A Companion to Wittgenstein.

By: Glock, Hans-JohannContributor(s): Hyman, JohnSeries: Blackwell Companions to Philosophy SerPublisher: Milton, QLD : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2017Copyright date: ©2017Description: 1 online resource (903 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118641477Subject(s): Wittgenstein, LudwigGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: A Companion to WittgensteinDDC classification: 192 LOC classification: B3376.W564.C667 2017Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- Title Page -- Table of Contents -- List of Contributors -- Acknowledgments -- Wittgenstein's Published Works in Order of Composition -- Lectures and Conversations -- Anthologies and Collections -- Works Derived from Dictations by, or Conversations with, Wittgenstein -- Correspondence -- Nachlass -- Introduction -- Ludwig Wittgenstein -- References -- Further Reading -- Part I: Introductory -- 1 Wittgenstein's Philosophical Development -- 1 Some Basic Features of Wittgenstein's Work -- 2 The Early Work -- 3 Thinking about Wittgenstein's Development -- 4 The Transformation -- 5 The Typescripts and Revisions -- References -- Further Reading -- 2 Wittgenstein's Texts and Style -- 1 Internalism and Externalism about Style and Method -- 2 Identifying Texts and Works -- 3 Identifying Voices in the Text -- References -- Further Reading -- Part II: Influences -- 3 Wittgenstein and Schopenhauer -- 1 Early and Later Wittgenstein -- 2 Schopenhauer's Influence on the Early Wittgenstein -- 3 Schopenhauerian Perceptible Sign and Transcendent Symbol -- 4 Transcendent Tractatus Logic and Semantics -- 5 Transcendence of Convergent Ethical‐Aesthetic Value -- 6 Later Anti‐Schopenhauerian Anti‐Transcendental Antipode -- References -- Further Reading -- 4 Wittgenstein and Frege -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Wittgenstein's Relationship with Frege -- 3 Frege and Wittgenstein's Early Work -- 4 Frege and Wittgenstein's Later Work -- 5 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 5 Wittgenstein and Russell -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Russellian Background -- 3 The Multiple‐Relation Theory of Judgment -- 4 The Narrow Direction Problem (ND) -- 5 The Wide Direction Problem (WD) -- 6 Wittgenstein's Objection and Russell's Paralysis -- 7 Direct Inspection and the MRTJ (First Problem with EI) -- 8 The Logical Status of the Subordinate Relation (Second Problem with EI).
9 Solution to these two Problems: OI -- 10 Propositional Functions -- 11 Wittgenstein on Logical Form -- 12 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 6 Wittgenstein, Hertz, and Boltzmann -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Boltzmann and Hertz -- 3 Wittgenstein's Knowledge of Boltzmann and Hertz -- 4 Hertz and His Mechanics -- 5 The Picture Conception of Language -- 6 Wittgenstein's Way of Reading Hertz's Mechanics -- 7 Hertz's Influence on Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy -- 8 Boltzmann -- 9 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Further Reading -- Part III: Early Philosophy -- 7 Logical Atomism -- 1 The Tractarian Logical Atomism -- 2 The Possibility of Complete Analysis -- 3 Some Recent Interpretations of the Substance Argument -- 4 The Substance Argument -- References -- Further Reading -- 8 The Picture Theory -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Identity of Fact and Sense -- 3 The Priority of Sense (i) -- 4 The Priority of Sense (ii) -- 5 The Expression of a Sense (i) -- 6 The Expression of a Sense (ii) -- 7 The Expression of a Sense (iii) -- 8 Truth as the Given -- References -- Further Reading -- 9 Wittgenstein on Solipsism -- 1 The Impact of Schopenhauer -- 2 Wittgenstein on Solipsism in the Tractatus -- 3 Wittgenstein on Solipsism in the "Blue Book" -- 4 Critique of Solipsism and the Self that Takes Responsibility for a Judgment -- References -- Further Reading -- 10 Resolute Readings of the Tractatus -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Original Concept of a Resolute Reading -- 3 Two Sorts of Criticism of "Resolute Readings" -- 4 Shedding the First Two Logical Features -- 5 Shedding the Third Logical Feature -- 6 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 11 Ineffability and Nonsense in the Tractatus -- 1 The Orthodox Reading of the Tractatus -- 2 The First Criticism and Responses -- 3 The Second Criticism and Responses.
