Handbook of Classical and Modern Mandaic.

By: Macuch, RudolfPublisher: Berlin/Boston : De Gruyter, Inc., 1965Copyright date: ©1965Description: 1 online resource (720 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9783110818727Subject(s): Mandaean languageGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Handbook of Classical and Modern MandaicLOC classification: PJ5321.M33 1965Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Abbreviations -- Introduction -- Preliminary Remarks on Pronunciation of Mandaic -- I. SCRIPT AND PRONUNCIATION -- I. Abāgāda (name of the alphabet and number of letters) -- 2. Alphabet -- 3. Spelling -- 4. Order of letters -- 5. The letter ḏ- -- 6. Supplementary letters -- 7. Double consonants -- 8. Scriptio plena -- a) Front vowels -- b) Central vowels -- c) Back vowels -- 9. Length and timbre of vowels -- a) æ,a,ā -- b) e,i,ī -- c) u, ū, o, ō -- 10. Diphthongs -- a) Original -- b) Secondary -- c) In Arabic and Persian loan-words -- 11. Economy in the use of the letters ṣ, h, u -- a) uh, hu, uṣ and un -- b) uṣ and hn -- 12. Šwa mobile -- a) Changed to a šwa quiescens -- b) Šwa mobile remained -- c) Full vowel restored -- 13. Prevention of consonantal groups in modern loan-words -- 14. Scriptio defectiva -- a) Accidental -- b) Regular in special short words -- 15. Proclitics and enclitics -- 16. Conclusion -- II. PHONETICS -- A. CLASSIFICATION OF PHONEMES -- 17. Consonantal and vocal groups -- a) Consonants -- b) Vowels and Diphthongs -- 18. Relative frequency of consonantal phonemes -- 19. Voiced and unvoiced consonants -- B. BEGADKEFAT -- 20. b -- g -- d -- k -- p -- t -- C. LIQUIDS (m,n,l,r) -- 21. Relationship between the four liquids in general -- 22. n > m before labials -- 23. m:b = n:d (n:z, n:g) -- a) mb by dissimilation of bb -- b) nd, nz by dissimilation of dd, zz -- c) ng by dissimilation of gg -- d) n before unvoiced plosives -- 24. Etymological n before d, g, z -- 25. Assimilation of n -- a) As first radical -- b) As last radical before t -- 26. Apocope of plosive liquids -- a) m -- b) n -- c) Syncope of n before gutturals -- 27. n:l -- 28. l:r -- 29. Reduplication of r -- D. LABIALS -- 30. Regressive assimilation of sonority.
31. Progressive assimilation of sonority -- 32. b > w> (β) -- 33. Final b > m -- E. DENTALS AND SIBILANTS -- 34. Media t > media d -- 35. Ultima t > ultima d -- 36. Vanishing of dentals -- a) For prosodic reasons -- b) By syncope after fricatives -- c) eϑ + ka > ekka -- d) Regressive assimilation of the final t to the modern enclitic d -- e) Syncope of t in compounds with bit -- f) Different cases of the syncope of d -- g) Mod. t > k -- h) Mod. t > h -- 37. Relationship between d and ṭ and t and ṭ -- 38. Relationship between d and z -- 39. Emphatics -- a) s (z) ṣ > before ṭ -- b) ṣ > s (z) before labials and voiced alveolars -- 40. Regressive assimilation of sonority in the sibilants -- a) Before voiced plosives -- b) Before unvoiced plosives -- 41. Replacement of š by other sibilants -- F. PALATALS AND VELARS -- 42. Relationship between g and q -- 43. Relationship between q and k -- a) q > k -- b) Pahl. -ak > Mand. -qa -- 44. Relationship between g and k -- a) k > g -- h) g> k -- 45. Syncope of palatals -- 46. g in old loan-words -- a) Syncopated -- b) Maintained -- G. GUTTURALS -- 47. General remarks -- 48. Etymological (?>) h remained -- a) As first radical -- b) As second radical -- 49. Vanishing of initial ?,? -- 50. Vanishing of ?,?,as 2nd radical -- 51. Has third radical -- a) Preserved before a vowel -- b) Preserved before t and ? -- c) Vanished -- d) Graphical final h -- e) Facultatively preserved -- 52. Preservation of final h ( i between two vowels -- 55. Vanishing of ?,? -- a) Preceded by a šwa mobile or an auxiliary vowel -- b) Preceded by a consonant or a šwa mobile -- c) Secondary reduplication of the 2nd radical after the vanishing of the Ist guttural radical.
