Introducing Social Research Methods : Essentials for Getting the Edge.

By: Ruane, Janet MPublisher: Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2016Copyright date: ©2016Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (310 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118874202Subject(s): Social sciences--MethodologyGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Introducing Social Research Methods : Essentials for Getting the EdgeDDC classification: 300.72/1 LOC classification: H61.R72 2016Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- Introducing Social Research Methods -- About the Website -- Contents -- Chapter 1 How Do We Know What We Know? Science as a Superior Way of Knowing -- FIRST TAKES -- The Competition: Non-Scientific Ways of Knowing -- Time-Based Knowing - Traditional Knowledge -- Credential-Based Knowing - Authoritative Knowledge -- More Risky Knowledge Sources - Common Sense and Intuition -- More Reasonable and Tangible Ways of Knowing: Rationalism and Empiricism -- Science - Providing an Accuracy Edge -- Science as a Trustworthy Way of Knowing -- Science is a Distinctive Way of Knowing -- Empirical evidence -- Systematic, Methodical Rules -- Commitment to Causal Analysis -- Replication -- Science is a Public Endeavor -- Tentative -- Science as an Exercise in Skepticism -- Using Research Methods to Become Critical Consumers of Information -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 2 The Language of Science and Research: Learning to Talk the Talk and Walk the Walk -- FIRST TAKES -- Units of Analysis -- Variables -- The Nuanced Language of Variables -- Data -- Correlations -- The Causal Relationship -- Styles of Research -- The Quantitative/Qualitative Difference -- The Inductive/Deductive Distinction -- Goals of Research -- Some Perfectly Valid Points -- Talking the Talk -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 3 Ethics: It's the Right Thing To Do -- FIRST TAKES -- Putting Ethics in Historical Context -- Research Should Not Cause Harm to Subjects -- Researchers Should Obtain the Informed Consent of Subjects -- Competence -- Voluntarism -- Full information -- Comprehension -- Researchers Should Respect Subjects' Privacy -- Sensitivity of Information -- Research Setting -- Disseminating Research Findings.
Researchers Should Avoid Conflicts of Interest -- Reinforcing the Ethical Route: Institutional Review Boards -- Ethical Fusion -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 4 Designing Ideas: What Do We Want to Know and How Can We Get There? -- FIRST TAKES -- The Research Plan -- Coming up with the Right Question -- Reviewing the Literature -- The Case and Place for Theory -- The Placement of Theory in the Research Process -- The Levels of Theory Guiding or Resulting from Research -- More Planning and Strategizing: Considering Questions and Timing -- What's the Question? Causal vs. Non-Causal Questions -- Causal Questions -- Non-Causal Questions -- Timing is Everything -- Cross-Sectional Research Designs -- Longitudinal Research Designs -- Fixed-Sample Panel Design -- Repeated Cross-Sectional Design -- Event-Based Designs -- Questions About the Process -- And Still More Planning -- Planning to Maximize Research Validity -- Measurement Validity -- Internal Validity -- External Validity -- Conclusions -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 5 Measure by Measure: Developing Measures - Making the Abstract Concrete -- FIRST TAKES -- Concepts and The Research Process -- Bringing Theory Down to Earth -- Conceptualization -- Operationalization -- Some Key Guidelines for the Operationalization Process -- Will Measures be Natural or Contrived? -- Will the Outcome of the Measurement Process be a Product or a Behavior? -- Using One or More Variables in Translating Concepts -- Levels of Measurement -- Nominal Level of Measurement -- Ordinal Level of Measurement -- Interval Level of Measurement -- Ratio Level of Measurement -- Operational Definitions -- Good Operational Definitions Aid Replication -- Conclusion -- TAKE AWAYS.
Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 6 All That Glitters Is Not Gold: Assessing the Validity and Reliability of Measures -- FIRST TAKES -- Measurement Validity -- Face Validity -- Content Validity -- Criterion Validity -- Predictive Validity -- Concurrent Validity -- Construct Validity -- Reliability Checks -- Testing for Reliability -- Test-Retest -- Multiple-Forms Test -- Split-Half Test -- Noise and Bias -- Sources of Noise and Bias -- Measuring Up and Out -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 7 One Thing Leads to Another … or Does it? Tackling Causal Analysis -- FIRST TAKES -- Causal Models - Nomothetic and Idiographic -- Nomothetic Approach: Causal Requirements -- Temporal Ordering -- Associations Between Variables -- Non-spuriousness Association -- Causal Analysis and Research Design -- Experimental Design and Internal Validity -- History -- Maturation -- Selection Bias -- Limits of the Experimental Design -- Causal Analysis via Non-experimental Survey Research -- Causality and Field Research -- Conclusions -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More reading and searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 8 The Questionnaire: Would You Mind Taking the Time to Answer a Few Questions? -- FIRST TAKES -- The Way We Word -- The Rules -- The Questions We Pose Should be Clear in Meaning and Free Of Ambiguity -- Survey Questions Should Use Common Everyday Language -- Survey Questions Should Use Neutral Language -- Survey Questions Should be Simple and Easy for Respondents to Answer -- The Structure of Questions: Closed and Open-Ended Questions -- Closed vs. Open-Ended Questions and Levels of Measurement -- Closed-ended Options: How Many? -- Putting It Together.
First Things First - Persuasive Cover Letters or Introductions -- Primacy Effects -- Sequencing -- Logical Flow -- To Ask or Not to Ask -- The Long and the Short of It -- Formatting -- Pre-Testing -- Return to Sender: The Special Challenge of the Mailed Questionnaire -- Cover Letter -- Make Returning Easy and Attractive -- Systematic Follow-up -- Delivering Questions Electronically -- Ask and You Shall Receive -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Readings and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 9 Having the Talk: Person to Person Information Exchange -- FIRST TAKES -- Conversational Exchange -- Unstructured Interviews -- Structured Interviews -- Developing an Unstructured Guide -- Active Listening -- Silences -- The Interview Schedule -- Covering Sensitive Topics -- Phone Home -- The More the Merrier - Focus Groups -- Training Issues -- Tools of the Trade -- The Final Word -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 10 Field Research: Welcome to My World -- FIRST TAKES -- Location, Location, Location … and More -- Levels of Involvement -- Complete Observer -- Observer as Participant -- Participant as Observer -- Complete Participant -- Field Research Tasks -- Informal Interviews -- Notes -- Basic Record -- Afterthoughts -- Ideas for Analysis -- Personal Impressions and Emotional Reactions -- Notes for Future Observations -- Files -- Chronological Files -- Analytical Files -- Mundane Files -- Methodological Files -- The Ethics of Fieldwork -- Sampling Issues in Field Research -- Quota Sampling -- Snowball Sampling -- Theoretical Sampling -- Deviant Cases Sampling -- The Validity of Field Research -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References.
Chapter 11 Sample This! How Can So Few Tell Us About So Many? -- FIRST TAKES -- Obstacles to Representative Samples -- How is the Sample Selected? -- Size Matters (To a Degree) -- A Representative Sample - Take A Chance -- The Sampling Frame -- Some Probability Samples -- Non-Probability Techniques -- Convenience Samples -- Snowball Samples -- Quota Samples -- Purposive Samples -- Estimating Sampling Error -- Confidence Intervals -- Just a Sampling of the Issues -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 12 Show Me the Numbers: Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics -- FIRST TAKES -- How Did We Get to This Point? -- Getting Organized -- Summarizing Descriptions -- Central Tendency -- Describing Variation -- It Takes Two to Tango … and to Correlate -- Picture This -- Graphing 101 -- Picturing Frequency Distributions and Central Tendency -- Picturing Variation -- Picturing Correlation -- SPSS -- Moving Beyond Description: The Logic of Inferential Statistics -- The Normal Curve -- Repeat After Me -- The Sampling Distribution -- Putting it Together -- SE - The Standard Error -- Z Values -- A Concrete Example -- Bringing it Home -- TAKE-AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Inferential Statistics -- Exercises -- Descriptive Statistics -- Inferential Statistics -- References -- Chapter 13 Pulling it Together: A Final Synthesis -- Providing Background For and Justifying the Research Project -- Sharing the Specifics of our Project Planning -- Sharing the Specifics and Results of Analysis -- Offer a Discussion of the Significance of our Findings -- Offer Some Concluding Remarks/Observations -- Seeing the Big Picture -- Glossary -- Index -- EULA.