4 The Third Criticism and a Simple Response -- 5 The Fourth Criticism and Responses -- 6 The Resolute Reading as an Unorthodox Reading of the Tractatus -- 7 The Strong and Weak Resolute Readings -- 8 Criticisms and Comments -- References -- Further Reading -- 12 Metaphysics -- 1 Metaphysics -- 2 The Master‐Problems of the Tractatus -- 3 Ontology, Metaphysics of Symbolism, and the Truths of Logic -- 4 Ineffability and Expressibility -- 5 A Digression into Postmodernist Austerity and Resoluteness -- 6 From Metalogic to Grammar -- 7 From Metaphysics to Grammar -- 8 High Metaphysics Brought Low -- References -- Further Reading -- Part IV: Philosophy and Grammar -- 13 Philosophy and Philosophical Method -- 1 Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy and the Cognitivist Mainstream -- 2 The Early Work -- 3 The Later Work -- References -- Further Reading -- 14 Grammar and Grammatical Statements -- 1 Grammar: The Rules of Language -- 2 The Autonomy of Grammar -- 3 From Rules to Norms -- 4 Rules of Grammar and the Discussion of Rule‐Following -- 5 Grammatical Statements and Analytic Truths -- 6 Mathematics as Grammar -- References -- Further Reading -- 15 The Autonomy of Grammar -- 1 Grammar -- 2 The Autonomy or Arbitrariness of Grammar -- 3 A Sense in which Grammar is NOT Autonomous or Arbitrary -- 4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Further Reading -- 16 Surveyability -- 1 A Letter -- 2 The Manuscript Version of PI 122 -- 3 Spengler -- 4 Intermediate Links -- 5 Principles of Organization -- 6 PI 122 -- References -- Further Reading -- Part V: Logic and Mathematics -- 17 Logic and the Tractatus -- 1 The Truths of Logic as Tautologies -- 2 That the Logical Constants Do Not Stand for Anything -- 3 Why Only One Logical Constant? -- 4 The N‐Operator and the General Form of Proposition -- 5 The Propositions of Logic as Tautologies and the Decision Problem.
References -- Further Reading -- 18 Wittgenstein's Early Philosophyof Mathematics -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Mathematics, Thought, Assertoric Content: Tractatus -- 3 Mathematical Propositions: Sense, Proof, Method of Checking -- References -- Further Reading -- 19 Wittgenstein's Later Philosophyof Mathematics -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Wittgenstein's Precept that Philosophy Leaves Everything (Including Mathematics) as it is, and his Distinction between Calculus and Prose -- 3 Concerns about the Distinction between Calculus and Prose -- 4 One Way to Meet these Concerns -- 5 Renewed Concerns about the Distinction between Calculus and Prose -- 6 An Issue about the Application of Mathematics -- References -- Further Reading -- 20 Wittgenstein and Antirealism -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Dummett's Antirealism and Wittgenstein -- 3 Quietism and Anti‐Antirealism -- 4 Deflationism, Minimalism, and Quasi‐Realism -- 5 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 21 Necessity and Apriority -- 1 Necessity's Dual Source -- 2 Color Exclusion -- 3 Language as Calculus -- 4 Conceptual Roles -- 5 Criteria and Symptoms -- 6 Measures and Language‐Games -- References -- Further Reading -- Part VI: Language -- 22 Names and Ostensive Definitions -- 1 Ostensive Definitions of Proper Names -- 2 Reference and Meaning of Proper Names -- 3 Verbal Explanations of Proper Names -- 4 Ostensive Definitions of Predicates -- 5 Samples Belong to the Symbolism -- 6 Meaning and Reference of Predicates -- 7 The Tractarian Doctrines about Names and Naming -- References -- Further Reading -- 23 Meaning and Understanding -- 1 Beyond Normativity -- 2 The Guidance Conception of Understanding -- 3 Mind as Mechanism -- 4 Mechanism and Guidance -- 5 Rationality and Guidance -- 6 Kripke on Rationality and Guidance -- References -- Further Reading -- 24 Rules and Rule‐Following.
