Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy : Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine Symposium.

By: Ocean, Committee on Science and Policy for the CoastalPublisher: Washington : National Academies Press, 1995Copyright date: ©1995Description: 1 online resource (267 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780309584852Subject(s): Coastal zone management -- Maine -- Congresses.;Coastal zone management -- Law and legislation -- Maine -- Congresses.;Coasts -- Research -- Maine -- Congresses.;Maine, Gulf of -- CongressesGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy : Proceedings of the Gulf of Maine SymposiumDDC classification: 333.91709741 LOC classification: HT393.M3 -- G85 1995ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy -- Copyright -- Contents -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY -- Cumulative Impacts of Land and Water Activities -- Protecting Regionally Significant Terrestrial and Marine Habitats -- Using Indicators of Environmental Quality -- INTRODUCTION -- Rationale for Examining Science-Policy Interactions -- Purposes of the Gulf of Maine Symposium -- Conduct of the Symposium -- References -- STAGE-SETTING PAPERS -- COASTAL ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES FOR SCIENCE -- Introduction -- Bridging the Gap -- The Challenges of Ecosystem Management -- Reinventing Government through Ecosystem Management -- Five Coastal Marine Ecosystems -- Restore and Maintain -- Ecosystem Health -- Sustainability -- Native Biological Diversity -- Ecological Units and Time Frames -- The Best Science -- Monitoring and Evaluation -- Adaptive Management -- Literature Cited -- SOCIAL SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO MANAGING ECOSYSTEMS -- Introduction -- The Cultural Ecology of Coastal and Marine Environmental Policy and Management -- What is Social Science? -- The Uses of Social Science in Coastal and Marine Environmental Policy and Management -- Policy Development -- Policy Implementation -- Existing Mechanisms for Social Scientific Input -- Impediments to the Use of Social Scientists and Social Scientific Data in the Coastal and Marine Environmental Policy Process -- Is Social Science Science? -- Support and Resources for Coastal Social Science -- Translating Social Science into Policy -- Conclusion -- ON THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL COASTAL OCEAN MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS -- Introduction -- Science and Its Place in the Policy Process -- Policy Initiation -- Policy Formulation -- Policy Implementation -- Policy Evaluation -- Policy Modification/Termination -- Program Implementation as an Experimental Process.
The Nature of the Implementation Process -- Implementation as an Experiment -- Need for a Technically Sound Evaluation Process -- The Use of Science in National Coastal/Ocean Programs -- The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 -- The Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act -- Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (OCSLAA) -- Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 -- National Estuary Program -- Conclusions and Suggestions -- Topics Deserving Additional Research Emphasis -- Suggestions Regarding the Integration of Science and Policy in Coastal Ecosystem Management -- References -- Managing the Cumulative Impacts of Land and Water Activities in the Gulf of Maine Region's Estuaries and Near-Coastal… -- INTRODUCTION -- MANAGING CUMULATIVE IMPACTS: A KEY TO SUSTAINABILITY? -- Introduction -- Assessment Frameworks -- Techniques for Assessing Cumulative Impacts -- Improving Cumulative Impact Assessment and Management -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- CUMULATIVE IMPACTS IN THE GULF OF MAINE REGION: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CONSIDERATIONS -- Introduction -- Information Requirements -- Estuarine Complexity -- Estuarine Transience -- Implications for Policy Formulation and Management -- References -- CUMULATIVE IMPACTS-AS IF PEOPLE MATTERED -- References -- CUMULATIVE IMPACTS IN THE GULF OF MAINE ESTUARIES: POLICY DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS -- Introduction -- What is the Appropriate Policy Development Perspective? -- What do Policymakers Need? -- Why are Cumulative Impacts So Tough? -- Research to Strengthen Policymaking -- Methods to Convey Information -- Future Steps -- ISSUE SUBGROUP SUMMARIES -- Introduction -- Report of the First Subgroup -- Information Needs of Policymakers -- Natural Science Issues -- Social Science Issues -- Nature of Existing Science and Policy Interactions.