d) 3rd radical after the vanishing of the 2nd guttural radical -- e) Vanishing of ?,? as 3rd radical -- 56. Pronunciation of proclitics after the vanishing of ?,? as Ist radical -- 57. Replacing of ?,? by h -- a) As initial sound -- b) As second radical -- c) As third radical -- 58. ???? treated as ??? -- 59. Initial ? > q -- 60. Arabic gutturals in modern Mandaic -- H. SEMIVOWELS -- 61. y -- a) Initial -- b) Final -?) (a) -- 62. w -- a) Initial -- b) Middle -- c) Syncopated in certain forms of HUA -- I. VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS -- 63. General remarks -- 64. Shortening of long vowels -- 65. Structural influence of a long vowel -- a) On the vowel of the preceding syllable -- b) On the vowel of the following syllable -- 66. Šwa mobile -- 67. Wavering between vowels -- a) Central and front -- b) Back and front -- 68. Front vowel as combinatory variant of a in closed syllable -- 69. Influence of III r on the preceding e -- 70. Influence of gutturals on the preceding vowel -- 71. Short vowels before reduplicated consonants -- a) r -- b) In the place of a vanished ? -- 72. Labialization of vowels -- a) Before m -- b) Before p,f -- c) Before b, ß -- d) Progressive labialization -- 73. Back vowel instead of the front or central vowels -- 74. Special remarks on long vowels -- a) ? -- b) ? -- c) ? -- 75. Diphthongs -- a) Original -- b) Secondary -- 76. Special changes of original diphthongs -- a) Final ya > ya, ? -- b) Epenthesis -- J. SECONDARY VOWELS -- 77. Prosthetic vowel -- 78. Dissolution of consonantal groups by auxiliary vowels -- 79. Restoration of a full vowel instead of a šwa -- 80. Full vowel in classical verbal prefixes -- 81. Full vowel before verbal endings and enclitics -- 82. Auxiliary vowel to prevent gemination -- a) In the plural of nouns -- b) In verbs???.
83. Secondary vowel preserved by the analogy -- 84. Abuse of the prosthetic vowel -- K. OMISSION OF VOWELS -- 85. Apocope of unstressed vowels -- 86. Graphical omission of initial etymological vowels -- 87. Aphaeresis of etymological vowels -- 88. Contraction of an initial vowel with the vowel of the proclitic -- 89. Syncope -- L. ACCENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE VOCAL STRUCTURE OF THE WORD -- 90. General rules -- 91. Aphaeresis of unstressed vowels -- 92. Syncope of short vowels before the principal accent -- 93. Stress of secondary vowels to avoid gemination -- 94. Apocope and syncope of unstressed vowels -- 95. Length of the stressed vowel -- a) Changes of the length and timbre depending on the change of the accent -- b) Change of the degree of aperture -- c) Contraction of diphthongs in a stressed syllable -- 96. Accent in modern loan-words -- M. PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF THE MANDAIC SYLLABLE AND WORD 97. Syllabic structure -- a) With short vowel -- b) With long vowel -- c) With a semivowel (šwa mobile) -- 98. Secondary types of syllabic structure -- a) With a vowel preceded by two consonants -- b) With a vowel followed by two consonants -- N. HAPLOLOGY -- 99. a) In verbs -- b) In derivatives from??? -- O. SPECIAL SYNCOPATION -- 100. Syncope -- a) Of fricative liquids -- b) Of plosives -- P. EUPHONIC RULES -- 101. General remarks -- 102. Combinatory doubling of the consonant in a short open syllable -- III. MORPHOLOGY -- 103. A. INTERJECTIONS AND ONOMATOPOEIC EXPRESSIONS -- B. NOUNS -- a) Pronouns -- 1. Personal pronouns -- 104. Independent personal pronouns -- a) Classical -- b) Modern -- 105. Personal pronouns used enclitically -- a) Classical -- b) Modem -- 106. Possessive Suffixes -- a) Classical -- b) Modem -- ?) With nouns -- ß) With certain participles -- ?) Special remarks -- 107. Accusative suffixes.
