Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts : Practical and Advanced Information.

By: Biron, Michel
Series: Plastics Design Library: Publisher: Oxford : Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 2015Copyright date: ©2016Description: 1 online resource (712 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780702062872Genre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts : Practical and Advanced InformationDDC classification: 668.423 LOC classification: TP1180.T5.B576 2016Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Front Cover -- Series Page -- MATERIAL SELECTION FOR THERMOPLASTIC PARTS: Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Disclaimer -- Acronyms and Abbreviations -- 1 - Thermoplastic Material Selection: Some Ways of Thinking for a Systematic Approach -- 1.1 Specific Plastics Design Issues: Some Ins and Outs among Others -- 1.1.1 Overview -- 1.1.2 Mechanical Loading: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.2.1 Temperature Effect -- 1.1.2.2 Loading Type Effect -- 1.1.2.3 Strain Rate or Time Effect -- 1.1.2.4 Impact Behavior -- 1.1.2.5 Hardness -- 1.1.2.6 Dynamic Fatigue -- 1.1.2.7 Dimensional Effects -- 1.1.2.8 Combination with Other Parameters -- 1.1.2.9 Lifetime -- 1.1.3 Heat: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.3.1 Average Temperature -- 1.1.3.2 Continuous Use Temperature -- 1.1.3.3 UL Temperature Index -- Influence of Grade -- Influence of Thickness -- Influence of the Characteristics Studied -- 1.1.3.4 Heat Deflection Temperature -- 1.1.3.5 Vicat Softening Temperature -- 1.1.3.6 Accelerated Aging -- 1.1.4 Low Temperatures: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.4.1 Low-Temperature Tests -- 1.1.4.2 Brittle Point -- 1.1.4.3 Rigidity in Torsion: "Clash & Berg" and "Gehman" Tests -- 1.1.4.4 Crystallization Test -- 1.1.5 Dimensional Stability: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.5.1 Thermal Expansion or Retraction -- 1.1.5.2 Shrinkage -- 1.1.5.3 Warpage -- 1.1.5.4 Water or Chemicals Uptake -- 1.1.5.5 Aging, Desorption, Bleeding, and Releasing of Organic Components -- 1.1.6 General Environmental Trends, Pollution of Near Environment, Green Attitude, Sustainability: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.6.1 Global Warming Due to the Greenhouse Effect of Emitted Gases -- 1.1.6.2 Pollution of Air, Water, and Land -- 1.1.6.3 Aging, Desorption, Bleeding, and Releasing of Organic Components -- 1.1.6.4 Volatile Organic Compounds.
1.1.6.5 Banned or Regulated or Suspect Substances -- 1.1.6.6 REACH -- 1.1.6.7 Examples of Specific Regulations or Specifications, RoHS, WEEE -- 1.1.6.8 Renewable Content or Biocarbon Content -- 1.1.6.9 (Bio)Degradable Plastics -- 1.1.6.10 Carbon Footprint -- 1.1.6.11 Life-Cycle Assessment -- 1.1.7 Electrical Properties: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.7.1 Volume Resistivity-ASTM D257 and IEC 93 -- 1.1.7.2 Surface Resistivity-ASTM D257 and IEC 93 -- 1.1.7.3 Dielectric Strength -- 1.1.7.4 Arc Resistance -- 1.1.7.5 High-Voltage Arc Tracking Rate -- 1.1.7.6 Frequency, Temperature, Moisture, Physical, and Dynamic Aging Effects -- 1.1.8 Fire Behavior: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.8. 1UL94 Fire Ratings -- 1.1.8.2 Oxygen Index -- 1.1.8.3 Smoke Opacity, Toxicity, and Corrosivity -- 1.1.8.4 Cone Calorimeter -- 1.1.8.5 Ignition Temperature -- 1.1.8.6 Rate of Burning -- 1.1.8.7 Glow Wire Test -- 1.1.9 Sensory Properties: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.9.1 Complementarity of Instrumental Measurements and Sensory Panel Evaluations -- 1.1.9.2 Visual Aspect -- 1.1.9.3 Physical Aspect -- 1.1.9.4 Touch -- 1.1.9.5 Odor and Taste Properties and Transfer -- 1.1.9.6 Noise, Vibration, and Harshness -- 1.1.10 Economics -- 1.1.10.1 Part Costs -- 1.1.10.2 Raw Material Costs -- 1.1.10.3 Examples of Additive Costs -- 1.1.10.4 Examples of Reinforcement Costs -- 1.1.10.5 An Economic Requirement: Compensate for Higher Plastic Costs -- 1.1.10.6 Effect of Lifetime on Cost -- 1.1.11 Lifetime and End-of-Life Criteria -- 1.1.11.1 Environment of Service -- 1.1.11.2 Modeling -- 1.1.11.3 Lifetime Enhancement Thanks to Part Protection and/or Minimization of Aggressive Factors -- 1.1.12 Regulation, Health, and Safety Requirements -- 1.2 Checklist Proposal -- 1.2.1 Mechanical Loading -- 1.2.2 Heat -- 1.2.3 Low Temperatures -- 1.2.4 Dimensional Features.
