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Photochemistry : UV/VIS Spectroscopy, Photochemical Reactions and Photosynthesis.

By: Contributor(s): Series: Chemical Engineering Methods and TechnologyPublisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2011Copyright date: ©2011Description: 1 online resource (399 pages)Content type:
  • text
Media type:
  • computer
Carrier type:
  • online resource
ISBN:
  • 9781620819968
Subject(s): Genre/Form: Additional physical formats: Print version:: Photochemistry: UV/VIS Spectroscopy, Photochemical Reactions and PhotosynthesisDDC classification:
  • 541/.35
LOC classification:
  • QD714 -- .P47 2011eb
Online resources:
Contents:
Intro -- PHOTOCHEMISTRY: UV/VIS SPECTROSCOPY, PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- PHOTOCHEMISTRY: UV/VIS SPECTROSCOPY, PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- THE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF NOVEL ELECTRON-TRANSFER THREE-COMPONENT VISIBLE LIGHT PHOTOINITIATING SYSTEMS -- ABSTRACT -- ABBREVIATIONS -- INTRODUCTION -- THREE-COMPONENT PHOTOINITIATING SYSTEMS -- THREE-COMPONENT PHOTOINITIATING SYSTEMS. REVIEW -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- Polymethine Dyes as Sensitizers in the Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/N-Alkoxypyridinium Salt -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/N,N'-Dialkoxy-2,2'-Bipyridilium Salt -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/N-Methylpicolinium Esters -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/Cyclic Acetals -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/Thiol -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/Trichloromethyl-1,3,5-Triazine/Heteroaromatic Thiol -- Excited State Processes in the Excited Singlet State of Sensitizer in the Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems -- Thermodynamic of Free Radicals Formation and the Application of Marcus Theory for Kinetics Study of Free Radical Polymerization of Multifunctional Acrylates -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOREACTIONS OF BENZOPHENONE IN SOLID MEDIA: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONS -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. PHOTOPHYSICS AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF BENZOPHENONE.
2.1. Photophysical Processes of Benzophenone -- 2.2. The Main Photoreactions Induced by Benzophenone in Organic Media -- 2.2.1. Hydrogen Atom Abstraction -- 2.2.2. Peculiar aspects in Photoreduction of Benzophenone in a Solid Matrix -- 2.2.3. Photoreactions of Benzophenone with Olefinic or Acetylenic Compounds. -- 2.2.4. Photochemical Reactions of Benzophenones in the Presence of Amine Derivatives -- 3. PHOTOCROSSLINKING OF POLYMERS -- 3.1. Photoreactions in Saturated Hydrocarbon Polymers -- 3.2. Photoinitiated Crosslinking of Diene Polymers -- 3.3. Photocrosslinking of Inorganic Polymers - Polydimethylsiloxanes -- 4. SURFACE PHOTOGRAFTING -- 5. PHOTOPHYSICS AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF BENZOPHENONE ADSORBED ON VARIOUS SUBSTRATES -- 6. CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- PHOTO-CHEMICAL METHODS AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY IN THE DEPOSITION OF MATERIALS WITH CHEMICAL SENSOR PROPERTIES AND PHOTO-LUMINESCENT CHARACTERISTIC -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 1.1. Some Methods of Photodeposition -- 1.2. Photo-Reactivity of the Complex Precursors -- 2. SOME MATERIALS PHOTO-DEPOSITED PROPOSED -- 2.1. Zno Thin Films and Their use as Gas Sensor -- 2.2. Evaluation of Characteristics Luminescence of HfO2-Ln Thin Films (where: Ln = Er or Eu) -- 3. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS -- 3.1. General Procedure -- 3.2. Preparation of Amorphous Thin Films -- 3.2.1. Preparation of the Precursors Β-Dikentonate Complexes -- 3.2.2. Photolysis of Complexes as Films on Si (100) Surfaces -- 3.3. Evaluation of Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO-M (where M= Pd or Pt) -- 3.4. Evaluation of the Characteristics Luminescent of the HfO2-Ln Films (where Ln= Er or Eu) -- 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- 4.1. Characterization of ZnO-Pd and ZnO-Pt Thins Films -- 4.2. Preliminary Evaluation of the Gas Sensitivity of the ZnO and ZnO-Pt Thin Films.
