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Weight-Of-Evidence for Forensic DNA Profiles.

By: Contributor(s): Series: Statistics in Practice SerPublisher: Queensland : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 2nd edDescription: 1 online resource (234 pages)Content type:
  • text
Media type:
  • computer
Carrier type:
  • online resource
ISBN:
  • 9781118814543
Subject(s): Genre/Form: Additional physical formats: Print version:: Weight-Of-Evidence for Forensic DNA ProfilesDDC classification:
  • 614.10727
LOC classification:
  • RA1057.5 -- .B353 2015eb
Online resources:
Contents:
Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface to the second edition -- Preface to the first edition -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Weight-of-evidence theory -- 1.2 About the book -- 1.3 DNA profiling technology -- 1.4 What you need to know already -- 1.5 Other resources -- Chapter 2 Crime on an island -- 2.1 Warm-up examples -- 2.1.1 People v. Collins (California, 1968) -- 2.1.2 Disease testing: positive predictive value (PPV) -- 2.1.3 Coloured taxis -- 2.2 Rare trait identification evidence -- 2.2.1 The 'island' problem -- 2.2.2 A first lesson from the island problem -- 2.3 Making the island problem more realistic -- 2.3.1 The effect of uncertainty about p -- 2.3.2 Uncertainty about N -- 2.3.3 The effect of possible typing errors -- 2.3.4 The effect of searches -- 2.3.5 The effect of other evidence -- 2.3.6 The effects of relatives and population subdivision -- 2.4 Weight-of-evidence exercises -- Chapter 3 Assessing evidence using likelihoods -- 3.1 Likelihoods and their ratios -- 3.2 The weight-of-evidence formula -- 3.2.1 The population P -- 3.2.2 Grouping the RX -- 3.2.3 Application to the island problem -- 3.3 General application of the formula -- 3.3.1 Several items of evidence -- 3.3.2 The role of the expert witness -- 3.4 Consequences for DNA evidence -- 3.4.1 Many possible culprits -- 3.4.2 Incorporating the non-DNA evidence -- 3.4.3 Relatives -- 3.4.4 Laboratory and handling errors -- 3.4.5 Database searches -- 3.5 Derivation of the weight-of-evidence formula † -- 3.5.1 Bayes' theorem -- 3.5.2 Uncertainty about p and N -- 3.5.3 Grouping the alternative possible culprits -- 3.5.4 Typing errors -- 3.6 Further weight-of-evidence exercises -- Chapter 4 Profiling technologies -- 4.1 STR typing -- 4.1.1 Anomalies -- 4.1.2 Contamination -- 4.1.3 Low-template DNA (LTDNA) profiling -- 4.2 mtDNA typing -- 4.3 Y-chromosome markers.
4.4 X-chromosome markers † -- 4.5 SNP profiles † -- 4.6 Sequencing † -- 4.7 Methylation † -- 4.8 RNA † -- 4.9 Fingerprints † -- Chapter 5 Some population genetics for DNA evidence -- 5.1 A brief overview -- 5.1.1 Drift -- 5.1.2 Mutation -- 5.1.3 Migration -- 5.1.4 Selection -- 5.2 FST or θ -- 5.2.1 Population genotype probabilities -- 5.3 A statistical model and sampling formula -- 5.3.1 Diallelic loci -- 5.3.2 Multi-allelic loci -- 5.4 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium -- 5.4.1 Testing for deviations from HWE † -- 5.4.2 Interpretation of test results -- 5.5 Linkage equilibrium -- 5.6 Coancestry † -- 5.6.1 One allele -- 5.6.2 Two alleles -- 5.6.3 Three alleles -- 5.6.4 General proof via recursion -- 5.7 