a) Classical -- b) Modern -- 2. Demonstrative pronouns -- 108. h? -- 109. ??, ?? -- 110. Pointing to the nearer object -- III. Pointing to the farther object -- 112. Modern demonstrative pronouns -- a) Pointing to the nearer object -- b) Pointing to the farther object -- 3. Relative pronouns -- 113. a) d?- -- b) kd? = modem ke -- 4. Interrogative pronouns -- 114. a) Classical -- b) Modern -- b) Substantives and adjectives -- 1. Nouns from biradical roots -- 115. Family members, parts of the body, other common terms -- 2. Nouns from three-radical roots without external addition -- ?) The simplest formation -- 116. a) fa' (a) l -- b) With transition of a to i -- c) With feminine ending -- 117. a) fi'I -- b) With feminine ending -- 118. a) fu'l -- b) With feminine ending -- ?) With an original short vowel after the Ist and 2nd radicals -- 119. fa'al -- a) masculine form -- b) feminine form -- c) From roots I w, y -- 120. With third radical doubled -- ?) With a long vowel after the Ist or 2nd or both first radicals not doubled -- 121. f?' al -- 122. f?'il -- 123. f?'ul -- 124. a) fa'?l, fi' ?l, fu'?l>p?'?l -- b) With feminine ending -- 125. a) f?'?l > p?'?l -- b) With feminine ending -- 126. fu'ayl -- 127. a) fa'?l,fi'?l>p?'?l -- b) With feminine ending -- ?) With reduplication of the second radical -- 128. With two short vowels -- 129. a) fa''?l -- b) With feminine ending -- 130. fi"?l -- 131. fu''?l -- 132. fa"?l -- a) Qualificative adjectives -- b) Verbal adjectives -- c) Substantives -- d) Feminine forms -- 133. With ? after the 2nd radical -- a) fa"?l -- b) fi''?l -- 3. Nouns from quadriradical roots -- 134. a) Nomina actionis -- b) Concrete nouns by repeating biradical roots -- c) By repeating the third radical -- d) Concrete nouns ending in -la -- e) Various formations -- 4. Nouns with prefixes and suffixes.
?) With prefixes.
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Intro -- Preface -- Contents -- Abbreviations -- Introduction -- Preliminary Remarks on Pronunciation of Mandaic -- I. SCRIPT AND PRONUNCIATION -- I. Abāgāda (name of the alphabet and number of letters) -- 2. Alphabet -- 3. Spelling -- 4. Order of letters -- 5. The letter ḏ- -- 6. Supplementary letters -- 7. Double consonants -- 8. Scriptio plena -- a) Front vowels -- b) Central vowels -- c) Back vowels -- 9. Length and timbre of vowels -- a) æ,a,ā -- b) e,i,ī -- c) u, ū, o, ō -- 10. Diphthongs -- a) Original -- b) Secondary -- c) In Arabic and Persian loan-words -- 11. Economy in the use of the letters ṣ, h, u -- a) uh, hu, uṣ and un -- b) uṣ and hn -- 12. Šwa mobile -- a) Changed to a šwa quiescens -- b) Šwa mobile remained -- c) Full vowel restored -- 13. Prevention of consonantal groups in modern loan-words -- 14. Scriptio defectiva -- a) Accidental -- b) Regular in special short words -- 15. Proclitics and enclitics -- 16. Conclusion -- II. PHONETICS -- A. CLASSIFICATION OF PHONEMES -- 17. Consonantal and vocal groups -- a) Consonants -- b) Vowels and Diphthongs -- 18. Relative frequency of consonantal phonemes -- 19. Voiced and unvoiced consonants -- B. BEGADKEFAT -- 20. b -- g -- d -- k -- p -- t -- C. LIQUIDS (m,n,l,r) -- 21. Relationship between the four liquids in general -- 22. n > m before labials -- 23. m:b = n:d (n:z, n:g) -- a) mb by dissimilation of bb -- b) nd, nz by dissimilation of dd, zz -- c) ng by dissimilation of gg -- d) n before unvoiced plosives -- 24. Etymological n before d, g, z -- 25. Assimilation of n -- a) As first radical -- b) As last radical before t -- 26. Apocope of plosive liquids -- a) m -- b) n -- c) Syncope of n before gutturals -- 27. n:l -- 28. l:r -- 29. Reduplication of r -- D. LABIALS -- 30. Regressive assimilation of sonority.

