Body Fat : Composition, Measurements and Reduction Procedures.

By: Bienertová-Vašků, Julie
Series: Nutrition and Diet Research Progress: Publisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2011Copyright date: ©2011Description: 1 online resource (188 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781620815120Subject(s): Adipose tissues.;Obesity.;Body compositionGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Body Fat: Composition, Measurements and Reduction ProceduresDDC classification: 611/.01827 LOC classification: QP88.15 -- .B63 2011ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- BODY FAT: COMPOSITION, MEASUREMENTS AND REDUCTION PROCEDURES -- BODY FAT: COMPOSITION, MEASUREMENTS AND REDUCTION PROCEDURES -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA) AS A BODY FAT REDUCING AGENT -- ABSTRACT -- 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO OBESITY -- 1.1. Concept and Determinants of Obesity -- 1.2. Co-Morbidities Associated with Obesity -- 1.3. Social Impact and Healthcare Burden of Obesity -- 2. AN OVERVIEW ON CLA -- 2.1. Biosynthesis of CLA -- 2.2. Dietary CLA Intake -- 2.3. Incorporation and Metabolism of CLA -- 2.4. Biological Effects of CLA -- 3. BODY FAT REDUCTION MECHANISMS INDUCED BY CLA -- 3.1. Modulation of Energy Balance -- 3.2. Effects on Adipogenesis -- 3.2.1. Preadipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation -- 3.2.2. Reduction of Adipocyte Size -- 3.2.3. Increase of Apoptosis -- 3.3. Regulation of Lipid Metabolism -- 3.3.1. Suppression of Lipogenesis -- 3.3.2. Increase of Lipolysis -- 3.4. Influence on Inflammatory Response -- 3.5. Induction of Insulin Resistance -- 4. DISPARATE OUTCOMES FOR HUMANS -- 5. SAFETY HEALTH CONCERNS -- CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- MEASUREMENTS OF BODY FAT, FAT-FREE-MASS AND FLUID VOLUMES BY MEDICAL AND FOOT-TO-FOOT IMPEDANCEMETERS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- PRINCIPLES OF FFM, BF AND TBW MEASUREMENTS BY IMPEDANCE -- A. Determination of TBW and FFM by BIA Methods -- B. Limits of Empirical Equations Based on Wrist-Ankle Resistance -- C. Determination of ECW, TBW and FFM by BIS Methods -- D. Calculation of ECW Volume Using BIS Method and Resistance at 50khz -- MEASUREMENTS OF BODY COMPOSITION BY FOOT-TO-FOOT IMPEDANCEMETERS -- A. Measurements of FFM and BF -- B. Measurements of ECW and TBW Volumes by FFI -- MEASUREMENTS OF LIMBS FFM AND BF BY THE EIGHT-ELECTRODES METHOD -- A. Methods and Equipment -- B. Determination of Appendicular FFM.
C. Calculations of Appendicular BF -- CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF BODY COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS BY BIOIMPEDANCE -- A. Application to Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa -- B. Application to Monitoring Refeeding of AN Patients -- DISCUSSION -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- BODY COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE -- ABSTRACT -- BODY COMPOSITION -- Body Fat Mass versus Percentage Body Fat -- Lean Body Mass -- BODY COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS -- Anthropometric Approach -- Height/Weight Measurements -- Body Mass Index -- Computation -- Circumference/Girth Measurements -- Computation -- Computations -- Computation -- Skinfold Measurement -- DENSITOMETRIC APPROACH -- Hydrostatic [Underwater] Weighing -- Air Displacement Plethysmography -- ELECTRICAL APPROACH -- Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis -- Total Body Electrical Conductivity -- RADIATION AND NUCLEAR-BASED APPROACH -- Radiography -- Photon Absorptiometry -- Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry -- Near Infrared Interactance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance -- Isotope Dilution -- Ultrasonography -- PREDICTION EQUATION APPROACH -- HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF BODY FAT -- OBESITY AND WEIGHT CONTROL -- Nutrition Treatment of Obesity -- Drug Treatment of Obesity -- Exercise Treatment of Obesity -- Surgical Treatment of Obesity -- Lifestyle and Behavioural Modification -- REFERENCES -- MSG INTAKE SUPPRESSES CALORIC INTAKE, WEIGHT GAIN, AND FAT DEPOSITION IN FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS -- ABSTRACT -- NONSTANDARD ABBREVIATIONS -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- Diets -- Animals -- Blood Pressure and Blood Analysis -- Abdominal Fat Imaging -- Calculation of Fat Mass and Lean Mass in the Abdomen -- Statistical Analysis -- RESULTS -- Weaning Body Weight -- Weight Gain and Naso-Anal Length -- Food Intake, Fluid Intake, and MSG Preference -- Caloric Intake -- Blood Pressure -- Blood Biomarkers.
Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass -- Subcutaneous Fat Mass -- Lean Mass -- DISCUSSION -- Plasma Leptin and Sex Steroid Hormones -- Energy Homeostasis -- Sensing Mechanisms for Dietary Glutamate -- MSG Effects on Body Weight and Fat Mass in Humans -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- RELATIONSHIPS OF BODY FAT, GENDER, AND ETHNICITY TO THE BODY IMAGE PERCEPTIONS OF PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN -- BODY IMAGE -- GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN BODY IMAGE DISSATISFACTION -- METHOD -- Participants -- Materials and Procedure -- RESULTS -- DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- TIME COURSE OF CHANGES IN BODY FAT, BLOOD PRESSURE, C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, AND PHYSICAL FUNCTION DURING 8-MONTH EXERCISE TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- METHODS -- Participants and Study Design -- Intervention -- Assessments -- Anthropometrics and Body Composition -- Resting Heart Rate and Blood Pressure -- Biochemical Analysis -- Aerobic Fitness -- Hand-Grip Strength -- Physical Activity Levels -- Daily Energy Intake -- Statistical Analysis -- RESULTS -- DISCUSSION -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- BODY MASS INDEX AND FAT DISTRIBUTION IN CIRCUMPOLAR PEOPLES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF OBESITY AND FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF LIFESTYLE -- ABSTRACT -- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL USE OF THE BODY MASS INDEX -- CRITIQUE OF THE BODY MASS INDEX -- PHYSIQUE OF TRADITIONAL CIRCUMPOLAR POPULATIONS AND BODY MASS INDEX -- DISTRIBUTION OF BODY FAT IN TRADITIONAL INUIT -- SECULAR CHANGES IN INUIT PHYSIQUE -- SECULAR CHANGES IN BODY MASS INDEX AND SKINFOLD READINGS OF NORTHERN PEOPLES -- CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASED BODY FAT FOR THE HEALTH OF NORTHERN PEOPLES -- THE WAY FORWARD -- REFERENCES -- BODY FAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DOWN SYNDROME: MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION IN PERSONSWITH DOWN SYNDROME -- 2.1. Field Methods.
2.2. Laboratory Methods -- 2.3. Sexual Dimorphism -- 3. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND EXCESS OF BODY FAT IN DOWN SYNDROME -- CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- ADIPSIN (COMPLEMENT FACTOR D) AS A NEW BIOMARKER OF BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION IN EXTREMELY OBESE CENTRAL-EUROPEAN POPULATION -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIAL AND METHODS -- Study Subjects -- Anthropometric Characteristics -- Dietary Intake -- Biochemical Analysis -- Statistics -- RESULTS -- Relationship between Adipsin Plasma Levels and Anthropometric Characteristics (BMI, Waist: Hip Ratio, Total Body Fat, Skinfold Thickness) -- Relationship between Adipsin Plasma Levels and Dietary Composition and Food Preferences of the Study Subjects -- Relationship between Adipsin Plasma Levels and Leptin and Adiponectin Plasma Levels -- DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- INDEX.
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Intro -- BODY FAT: COMPOSITION, MEASUREMENTS AND REDUCTION PROCEDURES -- BODY FAT: COMPOSITION, MEASUREMENTS AND REDUCTION PROCEDURES -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA) AS A BODY FAT REDUCING AGENT -- ABSTRACT -- 1. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO OBESITY -- 1.1. Concept and Determinants of Obesity -- 1.2. Co-Morbidities Associated with Obesity -- 1.3. Social Impact and Healthcare Burden of Obesity -- 2. AN OVERVIEW ON CLA -- 2.1. Biosynthesis of CLA -- 2.2. Dietary CLA Intake -- 2.3. Incorporation and Metabolism of CLA -- 2.4. Biological Effects of CLA -- 3. BODY FAT REDUCTION MECHANISMS INDUCED BY CLA -- 3.1. Modulation of Energy Balance -- 3.2. Effects on Adipogenesis -- 3.2.1. Preadipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation -- 3.2.2. Reduction of Adipocyte Size -- 3.2.3. Increase of Apoptosis -- 3.3. Regulation of Lipid Metabolism -- 3.3.1. Suppression of Lipogenesis -- 3.3.2. Increase of Lipolysis -- 3.4. Influence on Inflammatory Response -- 3.5. Induction of Insulin Resistance -- 4. DISPARATE OUTCOMES FOR HUMANS -- 5. SAFETY HEALTH CONCERNS -- CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- MEASUREMENTS OF BODY FAT, FAT-FREE-MASS AND FLUID VOLUMES BY MEDICAL AND FOOT-TO-FOOT IMPEDANCEMETERS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- PRINCIPLES OF FFM, BF AND TBW MEASUREMENTS BY IMPEDANCE -- A. Determination of TBW and FFM by BIA Methods -- B. Limits of Empirical Equations Based on Wrist-Ankle Resistance -- C. Determination of ECW, TBW and FFM by BIS Methods -- D. Calculation of ECW Volume Using BIS Method and Resistance at 50khz -- MEASUREMENTS OF BODY COMPOSITION BY FOOT-TO-FOOT IMPEDANCEMETERS -- A. Measurements of FFM and BF -- B. Measurements of ECW and TBW Volumes by FFI -- MEASUREMENTS OF LIMBS FFM AND BF BY THE EIGHT-ELECTRODES METHOD -- A. Methods and Equipment -- B. Determination of Appendicular FFM.

