Women and Aging : New Research.

By: Benninghouse, Harriet T
Contributor(s): Rosset, Andria G
Publisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2008Copyright date: ©2009Description: 1 online resource (719 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781617280238Subject(s): Older women -- Health and hygiene.;Older women -- Medical careGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Women and Aging: New ResearchDDC classification: 618.97 LOC classification: RA564.85 -- .W625 2008ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- WOMEN AND AGING: NEW RESEARCH -- WOMEN AND AGING: NEW RESEARCH -- Contents -- Preface -- Chapter 1 Alcohol Use Disorders in Elderly Women: Invisible Distress -- References -- Chapter 2 Nutritional Assessment in the Elderly: Where Do We Stand? -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Nutritional Assessment -- Techniques Used in Nutritional Assessment -- Simplified Screening Tools for Clinical Practice -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 3 Working under Time Pressure: An Increasing Risk for Women's Health? -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methods -- 3. Results -- 3.1 Job Characteristics -- 3.2 Health Complaints -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 4 Physicians' Communication with their Older vs. Younger Female and Male Patients -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Methods -- Design -- Participants -- Physicians -- Patients -- Measurements -- Results -- Descriptive Analyses -- Verbal Communication -- Hypothesis 1: Biomedical Topics -- Hypothesis 2: Psychosocial and Personal Habits Topics -- Hypothesis 3: Interviewing Skills o Physicians -- Hypothesis 4: Gender Congruence -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 5 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Women -- Global burden -- Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity in Europe -- Differences between Men's and Women's Hearts -- Differences in Cardiovascular Risk Factors between Men and Women -- Differences in Ischemic Heart Disease between Men and Women -- Differences in Heart Failure between Men and Women -- Cardiac Diseases which only Affect Women -- Cardiac Diseases which Preferentially Affect Women -- Effect of the Menopause on Cardiovascular Risk Factors -- Guidelines on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women -- Clinical Recommendations on Lifestyle -- 1. Smoking.
2. Physical Activity -- 3. Rehabilitation -- 4. Dietary Intake -- 5. Weight Maintenance/Reduction -- 6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids -- Major Risk Factor Interventions -- 1. Blood Pressure -- 2. Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels -- 3. Diabetes Mellitus -- Preventive Drug Interventions -- 1. Aspirin -- 2. Beta-Blockers -- 3. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers -- 4. Aldosterone Blockade -- 5. Antioxidant Supplements and Folic Acid -- 6. An Annual Influenza Vaccination -- Hormone Replacement Therapy -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 6 Aging Women and Coronary Heart Disease -- Abstract -- Abbreviations and Acronyms -- Introduction -- Epidemiology and Prognosis of CHD in Women -- Menopause -- Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women -- Framingham Risk Score for Women -- Clinical Features (Clinical Manifestations) and Outcome -- Noninvasive Tests in the Diagnosis of CHD in Women -- Case Report 1. (EC 77 Years Old) -- Invasive Diagnostic Procedures (Coronary Angiography) -- Management of Coronary Heart Disease in Women -- Recommendations for Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Women -- Medical Treatment -- Case Report 2. (IK 78 Years Old) -- Hormone Replacement Therapy and CHD -- Case Report 3. (ZD 58 years old) -- Invasive Procedures -- Percutaneous Coronary Intervention -- Case Report 4. (DG 76 years old) -- Bypass Surgery -- Case Report 5. (ZG 81 years old) -- Pregnancy and CHD -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 7 Prognosis of Women with Acute Coronary Syndromes - an Overview -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Definition and Clasification of Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) -- Epidemiology of ACS -- The Outcome and Prognosis of ACS in Women and Comparison to Men -- What Are the Reasons for Differences in Outcome between the Genders? -- Conclusions -- References.
Chapter 8 The Effects of Aging on the Electrophysiological Properties of the Atrial Myocardium in Women with and without Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Material and Methods -- Study Patients -- Electrophysiologic Study -- Definitions -- Data Analysis -- Results -- The Influence of Age in Group I -- The Influence of Age in Group II -- Discussion -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 9 Physiological Changes in Human Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation and Activity Assessed by 123 I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Imaging -- Summary -- Introduction -- Material and Methods -- Patients -- Cardiac Catheterization -- MIBG Imaging -- Statistics -- Results -- Delayed H/M Ratio and Washout Rate -- Effect of Surgical Menopause in Females -- Disccusion -- Implication of MIBG Imaging -- Comparison with other Techniques -- Mechanisms Contribute to Physiological Changes -- Clinical Implication -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 10 Women and Angina Pectoris: Emergency Department and Diagnostic Difficulties in an Undeveloped Community -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Methods and Results -- Discussion -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 11 Sarcopenia and Frailty in Older Women -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Frailty -- Definition -- Biological Mechanisms -- Muscle Mass and Strength Loss -- Inflammation and Coagulation Abnormalities -- Sex Hormones Declines -- Nervous System Impairment -- Neuroendocrine System Abnormalities -- Genetic Abnormalities -- Behavioral Factors -- Sarcopenia -- Definition -- Causes of Sarcopenia -- Hormonal Modifications -- Neuromuscular Impairment -- Oxidative Damage -- Inflammation -- Apoptosis -- Autophagy -- Protein Synthesis -- Tissue Oxygenation -- Nutrition -- Physical Inactivity -- Interventions Against Frailty and Sarcopenia -- Physical Exercise -- Hormone Replacement Therapy -- DHEA -- Testosterone.