Impediments in the Existing Science and Policy Interactions -- Ways of Improving the Interaction of Science and Policy -- Report of the Second Subgroup -- First Scenario: Cumulative Impacts in Small-Scale Setting -- Second Scenario: Cumulative Impacts in Large-Scale Setting -- Protecting Regionally Significant Terrestrial and Marine Habitats -- INTRODUCTION -- PROTECTING REGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT MARINE HABITATS IN THE GULF OF MAINE: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE -- Introduction -- Types of Scientific Input in Habitat Management -- The Management of Aquatic Habitat in Atlantic Canada - Background -- Case Study 1: Trinity Ledge Herring Spawning Grounds -- Background and Context -- Chronology -- Lessons -- Case 2: Multiuse Conflicts in the Fundy Isles Region -- Background and Context -- Traditional Fisheries -- Marine Plant Harvesting -- Aquaculture -- Shipping -- Industrial Discharges -- Human Settlement -- Energy Production -- Tourism -- Habitat Management in the Fundy Isles Region-Experience to Date -- Lessons -- Discussion -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- A FRAMEWORK FOR PROTECTING REGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT HABITATS: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CONSIDERATIONS -- Introduction -- The Science-Policy Triad -- Necessary Components of Habitat Research and Information -- Critical Life-History Phases -- Essential Habitats -- Habitat Life-history Matrix -- Setting Priorities -- Flow Diagram to Guide Habitat-Related Management -- Eye to the Future -- Acknowledgements -- References -- ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND THE THEORY OF CHAOS -- Introduction -- Quotas, Individual Transferable Quotas, and the Precepts of Scientific Management -- Fisheries Management in Other Societies -- The Theory of Chaos and Management -- Parametric Management -- References Cited.
POLICY DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS WITH REGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT HABITATS: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN FEDERAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT -- Introduction -- Policy Development Considerations in Managing Regionally Significant Fisheries Habitat -- One Example of Habitat Losses in the Gulf of Maine -- Impacts of Mobile Fishing Gear -- Federal Policy -- Science, Policy, and the Practice of Protecting Regionally Significant Fisheries Habitat -- ISSUE GROUP SUMMARY -- The Nature of the Problem -- Information Needs of Policymakers -- Natural Science Issues -- Social Science Issues -- The Nature of Existing Science-Policy Interactions -- Impediments to the Science and Policy Interactions -- Interactions Between Science and Policy in Managing Gulf of Maine Habitats: Some Examples -- Designation of Gulf of Maine Priority Species -- Protection of Bay of Fundy Benthic Habitats -- Evaluation of Coastal Wetlands in New Hampshire -- Habitat Evaluation in the Damariscotta River Estuary -- Improving Interactions Between Science and Policy on Regionally Significant Habitats -- Conclusions: Improving Science and Policy Interactions -- References -- Using Indicators of Environmental Quality as a Tool to Maintain the Gulf of Maine -- INTRODUCTION -- ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS OF TOXIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE GULF OF MAINE -- Sediment Quality -- Trace Metals -- Petroleum Hydrocarbons -- Chlorinated Hydrocarbons -- Mussel Watch -- Trace Metals -- Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons -- Other Indicators -- Indicators of Ecological Concerns -- Indicators of Human Health Concerns -- Monitoring Requirements and Management Needs -- References -- USING INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CONSIDERATIONS -- Creation and Development of Useful Indicators of Environmental Quality -- Selection of Indicators Suitable for Target Issues.
Use of Indicators to Track Environmental Quality -- References -- ECONOMIC ISSUES IN MONITORING MARINE WATER QUALITY -- Introduction -- Reasons for Monitoring -- Setting Monitoring Priorities -- Conclusion -- USING INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN POLICYMAKING: PROMISE AND PITFALLS -- ISSUE GROUP SUMMARY -- Introduction -- The Objectives of the Monitoring of Environmental Indicators -- Existing and Potential Indicators of Environmental Quality for the Gulf of Maine -- Characteristics of Successful Monitoring Programs -- Ways to Improve the Interaction Between Scientists and Policymakers -- References -- APPENDIXES -- APPENDIX A SYMPOSIUM AGENDA -- APPENDIX B PARTICIPANTS -- APPENDIX C GULF OF MAINE REGIONAL SCIENCE PROGRAMS -- Gulf of Maine Regional Marine Research Program -- The Gulf of Maine Marine Research Plan -- Status of Gulf of Maine RMR -- Regional Association for Research on the Gulf of Maine (RARGOM) -- APPENDIX D BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ABOUT COMMITTEE MEMBERS -- APPENDIX E NOTES ON THE ROLE OF A RESEARCH TRANSLATOR -- APPENDIX F THE BOSTON HARBOR CASE: MANAGEMENT AND SCIENCE -- Introduction -- Commitment -- Communication -- MWRA's Outfall Monitoring Program -- Future Challenges -- References.