Likelihood-based estimation of FST † -- 5.8 Population genetics exercises -- Chapter 6 Inferences of identity -- 6.1 Choosing the hypotheses -- 6.1.1 Post-data equivalence of hypotheses -- 6.2 Calculating LRs -- 6.2.1 The match probability -- 6.2.2 Single locus -- 6.2.3 Multiple loci: the 'product rule' -- 6.2.4 Relatives of Q -- 6.2.5 Confidence limits † -- 6.2.6 Other profiled individuals -- 6.3 Application to STR profiles -- 6.3.1 Values for the pj -- 6.3.2 The value of FST -- 6.3.3 Choice of population -- 6.3.4 Errors -- 6.4 Application to haploid profiles -- 6.4.1 mtDNA profiles -- 6.4.2 Y-chromosome markers -- 6.5 Mixtures -- 6.5.1 Visual interpretation of mixed profiles -- 6.5.2 Likelihood ratios under qualitative interpretation -- 6.5.3 Quantitative interpretation of mixtures -- 6.6 Identification exercises -- Chapter 7 Inferring relatedness -- 7.1 Paternity -- 7.1.1 Weight of evidence for paternity -- 7.1.2 Prior probabilities -- 7.1.3 Calculating LRs -- 7.1.4 Multiple loci: the effect of linkage -- 7.1.5 Q may be related to c but not the father -- 7.1.6 Incest -- 7.1.7 Mother unavailable -- 7.1.8 Mutation.
7.2 Other relatedness between two individuals -- 7.2.1 Only the two individuals profiled -- 7.2.2 Profiles of known relatives also available † -- 7.2.3 Software for relatedness analyses -- 7.3 Familial search -- 7.4 Inference of ethnicity † -- 7.5 Inference of phenotype † -- 7.6 Relatedness exercises -- Chapter 8 Low-template DNA profiles -- 8.1 Background -- 8.2 Stochastic effects in LTDNA profiles -- 8.2.1 Drop-out -- 8.2.2 Drop-in -- 8.2.3 Peak imbalance -- 8.2.4 Stutter -- 8.3 Computing likelihoods -- 8.3.1 Single contributor allowing for drop-out -- 8.3.2 Profiled contributors not subject to drop-out -- 8.3.3 Modelling drop-in -- 8.3.4 Multi-dose drop-out and degradation -- 8.3.5 Additional contributors subject to drop-out -- 8.3.6 Replicates -- 8.3.7 Using peak heights -- 8.4 Quality of results -- Chapter 9 Introduction to likeLTD † -- 9.1 Installation and example R script -- 9.1.1 Input -- 9.1.2 Allele report -- 9.1.3 Arguments and optimisation -- 9.1.4 Output report -- 9.1.5 Genotype probabilities -- 9.2 Specifics of the package -- 9.2.1 The parameters -- 9.2.2 Key features of likeLTD -- 9.2.3 Maximising the penalised likelihood -- 9.2.4 Computing time and memory requirements -- 9.3 Verification -- Chapter 10 Other approaches to weight of evidence -- 10.1 Uniqueness -- 10.1.1 Analysis -- 10.1.2 Discussion -- 10.2 Inclusion/exclusion probabilities -- 10.2.1 Identification: single contributor -- 10.2.2 Identification: multiple contributors -- 10.2.3 Paternity -- 10.2.4 Discussion -- 10.3 Hypothesis testing † -- 10.4 Other exercises -- Chapter 11 Some issues for the courtroom -- 11.1 The role of the expert witness -- 11.2 Bayesian reasoning in court -- 11.3 Some fallacies -- 11.3.1 The prosecutor's fallacy -- 11.3.2 The defendant's fallacy -- 11.3.3 The uniqueness fallacy -- 11.4 Some UK appeal cases -- 11.4.1 Deen (1993) -- 11.4.2 Adams (1996).
11.4.3 Doheny/Adams (1996) -- 11.4.4 Watters (2000) -- 11.4.5 T (2010) -- 11.4.6 Dlugosz (2013) -- 11.5 US National Research Council reports -- 11.6 Prosecutor's fallacy exercises -- Solutions to exercises -- References -- Index -- EULA.