1 A Mental Picture of a Cube Guides My Application of "Cube" -- 2 The Parable of the Wayward Child -- 3 The Rule‐Following Paradox -- 4 Guidance Without Mystery? -- 5 Critical Reception of Wittgenstein's Investigations of the Concept of a Rule -- References -- Further Reading -- 25 Vagueness and Family Resemblance -- References -- Further Reading -- 26 Languages, Language‐Games, and Forms of Life -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Objects of Comparison -- 3 Languages as Involving Games -- 4 (Forms of) Life(‐Forms) -- 5 Context(ualism) -- 6 This Is Here -- 7 I Know That That's a Tree -- 8 A Rose is Red in the Dark -- 9 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 27 Wittgenstein on Truth -- 1 Truth and the Picture Theory -- 2 The Analysis of "'p' is true" -- 3 The Metaphysics of Truth -- 4 The Later Wittgenstein -- References -- Further Reading -- Part VII: Mind and Action -- 28 Privacy and Private Language -- 1 Preliminary -- 2 The Traditional Picture -- 3 The Possibility of a Private Language (PI 239, 243) -- 4 The Replacement Model (PI 244-5) -- 5 Two Senses of Privacy -- 6 Private Ownership: Numerical and Qualitative Identity (PI 253) -- 7 Private Ownership and Spatial Specifications of Sensations -- 8 Private Ownership and Temporal Specifications of Sensations -- 9 Dependent Particulars? -- 10 Epistemic Privacy: Wittgenstein's Main Argument (PI 246, 248) -- 11 Epistemic Privacy: Meaningful Uses -- 12 Epistemic Privacy: Lying About Inner Processes, and Logical Transformations -- 13 Epistemic Privacy: Reporting that One is in Pain -- 14 Epistemic Privacy: Grammatical Uses -- 15 Knowledge of Other Minds (281, 283f, 289f, 293f, 302, 350) -- 16 Private Ostensive Definition (PI 256-8, 261, 265, 270, 293) -- References -- Further Reading -- 29 The Inner and the Outer -- 1 The Inner-Outer Picture -- 2 Avowal, Expression, and Self‐Ascription.
3 The Relation between "Inner" Mental States and "Outer" Behavior.
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Intro -- Title Page -- Table of Contents -- List of Contributors -- Acknowledgments -- Wittgenstein's Published Works in Order of Composition -- Lectures and Conversations -- Anthologies and Collections -- Works Derived from Dictations by, or Conversations with, Wittgenstein -- Correspondence -- Nachlass -- Introduction -- Ludwig Wittgenstein -- References -- Further Reading -- Part I: Introductory -- 1 Wittgenstein's Philosophical Development -- 1 Some Basic Features of Wittgenstein's Work -- 2 The Early Work -- 3 Thinking about Wittgenstein's Development -- 4 The Transformation -- 5 The Typescripts and Revisions -- References -- Further Reading -- 2 Wittgenstein's Texts and Style -- 1 Internalism and Externalism about Style and Method -- 2 Identifying Texts and Works -- 3 Identifying Voices in the Text -- References -- Further Reading -- Part II: Influences -- 3 Wittgenstein and Schopenhauer -- 1 Early and Later Wittgenstein -- 2 Schopenhauer's Influence on the Early Wittgenstein -- 3 Schopenhauerian Perceptible Sign and Transcendent Symbol -- 4 Transcendent Tractatus Logic and Semantics -- 5 Transcendence of Convergent Ethical‐Aesthetic Value -- 6 Later Anti‐Schopenhauerian Anti‐Transcendental Antipode -- References -- Further Reading -- 4 Wittgenstein and Frege -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Wittgenstein's Relationship with Frege -- 3 Frege and Wittgenstein's Early Work -- 4 Frege and Wittgenstein's Later Work -- 5 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 5 Wittgenstein and Russell -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Russellian Background -- 3 The Multiple‐Relation Theory of Judgment -- 4 The Narrow Direction Problem (ND) -- 5 The Wide Direction Problem (WD) -- 6 Wittgenstein's Objection and Russell's Paralysis -- 7 Direct Inspection and the MRTJ (First Problem with EI) -- 8 The Logical Status of the Subordinate Relation (Second Problem with EI).