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Improving Interactions Between Coastal Science and Policy -- Copyright -- Contents -- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY -- Cumulative Impacts of Land and Water Activities -- Protecting Regionally Significant Terrestrial and Marine Habitats -- Using Indicators of Environmental Quality -- INTRODUCTION -- Rationale for Examining Science-Policy Interactions -- Purposes of the Gulf of Maine Symposium -- Conduct of the Symposium -- References -- STAGE-SETTING PAPERS -- COASTAL ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: CHALLENGES FOR SCIENCE -- Introduction -- Bridging the Gap -- The Challenges of Ecosystem Management -- Reinventing Government through Ecosystem Management -- Five Coastal Marine Ecosystems -- Restore and Maintain -- Ecosystem Health -- Sustainability -- Native Biological Diversity -- Ecological Units and Time Frames -- The Best Science -- Monitoring and Evaluation -- Adaptive Management -- Literature Cited -- SOCIAL SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO MANAGING ECOSYSTEMS -- Introduction -- The Cultural Ecology of Coastal and Marine Environmental Policy and Management -- What is Social Science? -- The Uses of Social Science in Coastal and Marine Environmental Policy and Management -- Policy Development -- Policy Implementation -- Existing Mechanisms for Social Scientific Input -- Impediments to the Use of Social Scientists and Social Scientific Data in the Coastal and Marine Environmental Policy Process -- Is Social Science Science? -- Support and Resources for Coastal Social Science -- Translating Social Science into Policy -- Conclusion -- ON THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL COASTAL OCEAN MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS -- Introduction -- Science and Its Place in the Policy Process -- Policy Initiation -- Policy Formulation -- Policy Implementation -- Policy Evaluation -- Policy Modification/Termination -- Program Implementation as an Experimental Process.

The Nature of the Implementation Process -- Implementation as an Experiment -- Need for a Technically Sound Evaluation Process -- The Use of Science in National Coastal/Ocean Programs -- The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 -- The Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act -- Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments (OCSLAA) -- Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 -- National Estuary Program -- Conclusions and Suggestions -- Topics Deserving Additional Research Emphasis -- Suggestions Regarding the Integration of Science and Policy in Coastal Ecosystem Management -- References -- Managing the Cumulative Impacts of Land and Water Activities in the Gulf of Maine Region's Estuaries and Near-Coastal… -- INTRODUCTION -- MANAGING CUMULATIVE IMPACTS: A KEY TO SUSTAINABILITY? -- Introduction -- Assessment Frameworks -- Techniques for Assessing Cumulative Impacts -- Improving Cumulative Impact Assessment and Management -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- CUMULATIVE IMPACTS IN THE GULF OF MAINE REGION: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CONSIDERATIONS -- Introduction -- Information Requirements -- Estuarine Complexity -- Estuarine Transience -- Implications for Policy Formulation and Management -- References -- CUMULATIVE IMPACTS-AS IF PEOPLE MATTERED -- References -- CUMULATIVE IMPACTS IN THE GULF OF MAINE ESTUARIES: POLICY DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS -- Introduction -- What is the Appropriate Policy Development Perspective? -- What do Policymakers Need? -- Why are Cumulative Impacts So Tough? -- Research to Strengthen Policymaking -- Methods to Convey Information -- Future Steps -- ISSUE SUBGROUP SUMMARIES -- Introduction -- Report of the First Subgroup -- Information Needs of Policymakers -- Natural Science Issues -- Social Science Issues -- Nature of Existing Science and Policy Interactions.

