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Forensic Evidence in Court : Evaluation and Scientific Opinion.

By: Publisher: Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2016Copyright date: ©2016Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (375 pages)Content type:
  • text
Media type:
  • computer
Carrier type:
  • online resource
ISBN:
  • 9781119054436
Subject(s): Genre/Form: Additional physical formats: Print version:: Forensic Evidence in Court : Evaluation and Scientific OpinionDDC classification:
  • 347.73
LOC classification:
  • K2283 -- .A336 2016eb
Online resources:
Contents:
Intro -- Title Page -- Table of Contents -- Preface -- Part 1 -- 1 An Introduction to the Admissibility of Expert Scientific Opinion -- 1.1 Admissibility, Reliability and Scientific Evidence -- 1.2 The Impact of the DNA Revolution -- 1.3 The Miscarriage of Justice -- 1.4 DNA Reveals Wrongful Convictions -- 1.5 The Causes of Wrongful Conviction -- 1.6 Unreliable Scientific Evidence -- 1.7 The Scientist and the Laboratory -- 1.8 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 2 Admissibility from the Legal Perspective -- 2.1 Admissibility, Relevance and Reliability of Evidence -- 2.2 Admissibility in the United States -- 2.3 Admissibility in Canada -- 2.4 Admissibility in Australia -- 2.5 Admissibility in England and Wales -- 2.6 Conclusions on Admissibility -- References -- Further Reading -- 3 Forensic Science and the Law: The Path Forward -- 3.1 National and Legal Developments in the United States -- 3.2 National and Legal Developments in Canada -- 3.3 National and Legal Developments in Australia -- 3.4 National and Legal Developments in England and Wales -- 3.5 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 4 Scientific Opinion and the Law in Practice -- 4.1 Scientific Opinion and the Judicial System -- 4.2 The Scientist in Court -- 4.3 The Role and Duties of the Scientific Expert Witness -- 4.4 Quality Control of Analysis and Opinion -- 4.5 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- Part 2 -- 5 Fundamentals of the Interpretation and Evaluation of Scientific Evidence -- 5.1 Analysis, Interpretation and Evaluation -- 5.2 The Role and Outcomes of Forensic Investigation -- 5.3 Fact and Opinion -- 5.4 Expert Opinion and the Forensic Science Paradigm -- 5.5 What are Propositions? -- 5.6 Competing Propositions in the Court -- References -- Further Reading -- 6 Case Studies in Expert Opinion -- 6.1 Case Study 1: Facial Comparison Evidence.
6.2 Case Study 2: Ear‐mark Identification -- 6.3 Case Study 3: Glass and Gunshot Residue -- 6.4 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 7 Formal Methods for Logical Evaluation -- 7.1 Frequentist and Bayesian Approaches to Evaluation -- 7.2 The Likelihood Ratio Method -- 7.3 Expressing Opinion Through Likelihood Ratio -- 7.4 Evaluation and Bayes' Theorem -- 7.5 Prior Odds -- 7.6 Posterior Probabilities -- 7.7 Working Out Conditional Probabilities and Likelihood Ratio -- 7.8 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 8 Case Studies in Probabilistic Opinion -- 8.1 People v Collins 1968 -- 8.2 R v Michael Shirley 2003 -- 8.3 R v D J Adams 1996, 1998 -- 8.4 The Defendant's Fallacy: R v J 2009 -- 8.5 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 9 Cognitive Bias and Expert Opinion -- 9.1 Cognitive Bias -- 9.2 Contextual Bias -- 9.3 Other Sources of Bias -- 9.4 Fingerprint Examination: A Case Study in Bias -- 9.5 Mitigating Bias -- 9.6 Mitigating Bias Versus Research on Traces -- 9.7 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- Part 3 -- 10 The Evaluation of DNA Profile Evidence -- 10.1 DNA Profiling Techniques - A Brief History -- 10.2 Databases in DNA Profiling -- 10.3 Interpretation and Evaluation of Conventional DNA Profiles -- 10.4 Suspect Identification from a DNA Database -- 10.5 Case Studies of DNA in the Court -- 10.6 Current Practice for Evaluating DNA Profile Evidence -- 10.7 DNA - The Only Evidence -- 10.8 Errors and Mistakes in Forensic DNA Analysis -- 10.9 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 11 Low Template DNA -- 11.1 Technical Issues -- 11.2 Importance of the Chain of Custody: Queen v Sean Hoey 2007 -- 11.3 The Caddy Report 2008 -- 11.4 Case Studies in LTDNA opinion in the UK Courts -- 11.5 LTDNA in Jurisdictions Outside the United Kingdom -- 11.6 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading.