4.3. Characterization of HfO2-Ln Photodeposited Thin Films ( where Ln = Eu or Er) -- 4.4. Photoluminescence Study of HfO2-Ln Thin Films -- 4.5. Proposed Photoluminescence Mechanism -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOLABILE MOLECULES AS LIGHT-ACTIVATED SWITCHES TO CONTROL BIOMOLECULAR AND BIOMATERIAL PROPERTIES -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. CAGING OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES -- 2.1. Small Biologically Relevant Molecules -- 2.2. Peptides and Proteins -- 2.3. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids -- 2.4. Drugs -- 3. PHOTOLABILE MOLECULES IN BIOLOGICAL DEVICES AND BIOMATERIALS -- 3.1. Patterning Biomolecules and Cells on Solid Surfaces -- 3.2. Biomaterials for Controlled Release -- 3.3. Controlling Biomaterial Physical Properties -- 3.4. Controlling Biomaterial Chemical Properties: Patterning Biomolecules and Cells -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOSYSTEM AT HIGH TEMPERATURE: MECHANISMS OF ADAPTATION AND DAMAGE -- ABSTRACT -- 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION -- 2. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PHOTOSYSTEMS WITH TYPE-II REACTION CENTER -- 2.1. Purple Bacteria -- 2.2. Cyanobacteria -- 2.3. Higher Plants -- THERMAL STABILITY OF TYPE-II REACTION CENTERS -- 3.1. Purple Bacteria -- 3.2. Cyanobacteria -- 3.3. Higher Plants -- 4. HEAT-DERIVED DAMAGE OF PHOTOSYSTEMS IN HIGHER PLANT -- 4.1. Light-Mediated Damage of Photosystem in Heat-Stressed Higher Plants -- 4.2. Light-Independent Mechanisms of Damage of Photosystems in Heat-Stressed Higher Plants -- 5. ADAPTATION MECHANISM OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AGAINST HEAT STRESS -- 6. IMPROVEMENT OF HEAT TOLERANCE BY GENETIC ENGINEERING -- 7. INDUCTION OF HEAT TOLERANCE BY ARTIFICIAL TREATMENTS OF CHEMICALS -- 7.1. Ca2+ -- 7.2. H2O2 -- 7.3. Phytohormone -- 7.4. Environmental Elicitor -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES.
THE LITTLE-KNOWN WAVELENGTH EFFECT IN PROVITAMIN D PHOTOCHEMISTRY: THE AMBIGUOUS ROLE OF THE WEAK IRREVERSIBLE CHANNEL -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- 1. COMMONLY ACCEPTED INTERPRETATION OF PROVITAMIN D PHOTOISOMERIZATION -- 2. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF PROVITAMIN D PHOTOISOMERIZATION UNDER XECL LASER EXCITATION AT Λ = 308 NM -- 2.1. Influence of Two-Photon Processes -- 2.2. Influence of the Radiation Wavelength -- 2.3. Simplified Model of Reversible Photoconversions with a Weak Irreversible Channel -- 3. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE MULTICOMPONENT PHOTOISOMERIC MIXTURE -- 4. IRRADIATION WITH KRF AND XECL EXCIMER LASERS -- 4.1. The Provitamin D Photoisomerization upon Excitation with Krf Laser at the Wavelength Λ = 248 Nm -- 4.2. Concentration Kinetics under Irradiation with the Xecl Laser At 308 Nm -- 5. THE PROBLEM OF THE PHOTOCHEMICAL STAGE OPTIMIZATION IN THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF VITAMIN D -- 5.1. The Method of Two-Stage Irradiation -- 5.2. The Role of the Irreversible Channel Under Optically Dense Layer Conditions -- 6. BIOLOGICAL DOSIMETRY OF SOLAR UV RADIATION IN SITU USING AN IN VITRO MODEL OF VITAMIN D SYNTHESIS -- 6.1. Duality of Solar UV-B Radiation: Vitamin D Synthesis versus Skin Erythema -- 6.2. Spectral Selectivity of the 'D-Dosimeter' -- 6.3. Measurement of the Vitamin D Action Spectrum in Vitro -- 6.4. Inter-Relation between the in Vivo and in Vitro Action Spectra of Vitamin D Synthesis -- CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- EXPLORING ORGANIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY WITH COMPUTATIONAL METHODS: AN INTRODUCTION -- 1. ABSTRACT -- 2. INTRODUCTION -- 3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND -- 3.1. The CASSCF Method -- 3.2. The CASPT2 Method -- 3.3. The TD-DFT Methods -- 3.4. The Choice of a Method -- 4. COMPUTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTION PATH -- 5. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS -- 5.1. Choice of the Chemical Structure -- 5.2. Choice of the Active Space.
