Real-Time Embedded Systems.

By: Wang, JiacunSeries: Quantitative Software Engineering SerPublisher: New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2017Copyright date: ©2017Description: 1 online resource (331 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781119420705Subject(s): Embedded computer systemsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Real-Time Embedded SystemsDDC classification: 006.22 LOC classification: TK7895.E42.W364 2017Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Book Layout -- Acknowledgments -- Chapter 1 Introduction to Real-Time Embedded Systems -- 1.1 Real-Time Embedded Systems -- 1.2 Example: Automobile Antilock Braking System -- 1.2.1 Slip Rate and Brake Force -- 1.2.2 ABS Components -- 1.2.2.1 Sensors -- 1.2.2.2 Valves and Pumps -- 1.2.2.3 Electrical Control Unit -- 1.2.3 ABS Control -- 1.3 Real-Time Embedded System Characteristics -- 1.3.1 System Structure -- 1.3.2 Real-Time Response -- 1.3.3 Highly Constrained Environments -- 1.3.4 Concurrency -- 1.3.5 Predictability -- 1.3.6 Safety and Reliability -- 1.4 Hard and Soft Real-Time Embedded Systems -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 2 Hardware Components -- 2.1 Processors -- 2.1.1 Microprocessors -- 2.1.2 Microcontrollers -- 2.1.3 Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) -- 2.1.4 Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) -- 2.1.5 Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) -- 2.1.6 Application-Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs) -- 2.1.7 Multicore Processors -- 2.1.8 Von Neumann Architecture and Harvard Architecture -- 2.1.9 Complex Instruction Set Computing and Reduced Instruction Set Computing -- 2.2 Memory and Cache -- 2.2.1 Read-Only Memory (ROM) -- 2.2.2 Random-Access Memory (RAM) -- 2.2.3 Cache Memory -- 2.3 I/O Interfaces -- 2.4 Sensors and Actuators -- 2.5 Timers and Counters -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 3 Real-Time Operating Systems -- 3.1 Main Functions of General-Purpose Operating Systems -- 3.1.1 Process Management -- 3.1.2 Memory Management -- 3.1.3 Interrupts Management -- 3.1.4 Multitasking -- 3.1.5 File System Management -- 3.1.6 I/O Management -- 3.2 Characteristics of RTOS Kernels -- 3.2.1 Clocks and Timers -- 3.2.2 Priority Scheduling -- 3.2.3 Intertask Communication and Resource Sharing -- 3.2.3.1 Real-Time Signals.
3.2.3.2 Semaphores -- 3.2.3.3 Message Passing -- 3.2.3.4 Shared Memory -- 3.2.4 Asynchronous I/O -- 3.2.5 Memory Locking -- 3.3 RTOS Examples -- 3.3.1 LynxOS -- 3.3.2 OSE -- 3.3.3 QNX -- 3.3.4 VxWorks -- 3.3.5 Windows Embedded Compact -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- URLs -- Chapter 4 Task Scheduling -- 4.1 Tasks -- 4.1.1 Task Specification -- 4.1.2 Task States -- 4.1.3 Precedence Constraints -- 4.1.4 Task Assignment and Scheduling -- 4.2 Clock-Driven Scheduling -- 4.2.1 Structured Clock-Driven Scheduling -- 4.2.1.1 Frames -- 4.2.1.2 Task Slicing -- 4.2.2 Scheduling Aperiodic Tasks -- 4.2.3 Scheduling Sporadic Tasks -- 4.3 Round-Robin Approach -- 4.4 Priority-Driven Scheduling Algorithms -- 4.4.1 Fixed-Priority Algorithms -- 