12 Footwear Marks in Court -- 12.1 The Analysis and Interpretation of Footwear Marks -- 12.2 Match Opinion: R v D S Hall 2004 -- 12.3 The Likelihood Ratio Approach to Evaluation of Footwear Marks -- 12.4 Standardising Scales for Expert Opinion -- 12.5 Challenges to Opinion on Footwear Evidence: R v T 2010 -- 12.6 Discussion of R v T -- 12.7 Footwear Mark Evidence After R v T: R v South 2011 -- 12.8 ENFSI Recommendations on Logical Evaluation 2015 -- 12.9 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 13 Fingerprints and Finger‐Marks - Identifying Individuals? -- 13.1 Fingerprint Identification on Trial -- 13.2 ACE‐V: A Scientific Method? -- 13.3 Evaluation Criteria -- 13.4 Evolution of the Basis of Fingerprint Opinion in the Court -- 13.5 A Critical Summary of Fingerprint Identification -- 13.6 Challenges to Fingerprint Testimony -- 13.7 Identifying a Mark from a Database -- 13.8 Admissibility of Fingerprint Evidence -- 13.9 Towards a Probabilistic Evaluation of Fingerprint Evidence -- 13.10 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 14 Trace Evidence, Databases and Evaluation -- 14.1 Analytical Methodologies for Glass, Fibres and GSR -- 14.2 Databases for Source and Activity Levels -- 14.3 Glass Evidence in Court -- 14.4 Fibre Evidence in Court: R v Dobson 2011, R v Norris 2013 -- 14.5 Gunshot Residue (GSR) Evidence in Court -- 14.6 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 15 Firearm and Tool‐Mark Evidence -- 15.1 Pattern Matching of Mechanical Damage -- 15.2 The Interpretation and Evaluation of Tool‐Mark Evidence -- 15.3 Critical Review of Tool‐Mark Evaluation -- 15.4 Consecutive Matching Striations -- 15.5 Databases -- 15.6 Tool‐Marks and Evaluation by Likelihood Ratio -- 15.7 Firearms Evidence in the US Courts -- 15.8 Concluding Comments on Firearms Cases -- References -- Further Reading.
16 Expert Opinion and Evidence of Human Identity -- 16.1 Introduction to Ear‐Marks -- 16.2 R v Kempster 2003, 2008 -- 16.3 State v Kunze 1999 -- 16.4 Review of Ear‐Mark Cases -- 16.5 Introduction to Bite‐Mark Evidence -- 16.6 The ABFO Guidelines and Expert Opinion -- 16.7 Bite‐Mark Cases in the United States -- 16.8 Body Biometrics: Facial Mapping and Gait -- 16.9 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 17 Questioned Documents -- 17.1 Handwriting and Signature Comparison - A Scientific Methodology? -- 17.2 Scales of Expert Opinion -- 17.3 Jarrold v Isajul and Others 2013 -- 17.4 Gale v Gale 2010 -- 17.5 The Bridgewater Four (R v Hickey and Others) 1997 -- 17.6 R v Previte 2005 -- 17.7 Admissibility and Other Issues in Handwriting and Signature Evidence -- 17.8 Admissibility and Evaluation in the US Courts -- 17.9 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 18 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis -- 18.1 The Nature of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence -- 18.2 Issues for BPA Expert Opinion in the Courts -- 18.3 The Scientific Basis of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: The Murder of Marilyn Sheppard -- 18.4 Three Approaches to the Presentation of Blood Evidence -- 18.5 The Problem of Expirated Blood -- 18.6 Experts in Disagreement: R v Perlett 2006 -- 18.7 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 19 Conflicting Expert Opinion: SIDS and the Medical Expert Witness -- 19.1 Eminent Experts: Issues and Conflicts -- 19.2 R v Clark 2000, 2003 -- 19.3 A Bayesian Analysis: Murder or SIDS? -- 19.4 R v Cannings 2004 -- 19.5 Trupti Patel 2003 -- 19.6 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- Appendix: Some Legal Terminology -- Index of Cases, Individuals and Inquiry Reports -- General Index -- End User License Agreement.
