River Pollution Research Progress.

By: Gallo, Mattia NContributor(s): Gallo, Mattia N | Ferrari, Marco HPublisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2008Copyright date: ©2009Description: 1 online resource (412 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781607414186Subject(s): Water -- Pollution -- Environmental aspects.;Pollution -- Environmental aspectsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: River Pollution Research ProgressDDC classification: 628.1/68091693 LOC classification: TD425 -- .R57 2009ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- RIVER POLLUTION RESEARCH PROGRESS -- RIVER POLLUTION RESEARCH PROGRESS -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- SIMULATION OF ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION AND ITS APPLICATION FOR EFFECTIVE POLICY-MAKING IN REGIONAL SCALE -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 1.1. Background -- 1.2. Modeling Approach in the Previous Researches -- 1.3. Research Objective -- 2. STUDY AREA -- 3. MODEL DESCRIPTION -- 3.1. General Structure of NICE Model (Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004) -- 3.1.1. Biophysical and Soil Moisture Models -- 3.1.2. Groundwater Model -- 3.1.3. Surface Hydrology Model -- 3.1.4. Integration of Models -- 3.2. Model Description of NICE-SNOW (Nakayama and Watanabe, 2006) -- 3.2.1. Effect of Micro-Topography and Meteorology on Snow and Frost Depth -- 3.2.2. Modeling of Phase Changes in Unsaturated Layer -- 3.2.3. Estimation of Frost and Thaw Depth by the Stefan Solution -- 3.2.4. Two-Layer Surface Runoff Model Including Frost/Thaw Processes -- 3.3. Model Description of NICE-MASS (Nakayama, 2007a) -- 3.3.1. Expansion of the NICE Model To Mass Transport Process -- 3.3.2. Theory of Estimating Suspended Sediment (SS) Loads in Rivers -- 3.4. Model description of NICE-VEG (Nakayama, 2008a, 2008b) -- 3.4.1. Vegetation Succession Model -- 3.4.2. Integration of Models -- 4. DATA AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR SIMULATION -- 4.1. Input Data -- 4.2. Observation for Calibration and Validation -- 4.3. Estimation of Heat Flux Budgets from Meteorological Data -- 4.4. Vegetation and Soil Properties -- 4.5. MODIS Data -- 4.6. Running the Simulation -- 5. RESULTS -- 5.1. Hydrologic Budget in Snow-Free Periods -- 5.1.1. Soil Moisture in Various Land Covers -- 5.1.2. Soil Temperature and Heat Flux Budget -- 5.1.3. Groundwater Levels -- 5.1.4. River Discharge -- 5.1.5. Soil Moisture Changes (Drying) from 1977 to 2001 -- 5.2. Hydrologic Budget in Snow Periods.
5.2.1. Effect of Micro-Topography and Land Cover on Snow Depth and Soil Frost -- 5.2.2. Soil Moisture and Groundwater with Phase Changes -- 5.2.3. Surface Runoff Process Including Snowmelt Period -- 5.3. Geomorphic Changes in the Catchment -- 5.3.1. Characteristic of Suspended Sediment Load in Different Seasons -- 5.3.2. Elevation Changes by Sediment Accumulation in Mire -- 5.3.3. Relation between Hydrologic/Geomorphic Changes and Alder Invasion -- 5.4. Vegetation Succession Process in the Catchment -- 5.4.1. Evaluation of Ecohydrological Characteristics in the Mire -- 5.4.2. Reproduction of the Drying Phenomenon and Alder Invasion in the Mire -- 5.5. Future Forecast in the Mire -- 5.5.1. Effect of Re-Meandering of Channelized Rivers on Hydrologic Budget in Mire -- 5.5.2. Forecast of Vegetation Change in Mire by Re-Meandering of Channelized Rivers -- 6. DISCUSSIONS -- 6.1. Drying Phenomena and Vegetation Change Caused by Invasion of Alder -- 6.2. Effect of Micro-Topography/Phase-Changes in Soil Layer on Spring Snowmelt Runoff -- 6.3. Relation between Hydrologic and Geomorphic Changes Affecting Shrinking Mire -- 6.4. Factors Controlling Vegetation Succession in the Mire -- 6.5. Recovery of Mire Ecosystem by Re-Meandering of Channelized Rivers -- 7. FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK -- 7.1. Final Conclusions -- 7.2. Future Work -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION IN THE LOWER YENISEY AND PECHORA REACHES: LANDSCAPE GEOCHEMICAL SIGNATURES AND PATTERNS OF GLOBAL AND REGIONAL CONTAMINATION -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- Sources of Contamination -- PART ONE. LOWER YENISEY TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT AND ITS CONTAMINATION -- The Yenisey River and Its General Parameters -- A Brief Landscape Description of the Studied Yenisey Delta and Gulf Sections -- Site Characterization.