4.4.1.1 Schedulability Test Based on Time Demand Analysis -- 4.4.1.2 Deadline-Monotonic Algorithm -- 4.4.2 Dynamic-Priority Algorithms -- 4.4.2.1 Earliest-Deadline-First (EDF) Algorithm -- 4.4.2.2 Optimality of EDF -- 4.4.3 Priority-Driven Scheduling of Aperiodic and Sporadic Tasks -- 4.4.3.1 Scheduling of Aperiodic Tasks -- 4.4.3.2 Scheduling of Sporadic Tasks -- 4.4.4 Practical Factors -- 4.4.4.1 Nonpreemptivity -- 4.4.4.2 Self-Suspension -- 4.4.4.3 Context Switches -- 4.4.4.4 Schedulability Test -- 4.5 Task Assignment -- 4.5.1 Bin-Packing Algorithms -- 4.5.1.1 First-Fit Algorithm -- 4.5.1.2 First-Fit Decreasing Algorithm -- 4.5.1.3 Rate-Monotonic First-Fit (RMFF) Algorithm -- 4.5.2 Assignment with Communication Cost -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 5 Resource Sharing and Access Control -- 5.1 Resource Sharing -- 5.1.1 Resource Operation -- 5.1.2 Resource Requirement Specification -- 5.1.3 Priority Inversion and Deadlocks -- 5.1.4 Resource Access Control -- 5.2 Nonpreemptive Critical Section Protocol -- 5.3 Priority Inheritance Protocol -- 5.3.1 Rules of Priority Inheritance Protocol.
5.3.2 Properties of Priority Inheritance Protocol -- 5.4 Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.4.1 Rules of Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.4.2 Properties of Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.4.3 Worst-Case Blocking Time -- 5.5 Stack-Sharing Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.5.1 Rules of Stack-Sharing Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.5.2 Properties of Stack-Sharing Priority Ceiling Protocol -- Suggestion for Reading -- References -- Chapter 6 Concurrent Programming -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 POSIX Threads -- 6.3 Synchronization Primitives -- 6.3.1 Race Conditions and Critical Sections -- 6.3.2 Mutex -- 6.3.3 Condition Variables -- 6.3.4 Semaphores -- 6.4 Communication among Tasks -- 6.4.1 Message Queues -- 6.4.2 Shared Memory -- 6.4.3 Shared Memory Protection -- 6.5 Real-Time Facilities -- 6.5.1 Real-Time Signals -- 6.5.1.1 Blocking Signals -- 6.5.1.2 Dealing with Signals -- 6.5.2 Timers -- 6.5.3 Implement Periodic Tasks -- 6.5.3.1 Using sleep() Function -- 6.5.3.2 Using Timers -- 6.5.4 Implement an Application with Multiple Periodic Tasks -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 7 Finite-State Machines -- 7.1 Finite State Machine Basics -- 7.2 Deterministic Finite Automation (DFA) -- 7.2.1 Moore Machines -- 7.2.2 Mealy Machines -- 7.3 Nondeterministic Finite Automation -- 7.4 Programming Finite-State Machines -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 8 UML State Machines -- 8.1 States -- 8.2 Transitions -- 8.3 Events -- 8.4 Composite States -- 8.4.1 Hierarchy -- 8.4.2 Orthogonality -- 8.4.3 Submachine States -- 8.5 Pseudostates -- 8.5.1 History Pseudostates -- 8.5.2 Entry and Exit Points -- 8.5.3 Fork and Join Pseudostates -- 8.5.4 Terminate Pseudostates -- 8.6 UML State Machine of Antilock Braking System -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 9 Timed Petri Nets -- 9.1 Petri Net Definition -- 9.1.1 Transition Firing.