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Intro -- Title Page -- Table of Contents -- Preface -- Part 1 -- 1 An Introduction to the Admissibility of Expert Scientific Opinion -- 1.1 Admissibility, Reliability and Scientific Evidence -- 1.2 The Impact of the DNA Revolution -- 1.3 The Miscarriage of Justice -- 1.4 DNA Reveals Wrongful Convictions -- 1.5 The Causes of Wrongful Conviction -- 1.6 Unreliable Scientific Evidence -- 1.7 The Scientist and the Laboratory -- 1.8 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 2 Admissibility from the Legal Perspective -- 2.1 Admissibility, Relevance and Reliability of Evidence -- 2.2 Admissibility in the United States -- 2.3 Admissibility in Canada -- 2.4 Admissibility in Australia -- 2.5 Admissibility in England and Wales -- 2.6 Conclusions on Admissibility -- References -- Further Reading -- 3 Forensic Science and the Law: The Path Forward -- 3.1 National and Legal Developments in the United States -- 3.2 National and Legal Developments in Canada -- 3.3 National and Legal Developments in Australia -- 3.4 National and Legal Developments in England and Wales -- 3.5 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 4 Scientific Opinion and the Law in Practice -- 4.1 Scientific Opinion and the Judicial System -- 4.2 The Scientist in Court -- 4.3 The Role and Duties of the Scientific Expert Witness -- 4.4 Quality Control of Analysis and Opinion -- 4.5 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- Part 2 -- 5 Fundamentals of the Interpretation and Evaluation of Scientific Evidence -- 5.1 Analysis, Interpretation and Evaluation -- 5.2 The Role and Outcomes of Forensic Investigation -- 5.3 Fact and Opinion -- 5.4 Expert Opinion and the Forensic Science Paradigm -- 5.5 What are Propositions? -- 5.6 Competing Propositions in the Court -- References -- Further Reading -- 6 Case Studies in Expert Opinion -- 6.1 Case Study 1: Facial Comparison Evidence.

6.2 Case Study 2: Ear‐mark Identification -- 6.3 Case Study 3: Glass and Gunshot Residue -- 6.4 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 7 Formal Methods for Logical Evaluation -- 7.1 Frequentist and Bayesian Approaches to Evaluation -- 7.2 The Likelihood Ratio Method -- 7.3 Expressing Opinion Through Likelihood Ratio -- 7.4 Evaluation and Bayes' Theorem -- 7.5 Prior Odds -- 7.6 Posterior Probabilities -- 7.7 Working Out Conditional Probabilities and Likelihood Ratio -- 7.8 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 8 Case Studies in Probabilistic Opinion -- 8.1 People v Collins 1968 -- 8.2 R v Michael Shirley 2003 -- 8.3 R v D J Adams 1996, 1998 -- 8.4 The Defendant's Fallacy: R v J 2009 -- 8.5 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 9 Cognitive Bias and Expert Opinion -- 9.1 Cognitive Bias -- 9.2 Contextual Bias -- 9.3 Other Sources of Bias -- 9.4 Fingerprint Examination: A Case Study in Bias -- 9.5 Mitigating Bias -- 9.6 Mitigating Bias Versus Research on Traces -- 9.7 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- Part 3 -- 10 The Evaluation of DNA Profile Evidence -- 10.1 DNA Profiling Techniques - A Brief History -- 10.2 Databases in DNA Profiling -- 10.3 Interpretation and Evaluation of Conventional DNA Profiles -- 10.4 Suspect Identification from a DNA Database -- 10.5 Case Studies of DNA in the Court -- 10.6 Current Practice for Evaluating DNA Profile Evidence -- 10.7 DNA - The Only Evidence -- 10.8 Errors and Mistakes in Forensic DNA Analysis -- 10.9 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 11 Low Template DNA -- 11.1 Technical Issues -- 11.2 Importance of the Chain of Custody: Queen v Sean Hoey 2007 -- 11.3 The Caddy Report 2008 -- 11.4 Case Studies in LTDNA opinion in the UK Courts -- 11.5 LTDNA in Jurisdictions Outside the United Kingdom -- 11.6 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading.