Distribution Radionuclides in Soils. Site-Specific Distribution -- Vertical Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Cores -- Cs-137 and Granulometry Profiles -- Mineral Composition of the Fines and Cs-137 Accumulation -- 210Pb and 137Cs in Soil Profiles -- 137Cs in Dominating Plant Groups -- 137Cs in Plant Species: Landscape and Soil Dependency -- Main Results of the Study Performed in the Lower Yenisey Radionuclide Contamination -- PART TWO. LOWER PECHORA TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT AND ITS RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINATION -- Lower Pechora Study Area -- 137Cs Distribution in Soils -- 137Cs Activity Concentrations of the Top Soil Layers and Radiocesium Inventory in Soils -- 137Cs Concentration in Terrace and Floodplain Soil Profiles -- 137Cs Accumulation in Vegetation Cover and Plant Species -- Site-Specific 137Cs accumulation by Plant Species -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN SURFACE WATERS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- Direct Photolysis Processes -- Transformation Photosensitised by Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) -- Reactions Induced by the Hydroxyl Radical, OH -- Reactions Induced by the Carbonate Radical, CO3− -- Reactions Induced by Nitrogen Dioxide, NO2 -- Reactions Induced by the Dihalogen Radicals Cl2− and Br2− -- Reactions Induced by Singlet Oxygen and Organic Radicals -- Reactions Induced by Fe(III) Complexes -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- COMPLEXITY, NONLINEARITY AND SCALING IN SEDIMENT TRANSPORT DYNAMICS -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. COMPLEXITY, NONLINEARITY AND SCALING IN RIVER PROCESSES -- 3. CHAOS THEORY AND PHASE SPACE RECONSTRUCTION CONCEPT -- 3.1. Definition of Chaos -- 3.2. Linear Tools for Chaos Identification -- 3.3. Phase Space and its Reconstruction -- 3.4. Concept of Dimensionality and Estimation of Correlation Dimension.
3.5. Remarks -- 4. STUDY AREA AND DATA -- 5. APPLICATION TO SINGLE-VARIABLE TIME SERIES (DAILY SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOAD) -- 6. EXTENSION TO MULTIPLE-VARIABLE TIME SERIES (DISCHARGE, SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION AND SEDIMENT LOAD) -- 7. SCALE-INVARIANCE AND EFFECTS OF DATA AGGREGATION -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON IN THE SACRAMENTO AND SAN JOAQUIN RIVER WATERSHEDS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- METHODOLOGY -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- Spatial and Temporal Variation in DOC -- Sources of DOC -- Characteristics of DOC -- The Reactivity in Forming DBPs -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- APPLICATIONS OF AN URBAN DIFFUSE POLLUTION MODEL TO SUPPORT WFD INVESTMENT APPRAISAL -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- POLLUTANTS ADDRESSED -- MODELLING APPROACH -- MODEL CONSTRUCTION -- Runoff Model -- GIS Database -- Urban Land Use and Impermeability Mapping -- EMC Database -- MODEL APPLICATIONS -- Probabilistic Load Mapping -- 'Hot-Spot' Analysis and Hazard Mapping -- Assessing the Impact of Urbanisation -- Source Apportionment -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- ASSESSING GROUNDWATER POLLUTION RISK IN SARIGKIOL BASIN, NW GREECE -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- LOCATION-DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA -- Climatic Data -- Hydrogeological Framework- Alluvial Aquifer -- DRASTIC Method Overview -- DRASTIC MODEL PARAMETERS -- Depth to Groundwater (D) -- Net Recharge (Infiltration) (R) -- Aquifer Material or Media (A) -- Soil Media (S) -- Topography (T) -- Impact of the Vadose Zone (I) -- Hydraulic Conductivity (C) -- Computing DRASTIC Vulnerability Index -- Groundwater Pollution Risk -- CONCLUSIONS-DISCUSSION -- REFERENCES -- WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK ABOUT POLLUTION? CONTRIBUTIONS OF HUMAN ECOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF RIVER POLLUTION WITH A FOCUS ON BRAZIL -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- 1. FOOD CHOICE AND POLLUTION: TABOOS AND TOXINS.