9 Solution to these two Problems: OI -- 10 Propositional Functions -- 11 Wittgenstein on Logical Form -- 12 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 6 Wittgenstein, Hertz, and Boltzmann -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Boltzmann and Hertz -- 3 Wittgenstein's Knowledge of Boltzmann and Hertz -- 4 Hertz and His Mechanics -- 5 The Picture Conception of Language -- 6 Wittgenstein's Way of Reading Hertz's Mechanics -- 7 Hertz's Influence on Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy -- 8 Boltzmann -- 9 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Further Reading -- Part III: Early Philosophy -- 7 Logical Atomism -- 1 The Tractarian Logical Atomism -- 2 The Possibility of Complete Analysis -- 3 Some Recent Interpretations of the Substance Argument -- 4 The Substance Argument -- References -- Further Reading -- 8 The Picture Theory -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Identity of Fact and Sense -- 3 The Priority of Sense (i) -- 4 The Priority of Sense (ii) -- 5 The Expression of a Sense (i) -- 6 The Expression of a Sense (ii) -- 7 The Expression of a Sense (iii) -- 8 Truth as the Given -- References -- Further Reading -- 9 Wittgenstein on Solipsism -- 1 The Impact of Schopenhauer -- 2 Wittgenstein on Solipsism in the Tractatus -- 3 Wittgenstein on Solipsism in the "Blue Book" -- 4 Critique of Solipsism and the Self that Takes Responsibility for a Judgment -- References -- Further Reading -- 10 Resolute Readings of the Tractatus -- 1 Introduction -- 2 The Original Concept of a Resolute Reading -- 3 Two Sorts of Criticism of "Resolute Readings" -- 4 Shedding the First Two Logical Features -- 5 Shedding the Third Logical Feature -- 6 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 11 Ineffability and Nonsense in the Tractatus -- 1 The Orthodox Reading of the Tractatus -- 2 The First Criticism and Responses -- 3 The Second Criticism and Responses.

4 The Third Criticism and a Simple Response -- 5 The Fourth Criticism and Responses -- 6 The Resolute Reading as an Unorthodox Reading of the Tractatus -- 7 The Strong and Weak Resolute Readings -- 8 Criticisms and Comments -- References -- Further Reading -- 12 Metaphysics -- 1 Metaphysics -- 2 The Master‐Problems of the Tractatus -- 3 Ontology, Metaphysics of Symbolism, and the Truths of Logic -- 4 Ineffability and Expressibility -- 5 A Digression into Postmodernist Austerity and Resoluteness -- 6 From Metalogic to Grammar -- 7 From Metaphysics to Grammar -- 8 High Metaphysics Brought Low -- References -- Further Reading -- Part IV: Philosophy and Grammar -- 13 Philosophy and Philosophical Method -- 1 Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy and the Cognitivist Mainstream -- 2 The Early Work -- 3 The Later Work -- References -- Further Reading -- 14 Grammar and Grammatical Statements -- 1 Grammar: The Rules of Language -- 2 The Autonomy of Grammar -- 3 From Rules to Norms -- 4 Rules of Grammar and the Discussion of Rule‐Following -- 5 Grammatical Statements and Analytic Truths -- 6 Mathematics as Grammar -- References -- Further Reading -- 15 The Autonomy of Grammar -- 1 Grammar -- 2 The Autonomy or Arbitrariness of Grammar -- 3 A Sense in which Grammar is NOT Autonomous or Arbitrary -- 4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Further Reading -- 16 Surveyability -- 1 A Letter -- 2 The Manuscript Version of PI 122 -- 3 Spengler -- 4 Intermediate Links -- 5 Principles of Organization -- 6 PI 122 -- References -- Further Reading -- Part V: Logic and Mathematics -- 17 Logic and the Tractatus -- 1 The Truths of Logic as Tautologies -- 2 That the Logical Constants Do Not Stand for Anything -- 3 Why Only One Logical Constant? -- 4 The N‐Operator and the General Form of Proposition -- 5 The Propositions of Logic as Tautologies and the Decision Problem.