9.1.2 Modeling Power -- 9.2 Petri Net Properties -- 9.2.1 Behavioral Properties -- 9.2.1.1 Reachability -- 9.2.1.2 ω Markings -- 9.2.1.3 Reachability Analysis Algorithm -- 9.2.1.4 Boundedness and Safeness -- 9.2.1.5 Liveness -- 9.2.2 Structural Properties -- 9.2.2.1 T-Invariants and S-Invariants -- 9.2.2.2 Siphons and Traps -- 9.3 Timed Petri Nets -- 9.3.1 Deterministic Timed Petri Nets -- 9.3.1.1 Performance Evaluation Based on DTPNs -- 9.3.2 Time Petri Nets -- 9.3.2.1 States in a Time Petri Net -- 9.3.2.2 Enabling and Firing Conditions of Transitions -- 9.3.2.3 Firing Rules -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 10 Model Checking -- 10.1 Introduction to Model Checking -- 10.2 Temporal Logic -- 10.2.1 Linear Temporal Logic -- 10.2.1.1 Syntax of LTL -- 10.2.1.2 Parse Trees for LTL Formulas -- 10.2.1.3 Semantics of LTL -- 10.2.1.4 Equivalencies of LTL Formulas -- 10.2.1.5 System Property Specification -- 10.2.2 Computation Tree logic -- 10.2.2.1 Syntax of CTL -- 10.2.2.2 Semantics of CTL -- 10.2.2.3 Equivalencies of CTL Formulas -- 10.2.3 LTL versus CTL -- 10.3 The NuSMV Model Checking Tool -- 10.3.1 Description Language -- 10.3.1.1 Single-Module SMV Program -- 10.3.1.2 Multimodule SMV Program -- 10.3.1.3 Asynchronous Systems -- 10.3.2 Specifications -- 10.3.3 Running NuSMV -- 10.4 Real-Time Computation Tree Logic -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 11 Practical Issues -- 11.1 Software Reliability -- 11.1.1 Software Faults -- 11.1.2 Reliability Measurement -- 11.1.3 Improving Software Reliability -- 11.1.3.1 Fault Avoidance -- 11.1.3.2 Fault Removal -- 11.1.3.3 Fault Tolerance -- 11.1.3.4 Fault Recovery -- 11.2 Software Aging and Rejuvenation -- 11.3 Security -- 11.3.1 Challenges -- 11.3.2 Common Vulnerabilities -- 11.3.3 Secure Software Design -- 11.4 Safety -- 11.5 Power Conservation -- Suggestions for Reading.
References -- Index -- EULA.
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Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Book Layout -- Acknowledgments -- Chapter 1 Introduction to Real-Time Embedded Systems -- 1.1 Real-Time Embedded Systems -- 1.2 Example: Automobile Antilock Braking System -- 1.2.1 Slip Rate and Brake Force -- 1.2.2 ABS Components -- 1.2.2.1 Sensors -- 1.2.2.2 Valves and Pumps -- 1.2.2.3 Electrical Control Unit -- 1.2.3 ABS Control -- 1.3 Real-Time Embedded System Characteristics -- 1.3.1 System Structure -- 1.3.2 Real-Time Response -- 1.3.3 Highly Constrained Environments -- 1.3.4 Concurrency -- 1.3.5 Predictability -- 1.3.6 Safety and Reliability -- 1.4 Hard and Soft Real-Time Embedded Systems -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 2 Hardware Components -- 2.1 Processors -- 2.1.1 Microprocessors -- 2.1.2 Microcontrollers -- 2.1.3 Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) -- 2.1.4 Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) -- 2.1.5 Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) -- 2.1.6 Application-Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs) -- 2.1.7 Multicore Processors -- 2.1.8 Von Neumann Architecture and Harvard Architecture -- 2.1.9 Complex Instruction Set Computing and Reduced Instruction Set Computing -- 2.2 Memory and Cache -- 2.2.1 Read-Only Memory (ROM) -- 2.2.2 Random-Access Memory (RAM) -- 2.2.3 Cache Memory -- 2.3 I/O Interfaces -- 2.4 Sensors and Actuators -- 2.5 Timers and Counters -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 3 Real-Time Operating Systems -- 3.1 Main Functions of General-Purpose Operating Systems -- 3.1.1 Process Management -- 3.1.2 Memory Management -- 3.1.3 Interrupts Management -- 3.1.4 Multitasking -- 3.1.5 File System Management -- 3.1.6 I/O Management -- 3.2 Characteristics of RTOS Kernels -- 3.2.1 Clocks and Timers -- 3.2.2 Priority Scheduling -- 3.2.3 Intertask Communication and Resource Sharing -- 3.2.3.1 Real-Time Signals.