2. ECOSYSTEM LEVEL CHANGES AND LOCAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE: WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK ABOUT POLLUTION? -- 3. THE EMERGING ISSUE OF BIOLOGICAL POLLUTION: LEK ABOUT EXOTIC SPECIES -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- SURVEILLANCE OF RIVER WATER POLLUTION BY USE OF AN AUTOMATIC TRACE METAL SYSTEM -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. MONITORING OF TRACE METALS -- 2.1. Automatic Trace Metal Monitoring -- 3. DEMONSTRATION OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS -- 3.1. Continuous Online Monitoring of River Leirelva (Trondheim, Norway) -- 3.2. Continuous Online Monitoring of Polluted River Water in Raubekken -- 3.3. Automatic Monitoring Using an AgCu Microelctrode The ATMS has also been tested for use with microelectrodes [57]. Zinc -- 4. CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- THE STATUS OF RIVER WATER CHEMICAL POLLUTION IN ZIMBABWE: A REVIEW -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- HYDROLOGY OF ZIMBABWE -- SEWAGE AND INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT RIVER WATER POLLUTION IN ZIMBABWE -- IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE AND RIVER WATER POLLUTION -- IMPACT OF MINING ON RIVER WATER POLLUTION -- ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION IN ZIMBABWE -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- AMBIVALENT ROLE OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTED RIVERS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTED RIVERS POSSESS BOTH HIGH SPECIES AND FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY -- THE SEDIMENTS OF POLLUTED RIVERS PROVIDE A RICH SOURCE FOR NEW AND UNUSUAL METABOLIC ACTIVITIES -- POLLUTED RIVERS MAY ALSO HARBOUR HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA -- BACTERIA IN RIVERS POSSESS CONSIDERABLE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCES -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- ASSESSMENT OF PATHOGEN INDICATOR MICROORGANISM LOADING FROM DIFFUSE SOURCES -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- Study Area -- Acquisition of Monitored Data -- Water Sampling and Analysis -- Load Duration Curve Development -- DISCUSSION -- Load Duration Curve Analysis -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES.
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Intro -- RIVER POLLUTION RESEARCH PROGRESS -- RIVER POLLUTION RESEARCH PROGRESS -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- SIMULATION OF ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION AND ITS APPLICATION FOR EFFECTIVE POLICY-MAKING IN REGIONAL SCALE -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 1.1. Background -- 1.2. Modeling Approach in the Previous Researches -- 1.3. Research Objective -- 2. STUDY AREA -- 3. MODEL DESCRIPTION -- 3.1. General Structure of NICE Model (Nakayama and Watanabe, 2004) -- 3.1.1. Biophysical and Soil Moisture Models -- 3.1.2. Groundwater Model -- 3.1.3. Surface Hydrology Model -- 3.1.4. Integration of Models -- 3.2. Model Description of NICE-SNOW (Nakayama and Watanabe, 2006) -- 3.2.1. Effect of Micro-Topography and Meteorology on Snow and Frost Depth -- 3.2.2. Modeling of Phase Changes in Unsaturated Layer -- 3.2.3. Estimation of Frost and Thaw Depth by the Stefan Solution -- 3.2.4. Two-Layer Surface Runoff Model Including Frost/Thaw Processes -- 3.3. Model Description of NICE-MASS (Nakayama, 2007a) -- 3.3.1. Expansion of the NICE Model To Mass Transport Process -- 3.3.2. Theory of Estimating Suspended Sediment (SS) Loads in Rivers -- 3.4. Model description of NICE-VEG (Nakayama, 2008a, 2008b) -- 3.4.1. Vegetation Succession Model -- 3.4.2. Integration of Models -- 4. DATA AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR SIMULATION -- 4.1. Input Data -- 4.2. Observation for Calibration and Validation -- 4.3. Estimation of Heat Flux Budgets from Meteorological Data -- 4.4. Vegetation and Soil Properties -- 4.5. MODIS Data -- 4.6. Running the Simulation -- 5. RESULTS -- 5.1. Hydrologic Budget in Snow-Free Periods -- 5.1.1. Soil Moisture in Various Land Covers -- 5.1.2. Soil Temperature and Heat Flux Budget -- 5.1.3. Groundwater Levels -- 5.1.4. River Discharge -- 5.1.5. Soil Moisture Changes (Drying) from 1977 to 2001 -- 5.2. Hydrologic Budget in Snow Periods.