1.2.5 General Environmental Trends, Pollution of Near Environment, Green Attitude, and Sustainability -- 1.2.6 Electrical Properties -- 1.2.7 Fire Behavior -- 1.2.8 Sensory Properties -- 1.2.9 Economics -- 1.2.10 Lifetime and End-of-Life Criteria -- 1.2.11 Regulation, Health, Safety, and Fire Requirements -- 1.2.12 Other Specific Properties Not Listed Above -- 1.2.13 Processability -- Further Reading -- 2 - Thermoplastic Specific Properties -- 2.1 Do not Confuse Raw Polymer and Plastic Grade (or Compound) -- 2.2 Raw TPs Are Organic Macromolecules -- 2.2.1 Elemental Composition Is Essential -- 2.2.2 Molecular Weight and Chain Architecture Are Also of High Importance -- 2.3 Supramolecular Structure -- 2.3.1 TPs and TP Elastomers -- 2.3.1.1 Thermoplastics -- 2.3.1.2 Thermoplastic Elastomers -- 2.3.2 Thermosets -- 2.3.3 Crystalline and Amorphous TPs, Glass Transition Temperature -- 2.3.3.1 Amorphous Polymers -- 2.3.3.2 Crystalline and Semicrystalline Polymers -- 2.3.3.3 The Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) -- 2.3.3.4 Crystallization Is Time- and Thermal-Dependent and Is not Homogeneous -- 2.4 Viscoelasticity, Time, and Temperature Dependency -- 2.4.1 Time Dependency -- 2.4.2 Temperature Dependency -- 2.5 From Raw Polymers to Actual Grades: Upgrading and Customization -- 2.5.1 TP Alloying -- 2.5.2 Filled and Reinforced TPs: Overview -- 2.5.2.1 Reinforcement with Fibers -- 2.5.2.2 Reinforcement and Filling with Mineral Fillers -- 2.5.2.3 Filling with Glass Beads -- 2.5.2.4 Nanofillers -- 2.5.2.5 Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Sheet Overmolded by Injection -- 2.5.3 Formulation of Compounds -- Impact Modifiers -- Plasticization -- Aging Protection: Additives, Films -- 2.5.3.2 Improvement of Special Features -- Fire-Retardant Thermoplastics -- Conductive Polymers -- Antifriction Polymers -- Polymers with High Thermal Conductivity -- Magnetic Polymers.