Impediments in the Existing Science and Policy Interactions -- Ways of Improving the Interaction of Science and Policy -- Report of the Second Subgroup -- First Scenario: Cumulative Impacts in Small-Scale Setting -- Second Scenario: Cumulative Impacts in Large-Scale Setting -- Protecting Regionally Significant Terrestrial and Marine Habitats -- INTRODUCTION -- PROTECTING REGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT MARINE HABITATS IN THE GULF OF MAINE: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE -- Introduction -- Types of Scientific Input in Habitat Management -- The Management of Aquatic Habitat in Atlantic Canada - Background -- Case Study 1: Trinity Ledge Herring Spawning Grounds -- Background and Context -- Chronology -- Lessons -- Case 2: Multiuse Conflicts in the Fundy Isles Region -- Background and Context -- Traditional Fisheries -- Marine Plant Harvesting -- Aquaculture -- Shipping -- Industrial Discharges -- Human Settlement -- Energy Production -- Tourism -- Habitat Management in the Fundy Isles Region-Experience to Date -- Lessons -- Discussion -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- A FRAMEWORK FOR PROTECTING REGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT HABITATS: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CONSIDERATIONS -- Introduction -- The Science-Policy Triad -- Necessary Components of Habitat Research and Information -- Critical Life-History Phases -- Essential Habitats -- Habitat Life-history Matrix -- Setting Priorities -- Flow Diagram to Guide Habitat-Related Management -- Eye to the Future -- Acknowledgements -- References -- ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND THE THEORY OF CHAOS -- Introduction -- Quotas, Individual Transferable Quotas, and the Precepts of Scientific Management -- Fisheries Management in Other Societies -- The Theory of Chaos and Management -- Parametric Management -- References Cited.

POLICY DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS WITH REGIONALLY SIGNIFICANT HABITATS: SCIENCE AND POLICY IN FEDERAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT -- Introduction -- Policy Development Considerations in Managing Regionally Significant Fisheries Habitat -- One Example of Habitat Losses in the Gulf of Maine -- Impacts of Mobile Fishing Gear -- Federal Policy -- Science, Policy, and the Practice of Protecting Regionally Significant Fisheries Habitat -- ISSUE GROUP SUMMARY -- The Nature of the Problem -- Information Needs of Policymakers -- Natural Science Issues -- Social Science Issues -- The Nature of Existing Science-Policy Interactions -- Impediments to the Science and Policy Interactions -- Interactions Between Science and Policy in Managing Gulf of Maine Habitats: Some Examples -- Designation of Gulf of Maine Priority Species -- Protection of Bay of Fundy Benthic Habitats -- Evaluation of Coastal Wetlands in New Hampshire -- Habitat Evaluation in the Damariscotta River Estuary -- Improving Interactions Between Science and Policy on Regionally Significant Habitats -- Conclusions: Improving Science and Policy Interactions -- References -- Using Indicators of Environmental Quality as a Tool to Maintain the Gulf of Maine -- INTRODUCTION -- ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS OF TOXIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE GULF OF MAINE -- Sediment Quality -- Trace Metals -- Petroleum Hydrocarbons -- Chlorinated Hydrocarbons -- Mussel Watch -- Trace Metals -- Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons -- Other Indicators -- Indicators of Ecological Concerns -- Indicators of Human Health Concerns -- Monitoring Requirements and Management Needs -- References -- USING INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CONSIDERATIONS -- Creation and Development of Useful Indicators of Environmental Quality -- Selection of Indicators Suitable for Target Issues.

Use of Indicators to Track Environmental Quality -- References -- ECONOMIC ISSUES IN MONITORING MARINE WATER QUALITY -- Introduction -- Reasons for Monitoring -- Setting Monitoring Priorities -- Conclusion -- USING INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN POLICYMAKING: PROMISE AND PITFALLS -- ISSUE GROUP SUMMARY -- Introduction -- The Objectives of the Monitoring of Environmental Indicators -- Existing and Potential Indicators of Environmental Quality for the Gulf of Maine -- Characteristics of Successful Monitoring Programs -- Ways to Improve the Interaction Between Scientists and Policymakers -- References -- APPENDIXES -- APPENDIX A SYMPOSIUM AGENDA -- APPENDIX B PARTICIPANTS -- APPENDIX C GULF OF MAINE REGIONAL SCIENCE PROGRAMS -- Gulf of Maine Regional Marine Research Program -- The Gulf of Maine Marine Research Plan -- Status of Gulf of Maine RMR -- Regional Association for Research on the Gulf of Maine (RARGOM) -- APPENDIX D BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ABOUT COMMITTEE MEMBERS -- APPENDIX E NOTES ON THE ROLE OF A RESEARCH TRANSLATOR -- APPENDIX F THE BOSTON HARBOR CASE: MANAGEMENT AND SCIENCE -- Introduction -- Commitment -- Communication -- MWRA's Outfall Monitoring Program -- Future Challenges -- References.

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