31. Progressive assimilation of sonority -- 32. b > w> (β) -- 33. Final b > m -- E. DENTALS AND SIBILANTS -- 34. Media t > media d -- 35. Ultima t > ultima d -- 36. Vanishing of dentals -- a) For prosodic reasons -- b) By syncope after fricatives -- c) eϑ + ka > ekka -- d) Regressive assimilation of the final t to the modern enclitic d -- e) Syncope of t in compounds with bit -- f) Different cases of the syncope of d -- g) Mod. t > k -- h) Mod. t > h -- 37. Relationship between d and ṭ and t and ṭ -- 38. Relationship between d and z -- 39. Emphatics -- a) s (z) ṣ > before ṭ -- b) ṣ > s (z) before labials and voiced alveolars -- 40. Regressive assimilation of sonority in the sibilants -- a) Before voiced plosives -- b) Before unvoiced plosives -- 41. Replacement of š by other sibilants -- F. PALATALS AND VELARS -- 42. Relationship between g and q -- 43. Relationship between q and k -- a) q > k -- b) Pahl. -ak > Mand. -qa -- 44. Relationship between g and k -- a) k > g -- h) g> k -- 45. Syncope of palatals -- 46. g in old loan-words -- a) Syncopated -- b) Maintained -- G. GUTTURALS -- 47. General remarks -- 48. Etymological (?>) h remained -- a) As first radical -- b) As second radical -- 49. Vanishing of initial ?,? -- 50. Vanishing of ?,?,as 2nd radical -- 51. Has third radical -- a) Preserved before a vowel -- b) Preserved before t and ? -- c) Vanished -- d) Graphical final h -- e) Facultatively preserved -- 52. Preservation of final h ( i between two vowels -- 55. Vanishing of ?,? -- a) Preceded by a šwa mobile or an auxiliary vowel -- b) Preceded by a consonant or a šwa mobile -- c) Secondary reduplication of the 2nd radical after the vanishing of the Ist guttural radical.

d) 3rd radical after the vanishing of the 2nd guttural radical -- e) Vanishing of ?,? as 3rd radical -- 56. Pronunciation of proclitics after the vanishing of ?,? as Ist radical -- 57. Replacing of ?,? by h -- a) As initial sound -- b) As second radical -- c) As third radical -- 58. ???? treated as ??? -- 59. Initial ? > q -- 60. Arabic gutturals in modern Mandaic -- H. SEMIVOWELS -- 61. y -- a) Initial -- b) Final -?) (a) -- 62. w -- a) Initial -- b) Middle -- c) Syncopated in certain forms of HUA -- I. VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS -- 63. General remarks -- 64. Shortening of long vowels -- 65. Structural influence of a long vowel -- a) On the vowel of the preceding syllable -- b) On the vowel of the following syllable -- 66. Šwa mobile -- 67. Wavering between vowels -- a) Central and front -- b) Back and front -- 68. Front vowel as combinatory variant of a in closed syllable -- 69. Influence of III r on the preceding e -- 70. Influence of gutturals on the preceding vowel -- 71. Short vowels before reduplicated consonants -- a) r -- b) In the place of a vanished ? -- 72. Labialization of vowels -- a) Before m -- b) Before p,f -- c) Before b, ß -- d) Progressive labialization -- 73. Back vowel instead of the front or central vowels -- 74. Special remarks on long vowels -- a) ? -- b) ? -- c) ? -- 75. Diphthongs -- a) Original -- b) Secondary -- 76. Special changes of original diphthongs -- a) Final ya > ya, ? -- b) Epenthesis -- J. SECONDARY VOWELS -- 77. Prosthetic vowel -- 78. Dissolution of consonantal groups by auxiliary vowels -- 79. Restoration of a full vowel instead of a šwa -- 80. Full vowel in classical verbal prefixes -- 81. Full vowel before verbal endings and enclitics -- 82. Auxiliary vowel to prevent gemination -- a) In the plural of nouns -- b) In verbs???.