References -- Further Reading -- 18 Wittgenstein's Early Philosophyof Mathematics -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Mathematics, Thought, Assertoric Content: Tractatus -- 3 Mathematical Propositions: Sense, Proof, Method of Checking -- References -- Further Reading -- 19 Wittgenstein's Later Philosophyof Mathematics -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Wittgenstein's Precept that Philosophy Leaves Everything (Including Mathematics) as it is, and his Distinction between Calculus and Prose -- 3 Concerns about the Distinction between Calculus and Prose -- 4 One Way to Meet these Concerns -- 5 Renewed Concerns about the Distinction between Calculus and Prose -- 6 An Issue about the Application of Mathematics -- References -- Further Reading -- 20 Wittgenstein and Antirealism -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Dummett's Antirealism and Wittgenstein -- 3 Quietism and Anti‐Antirealism -- 4 Deflationism, Minimalism, and Quasi‐Realism -- 5 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 21 Necessity and Apriority -- 1 Necessity's Dual Source -- 2 Color Exclusion -- 3 Language as Calculus -- 4 Conceptual Roles -- 5 Criteria and Symptoms -- 6 Measures and Language‐Games -- References -- Further Reading -- Part VI: Language -- 22 Names and Ostensive Definitions -- 1 Ostensive Definitions of Proper Names -- 2 Reference and Meaning of Proper Names -- 3 Verbal Explanations of Proper Names -- 4 Ostensive Definitions of Predicates -- 5 Samples Belong to the Symbolism -- 6 Meaning and Reference of Predicates -- 7 The Tractarian Doctrines about Names and Naming -- References -- Further Reading -- 23 Meaning and Understanding -- 1 Beyond Normativity -- 2 The Guidance Conception of Understanding -- 3 Mind as Mechanism -- 4 Mechanism and Guidance -- 5 Rationality and Guidance -- 6 Kripke on Rationality and Guidance -- References -- Further Reading -- 24 Rules and Rule‐Following.

1 A Mental Picture of a Cube Guides My Application of "Cube" -- 2 The Parable of the Wayward Child -- 3 The Rule‐Following Paradox -- 4 Guidance Without Mystery? -- 5 Critical Reception of Wittgenstein's Investigations of the Concept of a Rule -- References -- Further Reading -- 25 Vagueness and Family Resemblance -- References -- Further Reading -- 26 Languages, Language‐Games, and Forms of Life -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Objects of Comparison -- 3 Languages as Involving Games -- 4 (Forms of) Life(‐Forms) -- 5 Context(ualism) -- 6 This Is Here -- 7 I Know That That's a Tree -- 8 A Rose is Red in the Dark -- 9 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 27 Wittgenstein on Truth -- 1 Truth and the Picture Theory -- 2 The Analysis of "'p' is true" -- 3 The Metaphysics of Truth -- 4 The Later Wittgenstein -- References -- Further Reading -- Part VII: Mind and Action -- 28 Privacy and Private Language -- 1 Preliminary -- 2 The Traditional Picture -- 3 The Possibility of a Private Language (PI 239, 243) -- 4 The Replacement Model (PI 244-5) -- 5 Two Senses of Privacy -- 6 Private Ownership: Numerical and Qualitative Identity (PI 253) -- 7 Private Ownership and Spatial Specifications of Sensations -- 8 Private Ownership and Temporal Specifications of Sensations -- 9 Dependent Particulars? -- 10 Epistemic Privacy: Wittgenstein's Main Argument (PI 246, 248) -- 11 Epistemic Privacy: Meaningful Uses -- 12 Epistemic Privacy: Lying About Inner Processes, and Logical Transformations -- 13 Epistemic Privacy: Reporting that One is in Pain -- 14 Epistemic Privacy: Grammatical Uses -- 15 Knowledge of Other Minds (281, 283f, 289f, 293f, 302, 350) -- 16 Private Ostensive Definition (PI 256-8, 261, 265, 270, 293) -- References -- Further Reading -- 29 The Inner and the Outer -- 1 The Inner-Outer Picture -- 2 Avowal, Expression, and Self‐Ascription.

3 The Relation between "Inner" Mental States and "Outer" Behavior.

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