5.2.1. Effect of Micro-Topography and Land Cover on Snow Depth and Soil Frost -- 5.2.2. Soil Moisture and Groundwater with Phase Changes -- 5.2.3. Surface Runoff Process Including Snowmelt Period -- 5.3. Geomorphic Changes in the Catchment -- 5.3.1. Characteristic of Suspended Sediment Load in Different Seasons -- 5.3.2. Elevation Changes by Sediment Accumulation in Mire -- 5.3.3. Relation between Hydrologic/Geomorphic Changes and Alder Invasion -- 5.4. Vegetation Succession Process in the Catchment -- 5.4.1. Evaluation of Ecohydrological Characteristics in the Mire -- 5.4.2. Reproduction of the Drying Phenomenon and Alder Invasion in the Mire -- 5.5. Future Forecast in the Mire -- 5.5.1. Effect of Re-Meandering of Channelized Rivers on Hydrologic Budget in Mire -- 5.5.2. Forecast of Vegetation Change in Mire by Re-Meandering of Channelized Rivers -- 6. DISCUSSIONS -- 6.1. Drying Phenomena and Vegetation Change Caused by Invasion of Alder -- 6.2. Effect of Micro-Topography/Phase-Changes in Soil Layer on Spring Snowmelt Runoff -- 6.3. Relation between Hydrologic and Geomorphic Changes Affecting Shrinking Mire -- 6.4. Factors Controlling Vegetation Succession in the Mire -- 6.5. Recovery of Mire Ecosystem by Re-Meandering of Channelized Rivers -- 7. FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK -- 7.1. Final Conclusions -- 7.2. Future Work -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION IN THE LOWER YENISEY AND PECHORA REACHES: LANDSCAPE GEOCHEMICAL SIGNATURES AND PATTERNS OF GLOBAL AND REGIONAL CONTAMINATION -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- Sources of Contamination -- PART ONE. LOWER YENISEY TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT AND ITS CONTAMINATION -- The Yenisey River and Its General Parameters -- A Brief Landscape Description of the Studied Yenisey Delta and Gulf Sections -- Site Characterization.

Distribution Radionuclides in Soils. Site-Specific Distribution -- Vertical Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Cores -- Cs-137 and Granulometry Profiles -- Mineral Composition of the Fines and Cs-137 Accumulation -- 210Pb and 137Cs in Soil Profiles -- 137Cs in Dominating Plant Groups -- 137Cs in Plant Species: Landscape and Soil Dependency -- Main Results of the Study Performed in the Lower Yenisey Radionuclide Contamination -- PART TWO. LOWER PECHORA TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT AND ITS RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINATION -- Lower Pechora Study Area -- 137Cs Distribution in Soils -- 137Cs Activity Concentrations of the Top Soil Layers and Radiocesium Inventory in Soils -- 137Cs Concentration in Terrace and Floodplain Soil Profiles -- 137Cs Accumulation in Vegetation Cover and Plant Species -- Site-Specific 137Cs accumulation by Plant Species -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN SURFACE WATERS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- Direct Photolysis Processes -- Transformation Photosensitised by Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) -- Reactions Induced by the Hydroxyl Radical, OH -- Reactions Induced by the Carbonate Radical, CO3− -- Reactions Induced by Nitrogen Dioxide, NO2 -- Reactions Induced by the Dihalogen Radicals Cl2− and Br2− -- Reactions Induced by Singlet Oxygen and Organic Radicals -- Reactions Induced by Fe(III) Complexes -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- COMPLEXITY, NONLINEARITY AND SCALING IN SEDIMENT TRANSPORT DYNAMICS -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. COMPLEXITY, NONLINEARITY AND SCALING IN RIVER PROCESSES -- 3. CHAOS THEORY AND PHASE SPACE RECONSTRUCTION CONCEPT -- 3.1. Definition of Chaos -- 3.2. Linear Tools for Chaos Identification -- 3.3. Phase Space and its Reconstruction -- 3.4. Concept of Dimensionality and Estimation of Correlation Dimension.