5.3. Computing a Photochemical Reaction -- 5.4. Software -- 6. CASE STUDY: PHOTOCYCLOADDITION OF IMINES TO ALKENES -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- RECENT PROGRESS IN CHIRALITY RESEARCH USING CIRCULARLY POLARIZED LIGHT -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 1.1. Astrobiology -- 1.2. Habitability and Originability -- 1.3. Enantiomer and Homochirality of the Terrestrial Life -- 1.4. Early Earth and Early Life -- 1.5. The Birth Place of Our Solar System -- 1.6. Linear and Circular Imaging Polarimetry in Astronomy -- 2. ORGANIC MATERIALS AND WATER IN SPACE -- 2.1. Extraterrestrial Organic Matter, Amino Acid, Amino Acid Precursor, and Sugar -- 2.2. Extraterrestrial Water -- 3. ENANTIOMERIC EXCESS AND ASYMMETRIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY -- 3.1. Enantiomeric Excess in Meteorites and the Late Heavy Bombardment -- 3.2. Amino Acid and Amino Acid Precursor by Photochemistry -- 3.3. Enantiomeric Excess by Asymmetric Photochemistry -- 3.4. Asymmetric Amplification of Tiny Enantiomeric Excess for Amimo Acid and Sugar -- 4. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED LIGHT SOURCE IN SPACE -- 4.1. Possible Sources of Circular Polarization -- 4.2. Wide Extension of Linear and Circular Polarization in the Orion Nebula -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOINDUCED TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES IN SURFACE WATERS -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOINDUCED REACTIONS IN SURFACE WATERS -- 2.1. Direct Photolysis Processes -- 2.2. Transformation Photosensitised by Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) -- 2.3. Reactions induced by the Hydroxyl Radical, OH -- 2.4. Reactions Induced by the Carbonate Radical, CO3 -- 2.5. Other Reactions -- 3. MODELLING OF THE MAIN PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN SURFACE WATERS -- 3.1. Surface-Water Absorption Spectrum -- 3.2. Direct Photolysis -- 3.3. Reactions with 3CDOM* -- 3.4. Reactions with OH. -- 3.5. Reactions with CO3.
3.6. Reactions with 1O2.
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Intro -- PHOTOCHEMISTRY: UV/VIS SPECTROSCOPY, PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- PHOTOCHEMISTRY: UV/VIS SPECTROSCOPY, PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- THE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF NOVEL ELECTRON-TRANSFER THREE-COMPONENT VISIBLE LIGHT PHOTOINITIATING SYSTEMS -- ABSTRACT -- ABBREVIATIONS -- INTRODUCTION -- THREE-COMPONENT PHOTOINITIATING SYSTEMS -- THREE-COMPONENT PHOTOINITIATING SYSTEMS. REVIEW -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- Polymethine Dyes as Sensitizers in the Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/N-Alkoxypyridinium Salt -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/N,N'-Dialkoxy-2,2'-Bipyridilium Salt -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/N-Methylpicolinium Esters -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/Cyclic Acetals -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/n-Butyltriphenylborate/Thiol -- Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems Composed of Polymethine Dye/Trichloromethyl-1,3,5-Triazine/Heteroaromatic Thiol -- Excited State Processes in the Excited Singlet State of Sensitizer in the Three-Component Photoinitiating Systems -- Thermodynamic of Free Radicals Formation and the Application of Marcus Theory for Kinetics Study of Free Radical Polymerization of Multifunctional Acrylates -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOREACTIONS OF BENZOPHENONE IN SOLID MEDIA: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONS -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. PHOTOPHYSICS AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF BENZOPHENONE.