3.2.3.2 Semaphores -- 3.2.3.3 Message Passing -- 3.2.3.4 Shared Memory -- 3.2.4 Asynchronous I/O -- 3.2.5 Memory Locking -- 3.3 RTOS Examples -- 3.3.1 LynxOS -- 3.3.2 OSE -- 3.3.3 QNX -- 3.3.4 VxWorks -- 3.3.5 Windows Embedded Compact -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- URLs -- Chapter 4 Task Scheduling -- 4.1 Tasks -- 4.1.1 Task Specification -- 4.1.2 Task States -- 4.1.3 Precedence Constraints -- 4.1.4 Task Assignment and Scheduling -- 4.2 Clock-Driven Scheduling -- 4.2.1 Structured Clock-Driven Scheduling -- 4.2.1.1 Frames -- 4.2.1.2 Task Slicing -- 4.2.2 Scheduling Aperiodic Tasks -- 4.2.3 Scheduling Sporadic Tasks -- 4.3 Round-Robin Approach -- 4.4 Priority-Driven Scheduling Algorithms -- 4.4.1 Fixed-Priority Algorithms -- 4.4.1.1 Schedulability Test Based on Time Demand Analysis -- 4.4.1.2 Deadline-Monotonic Algorithm -- 4.4.2 Dynamic-Priority Algorithms -- 4.4.2.1 Earliest-Deadline-First (EDF) Algorithm -- 4.4.2.2 Optimality of EDF -- 4.4.3 Priority-Driven Scheduling of Aperiodic and Sporadic Tasks -- 4.4.3.1 Scheduling of Aperiodic Tasks -- 4.4.3.2 Scheduling of Sporadic Tasks -- 4.4.4 Practical Factors -- 4.4.4.1 Nonpreemptivity -- 4.4.4.2 Self-Suspension -- 4.4.4.3 Context Switches -- 4.4.4.4 Schedulability Test -- 4.5 Task Assignment -- 4.5.1 Bin-Packing Algorithms -- 4.5.1.1 First-Fit Algorithm -- 4.5.1.2 First-Fit Decreasing Algorithm -- 4.5.1.3 Rate-Monotonic First-Fit (RMFF) Algorithm -- 4.5.2 Assignment with Communication Cost -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 5 Resource Sharing and Access Control -- 5.1 Resource Sharing -- 5.1.1 Resource Operation -- 5.1.2 Resource Requirement Specification -- 5.1.3 Priority Inversion and Deadlocks -- 5.1.4 Resource Access Control -- 5.2 Nonpreemptive Critical Section Protocol -- 5.3 Priority Inheritance Protocol -- 5.3.1 Rules of Priority Inheritance Protocol.

