condition -- 7.5.2 Northwest Headwind Condition -- 7.6 Applications of Computational Aerodynamics to Large Ground Vehicles -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions.

Application Questions -- Exercises -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 8 Railroad Train Aerodynamics -- 8.1 Low-Speed Passenger Train -- 8.2 High-Speed Passenger Train -- 8.3 Vibration in High-Speed Trains -- 8.4 Freight Train -- 8.5 Aerodynamic Considerations in Engine Module Design -- 8.6 Aerodynamic Considerations in Train Car Design -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercises -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 9 Severe Service and Off-Road Vehicles -- 9.1 Construction Trucks -- 9.1.1 Front Design -- 9.1.2 Side Design -- 9.2 Garbage Collection Trucks -- 9.3 Farm Machinery -- 9.4 In-Plant Carts -- 9.5 Sections of Severe Service and Off-Road Vehicles -- 9.6 Sectional Aerodynamic Design -- 9.7 Underbody Design -- 9.8 Soiling in Severe Service Vehicles -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Question -- Exercises -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 10 Race Cars, Sports Cars, and Convertibles -- 10.1 Race Cars and Sports Cars -- 10.1.1 Race Car Design Envelope -- 10.1.2 Performance and Dynamic Stability -- 10.1.3 Control Surfaces -- 10.1.4 Soiling in Race Cars -- 10.1.5 Race Car Overall Aerodynamics -- 10.1.6 Supercars -- 10.2 Rally Cars and Dragsters -- 10.3 Convertibles -- 10.3.1 Side Windows -- 10.3.2 Sunroof -- 10.3.3 Cloth-Top -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercises -- Project -- References -- Chapter 11 Motorcycles -- 11.1 Motorcycle Classifications -- 11.1.1 Cruisers -- 11.1.2 Sport -- 11.1.3 Touring -- 11.1.4 Standard (Street) -- 11.1.5 Dual Purpose -- 11.1.6 Dirt Bikes -- 11.2 Design for Aerodynamics -- 11.3 Motorcycle Stability and Control -- 11.4 Soiling in Motorcycles -- 11.5 Noise Generation and Effect -- 11.5.1 Windshield Noise Generation -- 11.5.2 Helmet Noise Generation -- 11.5.3 Body Noise Generation.

11.6 Aerodynamic Effects of the Track and the Pack -- 11.7 Motorcycle-Truck Interaction at High Speed -- 11.8 Motorcycle Engine Cooling -- 11.9 Three-Wheeled Motorcycle -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercises -- Project -- References -- Chapter 12 Internal Aerodynamics and Cooling System -- 12.1 Underhood Initiated Underbody Flow -- 12.2 Internal Air Flow -- 12.2.1 Flow Through Pipe Systems -- 12.2.2 Curved Pipes -- 12.3 Radiator Air Flow -- 12.3.1 Cooling System Drag -- 12.3.2 Sizing Cooling System Port -- 12.4 Thermal Effect -- 12.5 Cabin Air Conditioning -- Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Application Questions -- Exercise -- Projects -- References -- Chapter 13 Concept Ground Vehicles -- 13.1 Passenger Car -- 13.2 Race Car -- 13.3 Trucks and Trailers -- 13.4 Motorcycles -- 13.5 Train -- 13.6 Severe Service and Off-Road Vehicles -- 13.7 Aerocars and Amphibians -- Reference -- Nomenclature -- Conversion Table -- Index -- About the Author.

This best-selling book provides an introduction to ground vehicle aerodynamics and methodically guides the reader through the various aspects of the subject. Those needing specific information or a refresher can easily jump to the material of interest. There is a particular emphasis on various vehicle types (passenger cars, trucks, trains, motorcycles, race cars, etc.). However, the book is focused on cars and trucks, which are the most common vehicles in the speed range in which the study of ground vehicle aerodynamics is beneficial. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of the topic, which will help them design vehicles that have improved aerodynamics; this will lead to better fuel efficiency, improved performance, and increased passenger comfort. The author's basic approach to the presentation of the material is complemented with review questions, application questions, exercises, and suggested projects at the end of most of the chapters, which helps the reader apply the information presented, either in the classroom or for self-study. Aside from offering a solid understanding of ground vehicle aerodynamics, the book also offers more thorough study of several key topics. One such topic is car-truck interaction, when one vehicle (usually the smaller one) is overtaking the other. There is a direct and instant benefit in terms of safety on the highway from understanding the forces at play when one vehicle passes the other in the same direction and sense.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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