Estrogen -- GH -- Pharmacological Intervention -- Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors -- Nutrition -- Caloric Restriction -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 12 Resistance Training for Musculoskeletal Health and the Prevention of Disability in Postmenopausal Women -- Abstract -- Introduction -- I. Age Changes in Muscle Strength, Muscle Mass, and Skeletal Integrity -- A. Muscle Strength -- B. Skeletal Muscle Mass -- C. Bone Mineral Density -- D. Relationship Between Body Composition and Muscle Strength, and Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women -- II. Hormonal Mechanisms Contributing to Losses in Muscle Mass, Strength and Musculoskeletal Integrity in Postmenopausal Women -- A. Background -- B. Muscle Mass and Strength -- C. Musculoskeletal Integrity -- III. Effect of Resistance Training on Hormonal Responses, Muscle Strength, and Musculoskeletal Integrity in Postmenopausal Women -- A. Application of Resistance Training -- B. Hormonal Responses and Adaptations -- C. Adaptations in Muscle Strength -- D. Adaptations in Skeletal Muscle Mass -- E. Adaptations in Bone Mineral Density -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 13 Endothelial Dysfunction in Post-Menopausal Women -- Abstract -- Introduction -- 1. Endothelial Function -- 2. Endothelial Dysfunction -- 3. Evaluation of Endothelial Dysfunction -- 3.1. Invasive Techniques for Assessing Endothelial Function -- 3.2. Non-Invasive Techniques for Assessing Endothelial Function -- a) Flow Mediated Dilation -- b) Gauge-Strain Plethysmography (Evaluation of Reactive Hyperaemia) -- 4. Endothelial Dysfunction in Post-Menopausal Women -- 5. Therapeutic Modification of Endothelial Dysfunction in Post-Menopausal Women -- a) Statins and Endothelial Function in Post-Menopausal Women -- b) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/ Angiotensin Receptor Blockers.
c) Activator of the Peroxisome Proliferators Receptor γ/Insulin Sensitizers -- d) L-Arginine -- e) Antioxidants -- f) Hormone Replacement Therapy Studies of Endothelial Dysfunction in Post-Menopausal Women -- g) Studies of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) as Primary or Secondary Prevention of Atherosclerosis in Post-Menopausal Women -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 14 Hip Fracture in Elderly Women: Risk Factors, Management and Prevention -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Epidemiology -- Anatomy of Hip Fracture and Management -- Risk Factors for Hip Fracture and Assessment of Fracture Risk -- Therapies for Hip Fracture Prevention -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Chapter 15 Age-Related Micro- and Ultrastructural Changes in Women's Bone -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Background -- 1.2 Hierarchy of Bone -- 1.2.1 Macrostructure of Bone -- 1.2.2 Microstructure of Bone -- 1.2.3 Ultrastructure of Bone -- 2. Structural Changes Versus Bone Quality -- 2.1 Micro-Structural Changes Versus Bone Quality -- 2.2 Ultra-Structural Changes Versus Bone Quality -- 2.2.1. Biomechanical Consequences of Altered Mineral Phase -- 2.2.2. Collagen Ultra-Structure Versus Bone Quality -- 3. Age-Related Changes in the Microstructure of Women Bone -- 3.1 Age-Related Changes in Cortical Bone -- 3.2. Age-Related Changes in Trabecular Bone -- 4. Age-Related Ultra-Structural Changes in Women's Bone -- 4.1. Mineral Phase Changes -- 4.2. Age-Related Collagen Changes -- 4.2.1. Collagen Fibril Orientation -- 4.2.2. Thermal Stability of Collagen -- 4.2.3 Age-Related Changes in Collagen Crosslinks -- 5. Possible Aging Mechanisms Leading to Micro- and Ultra-Structural Changes in Bone -- 5.1. Oxidative Stress -- 5.2. Hormonal and Growth Factor Changes -- 5.2.1. Sex Hormone -- 5.2.2 Growth Factors -- 5.3. Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) -- 6. Summary.