2.5.4 Statistical Analysis of Some Properties of Marketed TP grades -- 2.5.4.1 Short Glass Fiber-Reinforced TP Grades -- 2.5.4.2 Long Glass Fiber-Reinforced TP Grades -- 2.5.4.3 CF-Reinforced TP Grades -- 2.5.4.4 NFs and Wood Plastic Composites -- 2.5.4.5 Mineral-Filled TP Grades -- 2.5.4.6 Conductive TP Grades -- 2.6 Isotropy and Anisotropy -- 2.6.1 Example of Tensile Property Anisotropy for Simple Regular Plates -- 2.6.2 Special Behavior of Liquid Crystal Polymer -- 2.7 Dimensional Stability -- 2.7.1 The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -- 2.7.1.1 Deformation Due to Mechanical Stresses -- 2.7.1.2 Poisson's Ratio and Young's Modulus -- 2.7.1.3 Residual Internal Stresses -- 2.7.1.4 Shrinkage -- 2.7.1.5 Warpage -- 2.7.1.6 Water Uptake -- 2.7.1.7 Releasing of Organic Additives -- 2.8 Market Appeal: Sensory Properties Are of the Prime Importance -- 2.8.1 Optical Properties -- 2.8.1.1 Touch -- 2.8.1.2 Scratch Resistance Improvement -- 2.8.1.3 Acoustic Comfort -- 2.8.1.4 Odors -- 2.8.1.5 Taste -- 2.8.1.6 Fogging -- Further Reading -- 3 - Thermoplastics: Economic Overview -- 3.1 Overview of the Global Plastics Industry Today and Tomorrow -- 3.2 Market Shares of the Various Thermoplastic Families -- 3.3 Market Shares of Composites -- 3.4 Market Shares for the Main Application Sectors -- 3.5 Importance of the Various Processing Modes -- 3.6 Consumption Trends -- 3.6.1 Thermoplastics -- 3.6.2 Thermoplastic and Thermoset Composites -- 3.7 The North American Market -- 3.8 The Western European Market -- 3.9 The Asian Market -- 3.9.1 The Chinese Market -- 3.9.2 The Japanese Market -- 3.9.3 The Indian Market -- 3.10 Structure of the Plastics Processing Industry -- 3.11 Plastic Costs -- 3.11.1 Raw Material Costs -- 3.11.2 Examples of Additive Costs -- 3.11.3 Reinforcement Costs -- 3.11.4 Processing Costs.
3.11.5 Some Good Reasons to Use Thermoplastics and a Few Examples of Success Stories -- 3.12 The Future: Two Important Issues Linked to Crude Oil: Costs and Drying Up -- 3.12.1 Polymer Cost Evolutions versus Crude Oil Price -- 3.12.2 New Raw Material Sources: Bio-Sourced Plastics -- 3.13 Price Index Hypotheses for 279 Plastics -- 3.14 Useful Source Examples for Initiation of In-depth Studies -- Further Reading -- 4 - Elements for Analogical Selections: Survey of the 10 Top Markets -- 4.1 Packaging -- 4.1.1 Films -- 4.1.2 Bottles and Other Containers -- 4.1.3 Foams -- 4.1.4 Panel of Ideas for Application: 150 and More Examples -- 4.2 Building and Civil Engineering -- 4.2.1 Wood Thermoplastic Composites -- 4.2.2 Application Overview -- 4.2.3 Building Exteriors -- 4.2.3.1 Insulation -- 4.2.3.2 Light Structural Functions -- 4.2.3.3 Transparency -- 4.2.3.4 Decoration -- 4.2.3.5 Waterproofing -- 4.2.3.6 Seals and Sealing -- 4.2.3.7 Flexible Structures -- 4.2.4 Building Interiors -- 4.2.4.1 Styrenics, Possibly Foamed -- 4.2.4.2 Soft and U-PVC, Possibly Foamed -- 4.2.4.3 Polyethylene -- 4.2.4.4 Engineering Plastics -- 4.2.4.5 Composites with Wood -- 4.2.5 Pipes and Tubing -- 4.2.5.1 Rigid PVC -- 4.2.5.2 Modified PVC -- 4.2.5.3 Polyethylene -- 4.2.5.4 Flexible Polybutylene -- 4.2.5.5 Polypropylene -- 4.2.5.6 ABS -- 4.2.5.7 PET -- 4.2.6 Geomembranes, Geotextiles, and Geogrids -- 4.2.7 Panel of Ideas for Application: 150 and More Examples -- 4.3 Automotive and Transportation -- 4.3.1 Automotive Sector -- 4.3.1.1 Developing Applications -- 4.3.1.2 Emerging Applications -- 4.3.1.3 Mono-Material Concept -- 4.3.1.4 Ready-to-Install Modules -- 4.3.1.5 Fuel Tanks -- 4.3.1.6 Dashboards -- 4.3.1.7 Bumpers -- 4.3.1.8 Interior Trims -- 4.3.1.9 Airbag Systems -- 4.3.1.10 Lenses -- 4.3.1.11 Ancillary equipment -- 4.3.1.12 Under-the-Hood.