83. Secondary vowel preserved by the analogy -- 84. Abuse of the prosthetic vowel -- K. OMISSION OF VOWELS -- 85. Apocope of unstressed vowels -- 86. Graphical omission of initial etymological vowels -- 87. Aphaeresis of etymological vowels -- 88. Contraction of an initial vowel with the vowel of the proclitic -- 89. Syncope -- L. ACCENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE VOCAL STRUCTURE OF THE WORD -- 90. General rules -- 91. Aphaeresis of unstressed vowels -- 92. Syncope of short vowels before the principal accent -- 93. Stress of secondary vowels to avoid gemination -- 94. Apocope and syncope of unstressed vowels -- 95. Length of the stressed vowel -- a) Changes of the length and timbre depending on the change of the accent -- b) Change of the degree of aperture -- c) Contraction of diphthongs in a stressed syllable -- 96. Accent in modern loan-words -- M. PHONETIC STRUCTURE OF THE MANDAIC SYLLABLE AND WORD 97. Syllabic structure -- a) With short vowel -- b) With long vowel -- c) With a semivowel (šwa mobile) -- 98. Secondary types of syllabic structure -- a) With a vowel preceded by two consonants -- b) With a vowel followed by two consonants -- N. HAPLOLOGY -- 99. a) In verbs -- b) In derivatives from??? -- O. SPECIAL SYNCOPATION -- 100. Syncope -- a) Of fricative liquids -- b) Of plosives -- P. EUPHONIC RULES -- 101. General remarks -- 102. Combinatory doubling of the consonant in a short open syllable -- III. MORPHOLOGY -- 103. A. INTERJECTIONS AND ONOMATOPOEIC EXPRESSIONS -- B. NOUNS -- a) Pronouns -- 1. Personal pronouns -- 104. Independent personal pronouns -- a) Classical -- b) Modern -- 105. Personal pronouns used enclitically -- a) Classical -- b) Modem -- 106. Possessive Suffixes -- a) Classical -- b) Modem -- ?) With nouns -- ß) With certain participles -- ?) Special remarks -- 107. Accusative suffixes.

a) Classical -- b) Modern -- 2. Demonstrative pronouns -- 108. h? -- 109. ??, ?? -- 110. Pointing to the nearer object -- III. Pointing to the farther object -- 112. Modern demonstrative pronouns -- a) Pointing to the nearer object -- b) Pointing to the farther object -- 3. Relative pronouns -- 113. a) d?- -- b) kd? = modem ke -- 4. Interrogative pronouns -- 114. a) Classical -- b) Modern -- b) Substantives and adjectives -- 1. Nouns from biradical roots -- 115. Family members, parts of the body, other common terms -- 2. Nouns from three-radical roots without external addition -- ?) The simplest formation -- 116. a) fa' (a) l -- b) With transition of a to i -- c) With feminine ending -- 117. a) fi'I -- b) With feminine ending -- 118. a) fu'l -- b) With feminine ending -- ?) With an original short vowel after the Ist and 2nd radicals -- 119. fa'al -- a) masculine form -- b) feminine form -- c) From roots I w, y -- 120. With third radical doubled -- ?) With a long vowel after the Ist or 2nd or both first radicals not doubled -- 121. f?' al -- 122. f?'il -- 123. f?'ul -- 124. a) fa'?l, fi' ?l, fu'?l>p?'?l -- b) With feminine ending -- 125. a) f?'?l > p?'?l -- b) With feminine ending -- 126. fu'ayl -- 127. a) fa'?l,fi'?l>p?'?l -- b) With feminine ending -- ?) With reduplication of the second radical -- 128. With two short vowels -- 129. a) fa''?l -- b) With feminine ending -- 130. fi"?l -- 131. fu''?l -- 132. fa"?l -- a) Qualificative adjectives -- b) Verbal adjectives -- c) Substantives -- d) Feminine forms -- 133. With ? after the 2nd radical -- a) fa"?l -- b) fi''?l -- 3. Nouns from quadriradical roots -- 134. a) Nomina actionis -- b) Concrete nouns by repeating biradical roots -- c) By repeating the third radical -- d) Concrete nouns ending in -la -- e) Various formations -- 4. Nouns with prefixes and suffixes.

?) With prefixes.

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