2.1. Photophysical Processes of Benzophenone -- 2.2. The Main Photoreactions Induced by Benzophenone in Organic Media -- 2.2.1. Hydrogen Atom Abstraction -- 2.2.2. Peculiar aspects in Photoreduction of Benzophenone in a Solid Matrix -- 2.2.3. Photoreactions of Benzophenone with Olefinic or Acetylenic Compounds. -- 2.2.4. Photochemical Reactions of Benzophenones in the Presence of Amine Derivatives -- 3. PHOTOCROSSLINKING OF POLYMERS -- 3.1. Photoreactions in Saturated Hydrocarbon Polymers -- 3.2. Photoinitiated Crosslinking of Diene Polymers -- 3.3. Photocrosslinking of Inorganic Polymers - Polydimethylsiloxanes -- 4. SURFACE PHOTOGRAFTING -- 5. PHOTOPHYSICS AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF BENZOPHENONE ADSORBED ON VARIOUS SUBSTRATES -- 6. CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- PHOTO-CHEMICAL METHODS AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY IN THE DEPOSITION OF MATERIALS WITH CHEMICAL SENSOR PROPERTIES AND PHOTO-LUMINESCENT CHARACTERISTIC -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 1.1. Some Methods of Photodeposition -- 1.2. Photo-Reactivity of the Complex Precursors -- 2. SOME MATERIALS PHOTO-DEPOSITED PROPOSED -- 2.1. Zno Thin Films and Their use as Gas Sensor -- 2.2. Evaluation of Characteristics Luminescence of HfO2-Ln Thin Films (where: Ln = Er or Eu) -- 3. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS -- 3.1. General Procedure -- 3.2. Preparation of Amorphous Thin Films -- 3.2.1. Preparation of the Precursors Β-Dikentonate Complexes -- 3.2.2. Photolysis of Complexes as Films on Si (100) Surfaces -- 3.3. Evaluation of Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO-M (where M= Pd or Pt) -- 3.4. Evaluation of the Characteristics Luminescent of the HfO2-Ln Films (where Ln= Er or Eu) -- 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- 4.1. Characterization of ZnO-Pd and ZnO-Pt Thins Films -- 4.2. Preliminary Evaluation of the Gas Sensitivity of the ZnO and ZnO-Pt Thin Films.

4.3. Characterization of HfO2-Ln Photodeposited Thin Films ( where Ln = Eu or Er) -- 4.4. Photoluminescence Study of HfO2-Ln Thin Films -- 4.5. Proposed Photoluminescence Mechanism -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOLABILE MOLECULES AS LIGHT-ACTIVATED SWITCHES TO CONTROL BIOMOLECULAR AND BIOMATERIAL PROPERTIES -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. CAGING OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES -- 2.1. Small Biologically Relevant Molecules -- 2.2. Peptides and Proteins -- 2.3. Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids -- 2.4. Drugs -- 3. PHOTOLABILE MOLECULES IN BIOLOGICAL DEVICES AND BIOMATERIALS -- 3.1. Patterning Biomolecules and Cells on Solid Surfaces -- 3.2. Biomaterials for Controlled Release -- 3.3. Controlling Biomaterial Physical Properties -- 3.4. Controlling Biomaterial Chemical Properties: Patterning Biomolecules and Cells -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOSYSTEM AT HIGH TEMPERATURE: MECHANISMS OF ADAPTATION AND DAMAGE -- ABSTRACT -- 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION -- 2. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PHOTOSYSTEMS WITH TYPE-II REACTION CENTER -- 2.1. Purple Bacteria -- 2.2. Cyanobacteria -- 2.3. Higher Plants -- THERMAL STABILITY OF TYPE-II REACTION CENTERS -- 3.1. Purple Bacteria -- 3.2. Cyanobacteria -- 3.3. Higher Plants -- 4. HEAT-DERIVED DAMAGE OF PHOTOSYSTEMS IN HIGHER PLANT -- 4.1. Light-Mediated Damage of Photosystem in Heat-Stressed Higher Plants -- 4.2. Light-Independent Mechanisms of Damage of Photosystems in Heat-Stressed Higher Plants -- 5. ADAPTATION MECHANISM OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AGAINST HEAT STRESS -- 6. IMPROVEMENT OF HEAT TOLERANCE BY GENETIC ENGINEERING -- 7. INDUCTION OF HEAT TOLERANCE BY ARTIFICIAL TREATMENTS OF CHEMICALS -- 7.1. Ca2+ -- 7.2. H2O2 -- 7.3. Phytohormone -- 7.4. Environmental Elicitor -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES.