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Intro -- WOMEN AND AGING: NEW RESEARCH -- WOMEN AND AGING: NEW RESEARCH -- Contents -- Preface -- Chapter 1 Alcohol Use Disorders in Elderly Women: Invisible Distress -- References -- Chapter 2 Nutritional Assessment in the Elderly: Where Do We Stand? -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Nutritional Assessment -- Techniques Used in Nutritional Assessment -- Simplified Screening Tools for Clinical Practice -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 3 Working under Time Pressure: An Increasing Risk for Women's Health? -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Methods -- 3. Results -- 3.1 Job Characteristics -- 3.2 Health Complaints -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 4 Physicians' Communication with their Older vs. Younger Female and Male Patients -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Methods -- Design -- Participants -- Physicians -- Patients -- Measurements -- Results -- Descriptive Analyses -- Verbal Communication -- Hypothesis 1: Biomedical Topics -- Hypothesis 2: Psychosocial and Personal Habits Topics -- Hypothesis 3: Interviewing Skills o Physicians -- Hypothesis 4: Gender Congruence -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 5 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Women -- Global burden -- Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity in Europe -- Differences between Men's and Women's Hearts -- Differences in Cardiovascular Risk Factors between Men and Women -- Differences in Ischemic Heart Disease between Men and Women -- Differences in Heart Failure between Men and Women -- Cardiac Diseases which only Affect Women -- Cardiac Diseases which Preferentially Affect Women -- Effect of the Menopause on Cardiovascular Risk Factors -- Guidelines on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women -- Clinical Recommendations on Lifestyle -- 1. Smoking.

2. Physical Activity -- 3. Rehabilitation -- 4. Dietary Intake -- 5. Weight Maintenance/Reduction -- 6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids -- Major Risk Factor Interventions -- 1. Blood Pressure -- 2. Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels -- 3. Diabetes Mellitus -- Preventive Drug Interventions -- 1. Aspirin -- 2. Beta-Blockers -- 3. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers -- 4. Aldosterone Blockade -- 5. Antioxidant Supplements and Folic Acid -- 6. An Annual Influenza Vaccination -- Hormone Replacement Therapy -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 6 Aging Women and Coronary Heart Disease -- Abstract -- Abbreviations and Acronyms -- Introduction -- Epidemiology and Prognosis of CHD in Women -- Menopause -- Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women -- Framingham Risk Score for Women -- Clinical Features (Clinical Manifestations) and Outcome -- Noninvasive Tests in the Diagnosis of CHD in Women -- Case Report 1. (EC 77 Years Old) -- Invasive Diagnostic Procedures (Coronary Angiography) -- Management of Coronary Heart Disease in Women -- Recommendations for Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Women -- Medical Treatment -- Case Report 2. (IK 78 Years Old) -- Hormone Replacement Therapy and CHD -- Case Report 3. (ZD 58 years old) -- Invasive Procedures -- Percutaneous Coronary Intervention -- Case Report 4. (DG 76 years old) -- Bypass Surgery -- Case Report 5. (ZG 81 years old) -- Pregnancy and CHD -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 7 Prognosis of Women with Acute Coronary Syndromes - an Overview -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Definition and Clasification of Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) -- Epidemiology of ACS -- The Outcome and Prognosis of ACS in Women and Comparison to Men -- What Are the Reasons for Differences in Outcome between the Genders? -- Conclusions -- References.

Chapter 8 The Effects of Aging on the Electrophysiological Properties of the Atrial Myocardium in Women with and without Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Material and Methods -- Study Patients -- Electrophysiologic Study -- Definitions -- Data Analysis -- Results -- The Influence of Age in Group I -- The Influence of Age in Group II -- Discussion -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 9 Physiological Changes in Human Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation and Activity Assessed by 123 I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Imaging -- Summary -- Introduction -- Material and Methods -- Patients -- Cardiac Catheterization -- MIBG Imaging -- Statistics -- Results -- Delayed H/M Ratio and Washout Rate -- Effect of Surgical Menopause in Females -- Disccusion -- Implication of MIBG Imaging -- Comparison with other Techniques -- Mechanisms Contribute to Physiological Changes -- Clinical Implication -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 10 Women and Angina Pectoris: Emergency Department and Diagnostic Difficulties in an Undeveloped Community -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Methods and Results -- Discussion -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 11 Sarcopenia and Frailty in Older Women -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Frailty -- Definition -- Biological Mechanisms -- Muscle Mass and Strength Loss -- Inflammation and Coagulation Abnormalities -- Sex Hormones Declines -- Nervous System Impairment -- Neuroendocrine System Abnormalities -- Genetic Abnormalities -- Behavioral Factors -- Sarcopenia -- Definition -- Causes of Sarcopenia -- Hormonal Modifications -- Neuromuscular Impairment -- Oxidative Damage -- Inflammation -- Apoptosis -- Autophagy -- Protein Synthesis -- Tissue Oxygenation -- Nutrition -- Physical Inactivity -- Interventions Against Frailty and Sarcopenia -- Physical Exercise -- Hormone Replacement Therapy -- DHEA -- Testosterone.