4.3.1.13 Engine Covers: Example of Competition between Nylon and BMC.
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Front Cover -- Series Page -- MATERIAL SELECTION FOR THERMOPLASTIC PARTS: Practical and Advanced Information for Plastics Engineers -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Disclaimer -- Acronyms and Abbreviations -- 1 - Thermoplastic Material Selection: Some Ways of Thinking for a Systematic Approach -- 1.1 Specific Plastics Design Issues: Some Ins and Outs among Others -- 1.1.1 Overview -- 1.1.2 Mechanical Loading: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.2.1 Temperature Effect -- 1.1.2.2 Loading Type Effect -- 1.1.2.3 Strain Rate or Time Effect -- 1.1.2.4 Impact Behavior -- 1.1.2.5 Hardness -- 1.1.2.6 Dynamic Fatigue -- 1.1.2.7 Dimensional Effects -- 1.1.2.8 Combination with Other Parameters -- 1.1.2.9 Lifetime -- 1.1.3 Heat: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.3.1 Average Temperature -- 1.1.3.2 Continuous Use Temperature -- 1.1.3.3 UL Temperature Index -- Influence of Grade -- Influence of Thickness -- Influence of the Characteristics Studied -- 1.1.3.4 Heat Deflection Temperature -- 1.1.3.5 Vicat Softening Temperature -- 1.1.3.6 Accelerated Aging -- 1.1.4 Low Temperatures: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.4.1 Low-Temperature Tests -- 1.1.4.2 Brittle Point -- 1.1.4.3 Rigidity in Torsion: "Clash & Berg" and "Gehman" Tests -- 1.1.4.4 Crystallization Test -- 1.1.5 Dimensional Stability: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.5.1 Thermal Expansion or Retraction -- 1.1.5.2 Shrinkage -- 1.1.5.3 Warpage -- 1.1.5.4 Water or Chemicals Uptake -- 1.1.5.5 Aging, Desorption, Bleeding, and Releasing of Organic Components -- 1.1.6 General Environmental Trends, Pollution of Near Environment, Green Attitude, Sustainability: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.6.1 Global Warming Due to the Greenhouse Effect of Emitted Gases -- 1.1.6.2 Pollution of Air, Water, and Land -- 1.1.6.3 Aging, Desorption, Bleeding, and Releasing of Organic Components -- 1.1.6.4 Volatile Organic Compounds.

1.1.6.5 Banned or Regulated or Suspect Substances -- 1.1.6.6 REACH -- 1.1.6.7 Examples of Specific Regulations or Specifications, RoHS, WEEE -- 1.1.6.8 Renewable Content or Biocarbon Content -- 1.1.6.9 (Bio)Degradable Plastics -- 1.1.6.10 Carbon Footprint -- 1.1.6.11 Life-Cycle Assessment -- 1.1.7 Electrical Properties: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.7.1 Volume Resistivity-ASTM D257 and IEC 93 -- 1.1.7.2 Surface Resistivity-ASTM D257 and IEC 93 -- 1.1.7.3 Dielectric Strength -- 1.1.7.4 Arc Resistance -- 1.1.7.5 High-Voltage Arc Tracking Rate -- 1.1.7.6 Frequency, Temperature, Moisture, Physical, and Dynamic Aging Effects -- 1.1.8 Fire Behavior: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.8. 1UL94 Fire Ratings -- 1.1.8.2 Oxygen Index -- 1.1.8.3 Smoke Opacity, Toxicity, and Corrosivity -- 1.1.8.4 Cone Calorimeter -- 1.1.8.5 Ignition Temperature -- 1.1.8.6 Rate of Burning -- 1.1.8.7 Glow Wire Test -- 1.1.9 Sensory Properties: Some Ins and Outs -- 1.1.9.1 Complementarity of Instrumental Measurements and Sensory Panel Evaluations -- 1.1.9.2 Visual Aspect -- 1.1.9.3 Physical Aspect -- 1.1.9.4 Touch -- 1.1.9.5 Odor and Taste Properties and Transfer -- 1.1.9.6 Noise, Vibration, and Harshness -- 1.1.10 Economics -- 1.1.10.1 Part Costs -- 1.1.10.2 Raw Material Costs -- 1.1.10.3 Examples of Additive Costs -- 1.1.10.4 Examples of Reinforcement Costs -- 1.1.10.5 An Economic Requirement: Compensate for Higher Plastic Costs -- 1.1.10.6 Effect of Lifetime on Cost -- 1.1.11 Lifetime and End-of-Life Criteria -- 1.1.11.1 Environment of Service -- 1.1.11.2 Modeling -- 1.1.11.3 Lifetime Enhancement Thanks to Part Protection and/or Minimization of Aggressive Factors -- 1.1.12 Regulation, Health, and Safety Requirements -- 1.2 Checklist Proposal -- 1.2.1 Mechanical Loading -- 1.2.2 Heat -- 1.2.3 Low Temperatures -- 1.2.4 Dimensional Features.