Holdings
Item type Current library Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Ebrary Ebrary Afghanistan Available EBKAF-N00055521
Ebrary Ebrary Algeria Available
Ebrary Ebrary Cyprus Available
Ebrary Ebrary Egypt Available
Ebrary Ebrary Libya Available
Ebrary Ebrary Morocco Available
Ebrary Ebrary Nepal Available EBKNP-N00055521
Ebrary Ebrary Sudan Available
Ebrary Ebrary Tunisia Available
Total holds: 0

Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface to the second edition -- Preface to the first edition -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Weight-of-evidence theory -- 1.2 About the book -- 1.3 DNA profiling technology -- 1.4 What you need to know already -- 1.5 Other resources -- Chapter 2 Crime on an island -- 2.1 Warm-up examples -- 2.1.1 People v. Collins (California, 1968) -- 2.1.2 Disease testing: positive predictive value (PPV) -- 2.1.3 Coloured taxis -- 2.2 Rare trait identification evidence -- 2.2.1 The 'island' problem -- 2.2.2 A first lesson from the island problem -- 2.3 Making the island problem more realistic -- 2.3.1 The effect of uncertainty about p -- 2.3.2 Uncertainty about N -- 2.3.3 The effect of possible typing errors -- 2.3.4 The effect of searches -- 2.3.5 The effect of other evidence -- 2.3.6 The effects of relatives and population subdivision -- 2.4 Weight-of-evidence exercises -- Chapter 3 Assessing evidence using likelihoods -- 3.1 Likelihoods and their ratios -- 3.2 The weight-of-evidence formula -- 3.2.1 The population P -- 3.2.2 Grouping the RX -- 3.2.3 Application to the island problem -- 3.3 General application of the formula -- 3.3.1 Several items of evidence -- 3.3.2 The role of the expert witness -- 3.4 Consequences for DNA evidence -- 3.4.1 Many possible culprits -- 3.4.2 Incorporating the non-DNA evidence -- 3.4.3 Relatives -- 3.4.4 Laboratory and handling errors -- 3.4.5 Database searches -- 3.5 Derivation of the weight-of-evidence formula † -- 3.5.1 Bayes' theorem -- 3.5.2 Uncertainty about p and N -- 3.5.3 Grouping the alternative possible culprits -- 3.5.4 Typing errors -- 3.6 Further weight-of-evidence exercises -- Chapter 4 Profiling technologies -- 4.1 STR typing -- 4.1.1 Anomalies -- 4.1.2 Contamination -- 4.1.3 Low-template DNA (LTDNA) profiling -- 4.2 mtDNA typing -- 4.3 Y-chromosome markers.

4.4 X-chromosome markers † -- 4.5 SNP profiles † -- 4.6 Sequencing † -- 4.7 Methylation † -- 4.8 RNA † -- 4.9 Fingerprints † -- Chapter 5 Some population genetics for DNA evidence -- 5.1 A brief overview -- 5.1.1 Drift -- 5.1.2 Mutation -- 5.1.3 Migration -- 5.1.4 Selection -- 5.2 FST or θ -- 5.2.1 Population genotype probabilities -- 5.3 A statistical model and sampling formula -- 5.3.1 Diallelic loci -- 5.3.2 Multi-allelic loci -- 5.4 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium -- 5.4.1 Testing for deviations from HWE † -- 5.4.2 Interpretation of test results -- 5.5 Linkage equilibrium -- 5.6 Coancestry † -- 5.6.1 One allele -- 5.6.2 Two alleles -- 5.6.3 Three alleles -- 5.6.4 General proof via recursion -- 5.7 Likelihood-based estimation of FST † -- 5.8 Population genetics exercises -- Chapter 6 Inferences of identity -- 6.1 Choosing the hypotheses -- 6.1.1 