C. Calculations of Appendicular BF -- CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF BODY COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS BY BIOIMPEDANCE -- A. Application to Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa -- B. Application to Monitoring Refeeding of AN Patients -- DISCUSSION -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- BODY COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE -- ABSTRACT -- BODY COMPOSITION -- Body Fat Mass versus Percentage Body Fat -- Lean Body Mass -- BODY COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS -- Anthropometric Approach -- Height/Weight Measurements -- Body Mass Index -- Computation -- Circumference/Girth Measurements -- Computation -- Computations -- Computation -- Skinfold Measurement -- DENSITOMETRIC APPROACH -- Hydrostatic [Underwater] Weighing -- Air Displacement Plethysmography -- ELECTRICAL APPROACH -- Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis -- Total Body Electrical Conductivity -- RADIATION AND NUCLEAR-BASED APPROACH -- Radiography -- Photon Absorptiometry -- Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry -- Near Infrared Interactance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance -- Isotope Dilution -- Ultrasonography -- PREDICTION EQUATION APPROACH -- HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF BODY FAT -- OBESITY AND WEIGHT CONTROL -- Nutrition Treatment of Obesity -- Drug Treatment of Obesity -- Exercise Treatment of Obesity -- Surgical Treatment of Obesity -- Lifestyle and Behavioural Modification -- REFERENCES -- MSG INTAKE SUPPRESSES CALORIC INTAKE, WEIGHT GAIN, AND FAT DEPOSITION IN FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS -- ABSTRACT -- NONSTANDARD ABBREVIATIONS -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- Diets -- Animals -- Blood Pressure and Blood Analysis -- Abdominal Fat Imaging -- Calculation of Fat Mass and Lean Mass in the Abdomen -- Statistical Analysis -- RESULTS -- Weaning Body Weight -- Weight Gain and Naso-Anal Length -- Food Intake, Fluid Intake, and MSG Preference -- Caloric Intake -- Blood Pressure -- Blood Biomarkers.

Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass -- Subcutaneous Fat Mass -- Lean Mass -- DISCUSSION -- Plasma Leptin and Sex Steroid Hormones -- Energy Homeostasis -- Sensing Mechanisms for Dietary Glutamate -- MSG Effects on Body Weight and Fat Mass in Humans -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- RELATIONSHIPS OF BODY FAT, GENDER, AND ETHNICITY TO THE BODY IMAGE PERCEPTIONS OF PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN -- BODY IMAGE -- GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN BODY IMAGE DISSATISFACTION -- METHOD -- Participants -- Materials and Procedure -- RESULTS -- DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- TIME COURSE OF CHANGES IN BODY FAT, BLOOD PRESSURE, C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, AND PHYSICAL FUNCTION DURING 8-MONTH EXERCISE TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- METHODS -- Participants and Study Design -- Intervention -- Assessments -- Anthropometrics and Body Composition -- Resting Heart Rate and Blood Pressure -- Biochemical Analysis -- Aerobic Fitness -- Hand-Grip Strength -- Physical Activity Levels -- Daily Energy Intake -- Statistical Analysis -- RESULTS -- DISCUSSION -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- BODY MASS INDEX AND FAT DISTRIBUTION IN CIRCUMPOLAR PEOPLES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF OBESITY AND FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF LIFESTYLE -- ABSTRACT -- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL USE OF THE BODY MASS INDEX -- CRITIQUE OF THE BODY MASS INDEX -- PHYSIQUE OF TRADITIONAL CIRCUMPOLAR POPULATIONS AND BODY MASS INDEX -- DISTRIBUTION OF BODY FAT IN TRADITIONAL INUIT -- SECULAR CHANGES IN INUIT PHYSIQUE -- SECULAR CHANGES IN BODY MASS INDEX AND SKINFOLD READINGS OF NORTHERN PEOPLES -- CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASED BODY FAT FOR THE HEALTH OF NORTHERN PEOPLES -- THE WAY FORWARD -- REFERENCES -- BODY FAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DOWN SYNDROME: MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION IN PERSONSWITH DOWN SYNDROME -- 2.1. Field Methods.

2.2. Laboratory Methods -- 2.3. Sexual Dimorphism -- 3. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND EXCESS OF BODY FAT IN DOWN SYNDROME -- CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- ADIPSIN (COMPLEMENT FACTOR D) AS A NEW BIOMARKER OF BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION IN EXTREMELY OBESE CENTRAL-EUROPEAN POPULATION -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIAL AND METHODS -- Study Subjects -- Anthropometric Characteristics -- Dietary Intake -- Biochemical Analysis -- Statistics -- RESULTS -- Relationship between Adipsin Plasma Levels and Anthropometric Characteristics (BMI, Waist: Hip Ratio, Total Body Fat, Skinfold Thickness) -- Relationship between Adipsin Plasma Levels and Dietary Composition and Food Preferences of the Study Subjects -- Relationship between Adipsin Plasma Levels and Leptin and Adiponectin Plasma Levels -- DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- INDEX.

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