5.3.2 Properties of Priority Inheritance Protocol -- 5.4 Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.4.1 Rules of Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.4.2 Properties of Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.4.3 Worst-Case Blocking Time -- 5.5 Stack-Sharing Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.5.1 Rules of Stack-Sharing Priority Ceiling Protocol -- 5.5.2 Properties of Stack-Sharing Priority Ceiling Protocol -- Suggestion for Reading -- References -- Chapter 6 Concurrent Programming -- 6.1 Introduction -- 6.2 POSIX Threads -- 6.3 Synchronization Primitives -- 6.3.1 Race Conditions and Critical Sections -- 6.3.2 Mutex -- 6.3.3 Condition Variables -- 6.3.4 Semaphores -- 6.4 Communication among Tasks -- 6.4.1 Message Queues -- 6.4.2 Shared Memory -- 6.4.3 Shared Memory Protection -- 6.5 Real-Time Facilities -- 6.5.1 Real-Time Signals -- 6.5.1.1 Blocking Signals -- 6.5.1.2 Dealing with Signals -- 6.5.2 Timers -- 6.5.3 Implement Periodic Tasks -- 6.5.3.1 Using sleep() Function -- 6.5.3.2 Using Timers -- 6.5.4 Implement an Application with Multiple Periodic Tasks -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 7 Finite-State Machines -- 7.1 Finite State Machine Basics -- 7.2 Deterministic Finite Automation (DFA) -- 7.2.1 Moore Machines -- 7.2.2 Mealy Machines -- 7.3 Nondeterministic Finite Automation -- 7.4 Programming Finite-State Machines -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 8 UML State Machines -- 8.1 States -- 8.2 Transitions -- 8.3 Events -- 8.4 Composite States -- 8.4.1 Hierarchy -- 8.4.2 Orthogonality -- 8.4.3 Submachine States -- 8.5 Pseudostates -- 8.5.1 History Pseudostates -- 8.5.2 Entry and Exit Points -- 8.5.3 Fork and Join Pseudostates -- 8.5.4 Terminate Pseudostates -- 8.6 UML State Machine of Antilock Braking System -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 9 Timed Petri Nets -- 9.1 Petri Net Definition -- 9.1.1 Transition Firing.

9.1.2 Modeling Power -- 9.2 Petri Net Properties -- 9.2.1 Behavioral Properties -- 9.2.1.1 Reachability -- 9.2.1.2 ω Markings -- 9.2.1.3 Reachability Analysis Algorithm -- 9.2.1.4 Boundedness and Safeness -- 9.2.1.5 Liveness -- 9.2.2 Structural Properties -- 9.2.2.1 T-Invariants and S-Invariants -- 9.2.2.2 Siphons and Traps -- 9.3 Timed Petri Nets -- 9.3.1 Deterministic Timed Petri Nets -- 9.3.1.1 Performance Evaluation Based on DTPNs -- 9.3.2 Time Petri Nets -- 9.3.2.1 States in a Time Petri Net -- 9.3.2.2 Enabling and Firing Conditions of Transitions -- 9.3.2.3 Firing Rules -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 10 Model Checking -- 10.1 Introduction to Model Checking -- 10.2 Temporal Logic -- 10.2.1 Linear Temporal Logic -- 10.2.1.1 Syntax of LTL -- 10.2.1.2 Parse Trees for LTL Formulas -- 10.2.1.3 Semantics of LTL -- 10.2.1.4 Equivalencies of LTL Formulas -- 10.2.1.5 System Property Specification -- 10.2.2 Computation Tree logic -- 10.2.2.1 Syntax of CTL -- 10.2.2.2 Semantics of CTL -- 10.2.2.3 Equivalencies of CTL Formulas -- 10.2.3 LTL versus CTL -- 10.3 The NuSMV Model Checking Tool -- 10.3.1 Description Language -- 10.3.1.1 Single-Module SMV Program -- 10.3.1.2 Multimodule SMV Program -- 10.3.1.3 Asynchronous Systems -- 10.3.2 Specifications -- 10.3.3 Running NuSMV -- 10.4 Real-Time Computation Tree Logic -- Suggestions for Reading -- References -- Chapter 11 Practical Issues -- 11.1 Software Reliability -- 11.1.1 Software Faults -- 11.1.2 Reliability Measurement -- 11.1.3 Improving Software Reliability -- 11.1.3.1 Fault Avoidance -- 11.1.3.2 Fault Removal -- 11.1.3.3 Fault Tolerance -- 11.1.3.4 Fault Recovery -- 11.2 Software Aging and Rejuvenation -- 11.3 Security -- 11.3.1 Challenges -- 11.3.2 Common Vulnerabilities -- 11.3.3 Secure Software Design -- 11.4 Safety -- 11.5 Power Conservation -- Suggestions for Reading.

References -- Index -- EULA.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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