Post-data equivalence of hypotheses -- 6.2 Calculating LRs -- 6.2.1 The match probability -- 6.2.2 Single locus -- 6.2.3 Multiple loci: the 'product rule' -- 6.2.4 Relatives of Q -- 6.2.5 Confidence limits † -- 6.2.6 Other profiled individuals -- 6.3 Application to STR profiles -- 6.3.1 Values for the pj -- 6.3.2 The value of FST -- 6.3.3 Choice of population -- 6.3.4 Errors -- 6.4 Application to haploid profiles -- 6.4.1 mtDNA profiles -- 6.4.2 Y-chromosome markers -- 6.5 Mixtures -- 6.5.1 Visual interpretation of mixed profiles -- 6.5.2 Likelihood ratios under qualitative interpretation -- 6.5.3 Quantitative interpretation of mixtures -- 6.6 Identification exercises -- Chapter 7 Inferring relatedness -- 7.1 Paternity -- 7.1.1 Weight of evidence for paternity -- 7.1.2 Prior probabilities -- 7.1.3 Calculating LRs -- 7.1.4 Multiple loci: the effect of linkage -- 7.1.5 Q may be related to c but not the father -- 7.1.6 Incest -- 7.1.7 Mother unavailable -- 7.1.8 Mutation.

7.2 Other relatedness between two individuals -- 7.2.1 Only the two individuals profiled -- 7.2.2 Profiles of known relatives also available † -- 7.2.3 Software for relatedness analyses -- 7.3 Familial search -- 7.4 Inference of ethnicity † -- 7.5 Inference of phenotype † -- 7.6 Relatedness exercises -- Chapter 8 Low-template DNA profiles -- 8.1 Background -- 8.2 Stochastic effects in LTDNA profiles -- 8.2.1 Drop-out -- 8.2.2 Drop-in -- 8.2.3 Peak imbalance -- 8.2.4 Stutter -- 8.3 Computing likelihoods -- 8.3.1 Single contributor allowing for drop-out -- 8.3.2 Profiled contributors not subject to drop-out -- 8.3.3 Modelling drop-in -- 8.3.4 Multi-dose drop-out and degradation -- 8.3.5 Additional contributors subject to drop-out -- 8.3.6 Replicates -- 8.3.7 Using peak heights -- 8.4 Quality of results -- Chapter 9 Introduction to likeLTD † -- 9.1 Installation and example R script -- 9.1.1 Input -- 9.1.2 Allele report -- 9.1.3 Arguments and optimisation -- 9.1.4 Output report -- 9.1.5 Genotype probabilities -- 9.2 Specifics of the package -- 9.2.1 The parameters -- 9.2.2 Key features of likeLTD -- 9.2.3 Maximising the penalised likelihood -- 9.2.4 Computing time and memory requirements -- 9.3 Verification -- Chapter 10 Other approaches to weight of evidence -- 10.1 Uniqueness -- 10.1.1 Analysis -- 10.1.2 Discussion -- 10.2 Inclusion/exclusion probabilities -- 10.2.1 Identification: single contributor -- 10.2.2 Identification: multiple contributors -- 10.2.3 Paternity -- 10.2.4 Discussion -- 10.3 Hypothesis testing † -- 10.4 Other exercises -- Chapter 11 Some issues for the courtroom -- 11.1 The role of the expert witness -- 11.2 Bayesian reasoning in court -- 11.3 Some fallacies -- 11.3.1 The prosecutor's fallacy -- 11.3.2 The defendant's fallacy -- 11.3.3 The uniqueness fallacy -- 11.4 Some UK appeal cases -- 11.4.1 Deen (1993) -- 11.4.2 Adams (1996).

11.4.3 Doheny/Adams (1996) -- 11.4.4 Watters (2000) -- 11.4.5 T (2010) -- 11.4.6 Dlugosz (2013) -- 11.5 US National Research Council reports -- 11.6 Prosecutor's fallacy exercises -- Solutions to exercises -- References -- Index -- EULA.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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