1.2.5 General Environmental Trends, Pollution of Near Environment, Green Attitude, and Sustainability -- 1.2.6 Electrical Properties -- 1.2.7 Fire Behavior -- 1.2.8 Sensory Properties -- 1.2.9 Economics -- 1.2.10 Lifetime and End-of-Life Criteria -- 1.2.11 Regulation, Health, Safety, and Fire Requirements -- 1.2.12 Other Specific Properties Not Listed Above -- 1.2.13 Processability -- Further Reading -- 2 - Thermoplastic Specific Properties -- 2.1 Do not Confuse Raw Polymer and Plastic Grade (or Compound) -- 2.2 Raw TPs Are Organic Macromolecules -- 2.2.1 Elemental Composition Is Essential -- 2.2.2 Molecular Weight and Chain Architecture Are Also of High Importance -- 2.3 Supramolecular Structure -- 2.3.1 TPs and TP Elastomers -- 2.3.1.1 Thermoplastics -- 2.3.1.2 Thermoplastic Elastomers -- 2.3.2 Thermosets -- 2.3.3 Crystalline and Amorphous TPs, Glass Transition Temperature -- 2.3.3.1 Amorphous Polymers -- 2.3.3.2 Crystalline and Semicrystalline Polymers -- 2.3.3.3 The Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) -- 2.3.3.4 Crystallization Is Time- and Thermal-Dependent and Is not Homogeneous -- 2.4 Viscoelasticity, Time, and Temperature Dependency -- 2.4.1 Time Dependency -- 2.4.2 Temperature Dependency -- 2.5 From Raw Polymers to Actual Grades: Upgrading and Customization -- 2.5.1 TP Alloying -- 2.5.2 Filled and Reinforced TPs: Overview -- 2.5.2.1 Reinforcement with Fibers -- 2.5.2.2 Reinforcement and Filling with Mineral Fillers -- 2.5.2.3 Filling with Glass Beads -- 2.5.2.4 Nanofillers -- 2.5.2.5 Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Sheet Overmolded by Injection -- 2.5.3 Formulation of Compounds -- Impact Modifiers -- Plasticization -- Aging Protection: Additives, Films -- 2.5.3.2 Improvement of Special Features -- Fire-Retardant Thermoplastics -- Conductive Polymers -- Antifriction Polymers -- Polymers with High Thermal Conductivity -- Magnetic Polymers.