Estrogen -- GH -- Pharmacological Intervention -- Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors -- Nutrition -- Caloric Restriction -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 12 Resistance Training for Musculoskeletal Health and the Prevention of Disability in Postmenopausal Women -- Abstract -- Introduction -- I. Age Changes in Muscle Strength, Muscle Mass, and Skeletal Integrity -- A. Muscle Strength -- B. Skeletal Muscle Mass -- C. Bone Mineral Density -- D. Relationship Between Body Composition and Muscle Strength, and Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women -- II. Hormonal Mechanisms Contributing to Losses in Muscle Mass, Strength and Musculoskeletal Integrity in Postmenopausal Women -- A. Background -- B. Muscle Mass and Strength -- C. Musculoskeletal Integrity -- III. Effect of Resistance Training on Hormonal Responses, Muscle Strength, and Musculoskeletal Integrity in Postmenopausal Women -- A. Application of Resistance Training -- B. Hormonal Responses and Adaptations -- C. Adaptations in Muscle Strength -- D. Adaptations in Skeletal Muscle Mass -- E. Adaptations in Bone Mineral Density -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 13 Endothelial Dysfunction in Post-Menopausal Women -- Abstract -- Introduction -- 1. Endothelial Function -- 2. Endothelial Dysfunction -- 3. Evaluation of Endothelial Dysfunction -- 3.1. Invasive Techniques for Assessing Endothelial Function -- 3.2. Non-Invasive Techniques for Assessing Endothelial Function -- a) Flow Mediated Dilation -- b) Gauge-Strain Plethysmography (Evaluation of Reactive Hyperaemia) -- 4. Endothelial Dysfunction in Post-Menopausal Women -- 5. Therapeutic Modification of Endothelial Dysfunction in Post-Menopausal Women -- a) Statins and Endothelial Function in Post-Menopausal Women -- b) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/ Angiotensin Receptor Blockers.

c) Activator of the Peroxisome Proliferators Receptor γ/Insulin Sensitizers -- d) L-Arginine -- e) Antioxidants -- f) Hormone Replacement Therapy Studies of Endothelial Dysfunction in Post-Menopausal Women -- g) Studies of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) as Primary or Secondary Prevention of Atherosclerosis in Post-Menopausal Women -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 14 Hip Fracture in Elderly Women: Risk Factors, Management and Prevention -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Epidemiology -- Anatomy of Hip Fracture and Management -- Risk Factors for Hip Fracture and Assessment of Fracture Risk -- Therapies for Hip Fracture Prevention -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Chapter 15 Age-Related Micro- and Ultrastructural Changes in Women's Bone -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Background -- 1.2 Hierarchy of Bone -- 1.2.1 Macrostructure of Bone -- 1.2.2 Microstructure of Bone -- 1.2.3 Ultrastructure of Bone -- 2. Structural Changes Versus Bone Quality -- 2.1 Micro-Structural Changes Versus Bone Quality -- 2.2 Ultra-Structural Changes Versus Bone Quality -- 2.2.1. Biomechanical Consequences of Altered Mineral Phase -- 2.2.2. Collagen Ultra-Structure Versus Bone Quality -- 3. Age-Related Changes in the Microstructure of Women Bone -- 3.1 Age-Related Changes in Cortical Bone -- 3.2. Age-Related Changes in Trabecular Bone -- 4. Age-Related Ultra-Structural Changes in Women's Bone -- 4.1. Mineral Phase Changes -- 4.2. Age-Related Collagen Changes -- 4.2.1. Collagen Fibril Orientation -- 4.2.2. Thermal Stability of Collagen -- 4.2.3 Age-Related Changes in Collagen Crosslinks -- 5. Possible Aging Mechanisms Leading to Micro- and Ultra-Structural Changes in Bone -- 5.1. Oxidative Stress -- 5.2. Hormonal and Growth Factor Changes -- 5.2.1. Sex Hormone -- 5.2.2 Growth Factors -- 5.3. Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) -- 6. Summary.

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