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Intro -- Introducing Social Research Methods -- About the Website -- Contents -- Chapter 1 How Do We Know What We Know? Science as a Superior Way of Knowing -- FIRST TAKES -- The Competition: Non-Scientific Ways of Knowing -- Time-Based Knowing - Traditional Knowledge -- Credential-Based Knowing - Authoritative Knowledge -- More Risky Knowledge Sources - Common Sense and Intuition -- More Reasonable and Tangible Ways of Knowing: Rationalism and Empiricism -- Science - Providing an Accuracy Edge -- Science as a Trustworthy Way of Knowing -- Science is a Distinctive Way of Knowing -- Empirical evidence -- Systematic, Methodical Rules -- Commitment to Causal Analysis -- Replication -- Science is a Public Endeavor -- Tentative -- Science as an Exercise in Skepticism -- Using Research Methods to Become Critical Consumers of Information -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 2 The Language of Science and Research: Learning to Talk the Talk and Walk the Walk -- FIRST TAKES -- Units of Analysis -- Variables -- The Nuanced Language of Variables -- Data -- Correlations -- The Causal Relationship -- Styles of Research -- The Quantitative/Qualitative Difference -- The Inductive/Deductive Distinction -- Goals of Research -- Some Perfectly Valid Points -- Talking the Talk -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 3 Ethics: It's the Right Thing To Do -- FIRST TAKES -- Putting Ethics in Historical Context -- Research Should Not Cause Harm to Subjects -- Researchers Should Obtain the Informed Consent of Subjects -- Competence -- Voluntarism -- Full information -- Comprehension -- Researchers Should Respect Subjects' Privacy -- Sensitivity of Information -- Research Setting -- Disseminating Research Findings.

Researchers Should Avoid Conflicts of Interest -- Reinforcing the Ethical Route: Institutional Review Boards -- Ethical Fusion -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 4 Designing Ideas: What Do We Want to Know and How Can We Get There? -- FIRST TAKES -- The Research Plan -- Coming up with the Right Question -- Reviewing the Literature -- The Case and Place for Theory -- The Placement of Theory in the Research Process -- The Levels of Theory Guiding or Resulting from Research -- More Planning and Strategizing: Considering Questions and Timing -- What's the Question? Causal vs. Non-Causal Questions -- Causal Questions -- Non-Causal Questions -- Timing is Everything -- Cross-Sectional Research Designs -- Longitudinal Research Designs -- Fixed-Sample Panel Design -- Repeated Cross-Sectional Design -- Event-Based Designs -- Questions About the Process -- And Still More Planning -- Planning to Maximize Research Validity -- Measurement Validity -- Internal Validity -- External Validity -- Conclusions -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 5 Measure by Measure: Developing Measures - Making the Abstract Concrete -- FIRST TAKES -- Concepts and The Research Process -- Bringing Theory Down to Earth -- Conceptualization -- Operationalization -- Some Key Guidelines for the Operationalization Process -- Will Measures be Natural or Contrived? -- Will the Outcome of the Measurement Process be a Product or a Behavior? -- Using One or More Variables in Translating Concepts -- Levels of Measurement -- Nominal Level of Measurement -- Ordinal Level of Measurement -- Interval Level of Measurement -- Ratio Level of Measurement -- Operational Definitions -- Good Operational Definitions Aid Replication -- Conclusion -- TAKE AWAYS.

Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 6 All That Glitters Is Not Gold: Assessing the Validity and Reliability of Measures -- FIRST TAKES -- Measurement Validity -- Face Validity -- Content Validity -- Criterion Validity -- Predictive Validity -- Concurrent Validity -- Construct Validity -- Reliability Checks -- Testing for Reliability -- Test-Retest -- Multiple-Forms Test -- Split-Half Test -- Noise and Bias -- Sources of Noise and Bias -- Measuring Up and Out -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 7 One Thing Leads to Another … or Does it? Tackling Causal Analysis -- FIRST TAKES -- Causal Models - Nomothetic and Idiographic -- Nomothetic Approach: Causal Requirements -- Temporal Ordering -- Associations Between Variables -- Non-spuriousness Association -- Causal Analysis and Research Design -- Experimental Design and Internal Validity -- History -- Maturation -- Selection Bias -- Limits of the Experimental Design -- Causal Analysis via Non-experimental Survey Research -- Causality and Field Research -- Conclusions -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More reading and searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 8 The Questionnaire: Would You Mind Taking the Time to Answer a Few Questions? -- FIRST TAKES -- The Way We Word -- The Rules -- The Questions We Pose Should be Clear in Meaning and Free Of Ambiguity -- Survey Questions Should Use Common Everyday Language -- Survey Questions Should Use Neutral Language -- Survey Questions Should be Simple and Easy for Respondents to Answer -- The Structure of Questions: Closed and Open-Ended Questions -- Closed vs. Open-Ended Questions and Levels of Measurement -- Closed-ended Options: How Many? -- Putting It Together.

First Things First - Persuasive Cover Letters or Introductions -- Primacy Effects -- Sequencing -- Logical Flow -- To Ask or Not to Ask -- The Long and the Short of It -- Formatting -- Pre-Testing -- Return to Sender: The Special Challenge of the Mailed Questionnaire -- Cover Letter -- Make Returning Easy and Attractive -- Systematic Follow-up -- Delivering Questions Electronically -- Ask and You Shall Receive -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Readings and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 9 Having the Talk: Person to Person Information Exchange -- FIRST TAKES -- Conversational Exchange -- Unstructured Interviews -- Structured Interviews -- Developing an Unstructured Guide -- Active Listening -- Silences -- The Interview Schedule -- Covering Sensitive Topics -- Phone Home -- The More the Merrier - Focus Groups -- Training Issues -- Tools of the Trade -- The Final Word -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 10 Field Research: Welcome to My World -- FIRST TAKES -- Location, Location, Location … and More -- Levels of Involvement -- Complete Observer -- Observer as Participant -- Participant as Observer -- Complete Participant -- Field Research Tasks -- Informal Interviews -- Notes -- Basic Record -- Afterthoughts -- Ideas for Analysis -- Personal Impressions and Emotional Reactions -- Notes for Future Observations -- Files -- Chronological Files -- Analytical Files -- Mundane Files -- Methodological Files -- The Ethics of Fieldwork -- Sampling Issues in Field Research -- Quota Sampling -- Snowball Sampling -- Theoretical Sampling -- Deviant Cases Sampling -- The Validity of Field Research -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References.

Chapter 11 Sample This! How Can So Few Tell Us About So Many? -- FIRST TAKES -- Obstacles to Representative Samples -- How is the Sample Selected? -- Size Matters (To a Degree) -- A Representative Sample - Take A Chance -- The Sampling Frame -- Some Probability Samples -- Non-Probability Techniques -- Convenience Samples -- Snowball Samples -- Quota Samples -- Purposive Samples -- Estimating Sampling Error -- Confidence Intervals -- Just a Sampling of the Issues -- TAKE AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Exercises -- Notes -- References -- Chapter 12 Show Me the Numbers: Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics -- FIRST TAKES -- How Did We Get to This Point? -- Getting Organized -- Summarizing Descriptions -- Central Tendency -- Describing Variation -- It Takes Two to Tango … and to Correlate -- Picture This -- Graphing 101 -- Picturing Frequency Distributions and Central Tendency -- Picturing Variation -- Picturing Correlation -- SPSS -- Moving Beyond Description: The Logic of Inferential Statistics -- The Normal Curve -- Repeat After Me -- The Sampling Distribution -- Putting it Together -- SE - The Standard Error -- Z Values -- A Concrete Example -- Bringing it Home -- TAKE-AWAYS -- Sharpening the Edge: More Reading and Searching -- Inferential Statistics -- Exercises -- Descriptive Statistics -- Inferential Statistics -- References -- Chapter 13 Pulling it Together: A Final Synthesis -- Providing Background For and Justifying the Research Project -- Sharing the Specifics of our Project Planning -- Sharing the Specifics and Results of Analysis -- Offer a Discussion of the Significance of our Findings -- Offer Some Concluding Remarks/Observations -- Seeing the Big Picture -- Glossary -- Index -- EULA.

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