3.5. Remarks -- 4. STUDY AREA AND DATA -- 5. APPLICATION TO SINGLE-VARIABLE TIME SERIES (DAILY SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOAD) -- 6. EXTENSION TO MULTIPLE-VARIABLE TIME SERIES (DISCHARGE, SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION AND SEDIMENT LOAD) -- 7. SCALE-INVARIANCE AND EFFECTS OF DATA AGGREGATION -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON IN THE SACRAMENTO AND SAN JOAQUIN RIVER WATERSHEDS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- METHODOLOGY -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- Spatial and Temporal Variation in DOC -- Sources of DOC -- Characteristics of DOC -- The Reactivity in Forming DBPs -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- APPLICATIONS OF AN URBAN DIFFUSE POLLUTION MODEL TO SUPPORT WFD INVESTMENT APPRAISAL -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- POLLUTANTS ADDRESSED -- MODELLING APPROACH -- MODEL CONSTRUCTION -- Runoff Model -- GIS Database -- Urban Land Use and Impermeability Mapping -- EMC Database -- MODEL APPLICATIONS -- Probabilistic Load Mapping -- 'Hot-Spot' Analysis and Hazard Mapping -- Assessing the Impact of Urbanisation -- Source Apportionment -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- ASSESSING GROUNDWATER POLLUTION RISK IN SARIGKIOL BASIN, NW GREECE -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- LOCATION-DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA -- Climatic Data -- Hydrogeological Framework- Alluvial Aquifer -- DRASTIC Method Overview -- DRASTIC MODEL PARAMETERS -- Depth to Groundwater (D) -- Net Recharge (Infiltration) (R) -- Aquifer Material or Media (A) -- Soil Media (S) -- Topography (T) -- Impact of the Vadose Zone (I) -- Hydraulic Conductivity (C) -- Computing DRASTIC Vulnerability Index -- Groundwater Pollution Risk -- CONCLUSIONS-DISCUSSION -- REFERENCES -- WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK ABOUT POLLUTION? CONTRIBUTIONS OF HUMAN ECOLOGY TO THE STUDY OF RIVER POLLUTION WITH A FOCUS ON BRAZIL -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- 1. FOOD CHOICE AND POLLUTION: TABOOS AND TOXINS.

2. ECOSYSTEM LEVEL CHANGES AND LOCAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE: WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK ABOUT POLLUTION? -- 3. THE EMERGING ISSUE OF BIOLOGICAL POLLUTION: LEK ABOUT EXOTIC SPECIES -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- SURVEILLANCE OF RIVER WATER POLLUTION BY USE OF AN AUTOMATIC TRACE METAL SYSTEM -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. MONITORING OF TRACE METALS -- 2.1. Automatic Trace Metal Monitoring -- 3. DEMONSTRATION OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS -- 3.1. Continuous Online Monitoring of River Leirelva (Trondheim, Norway) -- 3.2. Continuous Online Monitoring of Polluted River Water in Raubekken -- 3.3. Automatic Monitoring Using an AgCu Microelctrode The ATMS has also been tested for use with microelectrodes [57]. Zinc -- 4. CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- THE STATUS OF RIVER WATER CHEMICAL POLLUTION IN ZIMBABWE: A REVIEW -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- HYDROLOGY OF ZIMBABWE -- SEWAGE AND INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT RIVER WATER POLLUTION IN ZIMBABWE -- IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE AND RIVER WATER POLLUTION -- IMPACT OF MINING ON RIVER WATER POLLUTION -- ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION IN ZIMBABWE -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- AMBIVALENT ROLE OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTED RIVERS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTED RIVERS POSSESS BOTH HIGH SPECIES AND FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY -- THE SEDIMENTS OF POLLUTED RIVERS PROVIDE A RICH SOURCE FOR NEW AND UNUSUAL METABOLIC ACTIVITIES -- POLLUTED RIVERS MAY ALSO HARBOUR HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA -- BACTERIA IN RIVERS POSSESS CONSIDERABLE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCES -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- REFERENCES -- ASSESSMENT OF PATHOGEN INDICATOR MICROORGANISM LOADING FROM DIFFUSE SOURCES -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- Study Area -- Acquisition of Monitored Data -- Water Sampling and Analysis -- Load Duration Curve Development -- DISCUSSION -- Load Duration Curve Analysis -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES.

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