2.5.4 Statistical Analysis of Some Properties of Marketed TP grades -- 2.5.4.1 Short Glass Fiber-Reinforced TP Grades -- 2.5.4.2 Long Glass Fiber-Reinforced TP Grades -- 2.5.4.3 CF-Reinforced TP Grades -- 2.5.4.4 NFs and Wood Plastic Composites -- 2.5.4.5 Mineral-Filled TP Grades -- 2.5.4.6 Conductive TP Grades -- 2.6 Isotropy and Anisotropy -- 2.6.1 Example of Tensile Property Anisotropy for Simple Regular Plates -- 2.6.2 Special Behavior of Liquid Crystal Polymer -- 2.7 Dimensional Stability -- 2.7.1 The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -- 2.7.1.1 Deformation Due to Mechanical Stresses -- 2.7.1.2 Poisson's Ratio and Young's Modulus -- 2.7.1.3 Residual Internal Stresses -- 2.7.1.4 Shrinkage -- 2.7.1.5 Warpage -- 2.7.1.6 Water Uptake -- 2.7.1.7 Releasing of Organic Additives -- 2.8 Market Appeal: Sensory Properties Are of the Prime Importance -- 2.8.1 Optical Properties -- 2.8.1.1 Touch -- 2.8.1.2 Scratch Resistance Improvement -- 2.8.1.3 Acoustic Comfort -- 2.8.1.4 Odors -- 2.8.1.5 Taste -- 2.8.1.6 Fogging -- Further Reading -- 3 - Thermoplastics: Economic Overview -- 3.1 Overview of the Global Plastics Industry Today and Tomorrow -- 3.2 Market Shares of the Various Thermoplastic Families -- 3.3 Market Shares of Composites -- 3.4 Market Shares for the Main Application Sectors -- 3.5 Importance of the Various Processing Modes -- 3.6 Consumption Trends -- 3.6.1 Thermoplastics -- 3.6.2 Thermoplastic and Thermoset Composites -- 3.7 The North American Market -- 3.8 The Western European Market -- 3.9 The Asian Market -- 3.9.1 The Chinese Market -- 3.9.2 The Japanese Market -- 3.9.3 The Indian Market -- 3.10 Structure of the Plastics Processing Industry -- 3.11 Plastic Costs -- 3.11.1 Raw Material Costs -- 3.11.2 Examples of Additive Costs -- 3.11.3 Reinforcement Costs -- 3.11.4 Processing Costs.

3.11.5 Some Good Reasons to Use Thermoplastics and a Few Examples of Success Stories -- 3.12 The Future: Two Important Issues Linked to Crude Oil: Costs and Drying Up -- 3.12.1 Polymer Cost Evolutions versus Crude Oil Price -- 3.12.2 New Raw Material Sources: Bio-Sourced Plastics -- 3.13 Price Index Hypotheses for 279 Plastics -- 3.14 Useful Source Examples for Initiation of In-depth Studies -- Further Reading -- 4 - Elements for Analogical Selections: Survey of the 10 Top Markets -- 4.1 Packaging -- 4.1.1 Films -- 4.1.2 Bottles and Other Containers -- 4.1.3 Foams -- 4.1.4 Panel of Ideas for Application: 150 and More Examples -- 4.2 Building and Civil Engineering -- 4.2.1 Wood Thermoplastic Composites -- 4.2.2 Application Overview -- 4.2.3 Building Exteriors -- 4.2.3.1 Insulation -- 4.2.3.2 Light Structural Functions -- 4.2.3.3 Transparency -- 4.2.3.4 Decoration -- 4.2.3.5 Waterproofing -- 4.2.3.6 Seals and Sealing -- 4.2.3.7 Flexible Structures -- 4.2.4 Building Interiors -- 4.2.4.1 Styrenics, Possibly Foamed -- 4.2.4.2 Soft and U-PVC, Possibly Foamed -- 4.2.4.3 Polyethylene -- 4.2.4.4 Engineering Plastics -- 4.2.4.5 Composites with Wood -- 4.2.5 Pipes and Tubing -- 4.2.5.1 Rigid PVC -- 4.2.5.2 Modified PVC -- 4.2.5.3 Polyethylene -- 4.2.5.4 Flexible Polybutylene -- 4.2.5.5 Polypropylene -- 4.2.5.6 ABS -- 4.2.5.7 PET -- 4.2.6 Geomembranes, Geotextiles, and Geogrids -- 4.2.7 Panel of Ideas for Application: 150 and More Examples -- 4.3 Automotive and Transportation -- 4.3.1 Automotive Sector -- 4.3.1.1 Developing Applications -- 4.3.1.2 Emerging Applications -- 4.3.1.3 Mono-Material Concept -- 4.3.1.4 Ready-to-Install Modules -- 4.3.1.5 Fuel Tanks -- 4.3.1.6 Dashboards -- 4.3.1.7 Bumpers -- 4.3.1.8 Interior Trims -- 4.3.1.9 Airbag Systems -- 4.3.1.10 Lenses -- 4.3.1.11 Ancillary equipment -- 4.3.1.12 Under-the-Hood.

4.3.1.13 Engine Covers: Example of Competition between Nylon and BMC.

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