THE LITTLE-KNOWN WAVELENGTH EFFECT IN PROVITAMIN D PHOTOCHEMISTRY: THE AMBIGUOUS ROLE OF THE WEAK IRREVERSIBLE CHANNEL -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- 1. COMMONLY ACCEPTED INTERPRETATION OF PROVITAMIN D PHOTOISOMERIZATION -- 2. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF PROVITAMIN D PHOTOISOMERIZATION UNDER XECL LASER EXCITATION AT Λ = 308 NM -- 2.1. Influence of Two-Photon Processes -- 2.2. Influence of the Radiation Wavelength -- 2.3. Simplified Model of Reversible Photoconversions with a Weak Irreversible Channel -- 3. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE MULTICOMPONENT PHOTOISOMERIC MIXTURE -- 4. IRRADIATION WITH KRF AND XECL EXCIMER LASERS -- 4.1. The Provitamin D Photoisomerization upon Excitation with Krf Laser at the Wavelength Λ = 248 Nm -- 4.2. Concentration Kinetics under Irradiation with the Xecl Laser At 308 Nm -- 5. THE PROBLEM OF THE PHOTOCHEMICAL STAGE OPTIMIZATION IN THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF VITAMIN D -- 5.1. The Method of Two-Stage Irradiation -- 5.2. The Role of the Irreversible Channel Under Optically Dense Layer Conditions -- 6. BIOLOGICAL DOSIMETRY OF SOLAR UV RADIATION IN SITU USING AN IN VITRO MODEL OF VITAMIN D SYNTHESIS -- 6.1. Duality of Solar UV-B Radiation: Vitamin D Synthesis versus Skin Erythema -- 6.2. Spectral Selectivity of the 'D-Dosimeter' -- 6.3. Measurement of the Vitamin D Action Spectrum in Vitro -- 6.4. Inter-Relation between the in Vivo and in Vitro Action Spectra of Vitamin D Synthesis -- CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- EXPLORING ORGANIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY WITH COMPUTATIONAL METHODS: AN INTRODUCTION -- 1. ABSTRACT -- 2. INTRODUCTION -- 3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND -- 3.1. The CASSCF Method -- 3.2. The CASPT2 Method -- 3.3. The TD-DFT Methods -- 3.4. The Choice of a Method -- 4. COMPUTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTION PATH -- 5. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS -- 5.1. Choice of the Chemical Structure -- 5.2. Choice of the Active Space.

5.3. Computing a Photochemical Reaction -- 5.4. Software -- 6. CASE STUDY: PHOTOCYCLOADDITION OF IMINES TO ALKENES -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- RECENT PROGRESS IN CHIRALITY RESEARCH USING CIRCULARLY POLARIZED LIGHT -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 1.1. Astrobiology -- 1.2. Habitability and Originability -- 1.3. Enantiomer and Homochirality of the Terrestrial Life -- 1.4. Early Earth and Early Life -- 1.5. The Birth Place of Our Solar System -- 1.6. Linear and Circular Imaging Polarimetry in Astronomy -- 2. ORGANIC MATERIALS AND WATER IN SPACE -- 2.1. Extraterrestrial Organic Matter, Amino Acid, Amino Acid Precursor, and Sugar -- 2.2. Extraterrestrial Water -- 3. ENANTIOMERIC EXCESS AND ASYMMETRIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY -- 3.1. Enantiomeric Excess in Meteorites and the Late Heavy Bombardment -- 3.2. Amino Acid and Amino Acid Precursor by Photochemistry -- 3.3. Enantiomeric Excess by Asymmetric Photochemistry -- 3.4. Asymmetric Amplification of Tiny Enantiomeric Excess for Amimo Acid and Sugar -- 4. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED LIGHT SOURCE IN SPACE -- 4.1. Possible Sources of Circular Polarization -- 4.2. Wide Extension of Linear and Circular Polarization in the Orion Nebula -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOINDUCED TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES IN SURFACE WATERS -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. AN OVERVIEW OF PHOTOINDUCED REACTIONS IN SURFACE WATERS -- 2.1. Direct Photolysis Processes -- 2.2. Transformation Photosensitised by Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) -- 2.3. Reactions induced by the Hydroxyl Radical, OH -- 2.4. Reactions Induced by the Carbonate Radical, CO3 -- 2.5. Other Reactions -- 3. MODELLING OF THE MAIN PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS IN SURFACE WATERS -- 3.1. Surface-Water Absorption Spectrum -- 3.2. Direct Photolysis -- 3.3. Reactions with 3CDOM* -- 3.4. Reactions with OH. -- 3.5. Reactions with CO3.

3.6. Reactions with 1O2.

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