12 Footwear Marks in Court -- 12.1 The Analysis and Interpretation of Footwear Marks -- 12.2 Match Opinion: R v D S Hall 2004 -- 12.3 The Likelihood Ratio Approach to Evaluation of Footwear Marks -- 12.4 Standardising Scales for Expert Opinion -- 12.5 Challenges to Opinion on Footwear Evidence: R v T 2010 -- 12.6 Discussion of R v T -- 12.7 Footwear Mark Evidence After R v T: R v South 2011 -- 12.8 ENFSI Recommendations on Logical Evaluation 2015 -- 12.9 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 13 Fingerprints and Finger‐Marks - Identifying Individuals? -- 13.1 Fingerprint Identification on Trial -- 13.2 ACE‐V: A Scientific Method? -- 13.3 Evaluation Criteria -- 13.4 Evolution of the Basis of Fingerprint Opinion in the Court -- 13.5 A Critical Summary of Fingerprint Identification -- 13.6 Challenges to Fingerprint Testimony -- 13.7 Identifying a Mark from a Database -- 13.8 Admissibility of Fingerprint Evidence -- 13.9 Towards a Probabilistic Evaluation of Fingerprint Evidence -- 13.10 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 14 Trace Evidence, Databases and Evaluation -- 14.1 Analytical Methodologies for Glass, Fibres and GSR -- 14.2 Databases for Source and Activity Levels -- 14.3 Glass Evidence in Court -- 14.4 Fibre Evidence in Court: R v Dobson 2011, R v Norris 2013 -- 14.5 Gunshot Residue (GSR) Evidence in Court -- 14.6 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 15 Firearm and Tool‐Mark Evidence -- 15.1 Pattern Matching of Mechanical Damage -- 15.2 The Interpretation and Evaluation of Tool‐Mark Evidence -- 15.3 Critical Review of Tool‐Mark Evaluation -- 15.4 Consecutive Matching Striations -- 15.5 Databases -- 15.6 Tool‐Marks and Evaluation by Likelihood Ratio -- 15.7 Firearms Evidence in the US Courts -- 15.8 Concluding Comments on Firearms Cases -- References -- Further Reading.

16 Expert Opinion and Evidence of Human Identity -- 16.1 Introduction to Ear‐Marks -- 16.2 R v Kempster 2003, 2008 -- 16.3 State v Kunze 1999 -- 16.4 Review of Ear‐Mark Cases -- 16.5 Introduction to Bite‐Mark Evidence -- 16.6 The ABFO Guidelines and Expert Opinion -- 16.7 Bite‐Mark Cases in the United States -- 16.8 Body Biometrics: Facial Mapping and Gait -- 16.9 Conclusion -- References -- Further Reading -- 17 Questioned Documents -- 17.1 Handwriting and Signature Comparison - A Scientific Methodology? -- 17.2 Scales of Expert Opinion -- 17.3 Jarrold v Isajul and Others 2013 -- 17.4 Gale v Gale 2010 -- 17.5 The Bridgewater Four (R v Hickey and Others) 1997 -- 17.6 R v Previte 2005 -- 17.7 Admissibility and Other Issues in Handwriting and Signature Evidence -- 17.8 Admissibility and Evaluation in the US Courts -- 17.9 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 18 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis -- 18.1 The Nature of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence -- 18.2 Issues for BPA Expert Opinion in the Courts -- 18.3 The Scientific Basis of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: The Murder of Marilyn Sheppard -- 18.4 Three Approaches to the Presentation of Blood Evidence -- 18.5 The Problem of Expirated Blood -- 18.6 Experts in Disagreement: R v Perlett 2006 -- 18.7 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- 19 Conflicting Expert Opinion: SIDS and the Medical Expert Witness -- 19.1 Eminent Experts: Issues and Conflicts -- 19.2 R v Clark 2000, 2003 -- 19.3 A Bayesian Analysis: Murder or SIDS? -- 19.4 R v Cannings 2004 -- 19.5 Trupti Patel 2003 -- 19.6 Conclusions -- References -- Further Reading -- Appendix: Some Legal Terminology -- Index of Cases, Individuals and Inquiry Reports -- General Index -- End User License Agreement.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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