Acute Kidney Injury : Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatments.

By: Mendoza, Jonathan DSeries: Nephrology Research and Clinical DevelopmentsPublisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2011Copyright date: ©2011Description: 1 online resource (200 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781619420632Subject(s): Acute renal failureGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Acute Kidney Injury : Causes, Diagnosis, and TreatmentsLOC classification: RC918.R4.A328 2011Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY: CAUSES, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT -- ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY: CAUSES, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT -- Contents -- Preface -- How to Define and Classify Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): The "Risk Injury Failure Loss of Kidney Function End-Stage Kidney Disease" (RIFLE) and "Acute Kidney Injury Network" (AKIN) Classifications -- Abstract -- Introduction -- The Risk Injury Failure Loss of Kidney Function End-Stage Kidney Disease (RIFLE) Classification -- Validation of the RIFLE Criteria -- Hospitalized Patients -- ICU Patients -- Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery -- Patients Undergoing Aortic Arch Surgery -- Patients Undergoing Abdominal Aortic Surgery -- Chirrotic Patients -- Patients Submitted to Hepatic Transplantation -- Septic Patients -- Burn Patients -- Critically Ill Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients -- Trauma Patients -- Patients Receiving Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation -- Strenghts and Weaknesses of the RIFLE Classification -- Strenghts of the RIFLE Classification -- Weaknesses of the RIFLE Classification -- The Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification -- Strengths and Weaknesses of the AKIN Classification -- Strengths of the AKIN Classification -- Weaknesses of the AKIN Classification -- Which Classification Should We Use in Clinical Practice? -- References -- Acute Renal Failure in the Newborn (NB) -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Characteristics of the Kidney in the Newborn -- Acute Renal Impairment in Newborns -- Physiopathology -- Definition of AKI -- Diagnosis of AKI: Clinical and Laboratorial Aspects -- New Biomarkers -- Suggested Intervals for the Control of Renal Function -- Handling the IRA in the NB -- Prognosis of the NB with AKI -- Conclusion -- References -- Kidney Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury -- Abstract -- Kidney Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury -- Vascular Endothelial Cells.
Tubular Epithelial Cells -- Activation of Kidney Resident Cells and Kidney-Infiltrating Leukocytes -- T Lymphocytes -- Increased Factors after IRI -- Adhesion Molecules -- Cytokines and Chemokines -- Hypoxia-Inducible Factor -- Toll-Like Receptors -- Changes in Renal Tissue after IRI -- FTY720 Modulates the Inflammatory Process after IRI (74) -- References -- Long-Term Prognostic Implication of Post-Angiographic Acute Kidney Injury and Hemodynamic Instability -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Post-Angiograhic AKI -- Role of Hemodynamics in the Formation of Post-Angiographic AKI -- Lessons from Animal Models -- Role of Hemodynamics in the Incidence of Post-Angiographic AKI -- from the Clinical Points of Views -- Short-Term Prognosis of Post-Angiographic AKI -- Long-Term Prognosis and Post-Angiographic AKI: Role of Hemodynamics -- Role of Contrast Media in the Formation of Future Post-Angiographic AKI -- Conclusion -- References -- Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury -- Introduction -- Epidemiology -- Risk Factors for CSA-AKI -- Pathophysiology -- Hypoperfusion -- Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome -- Embolic Injury -- Exogenous and Endogenous Toxins -- Others -- Diagnosis -- Biomarkers for AKI -- Diagnostic Issues with Biomarkers -- Prevention and Treatment of CSA-AKI -- Non-Pharmacologic Interventions in CSA-AKI -- Avoidance of Nephrotoxins -- Pharmacological Interventions in Preventing and Treating CSA-AKI -- 1- Drugs That Increase Renal Blood Flow -- 2. Drugs That Induce Natriuresis -- Natriuretic Peptides (ANP and BNP) -- 3-Drugs That Block Inflammation -- 4. Other Pharmacological Strategies: -- Treatment of Established CSA-AKI (Extracorporeal Therapy, RRT) -- Mode of RRT (Intermittent Hemodialysis (IHD) vs. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT)) -- Alternate Day IHD versus Daily IHD -- Timing of Initiation (Early versus Late).
Effect of Duration and Intensity of CRRT -- Elimination of Inflammatory Cytokines and Anaphylatoxins by CRRT -- Ongoing Trials -- Conclusion -- References -- Innate and Adaptive Immune Response in Acute Kidney Injury: New Plays in the Play-Offs! -- Abstract -- Acute Kidney Injury -- Role of Innate Immunity in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury -- Role of Innate Immunity in Acute Kidney Injury Triggered by Sepsis -- Role of Adaptive Immunity in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury -- Role of Adaptive Immunity in Acute Kidney Injury Triggered by Sepsis -- References -- Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Infection and Acute Kidney Injury -- Abstract -- Introduction -- An Introduction to pH1N1 -- Influenza A H1N1 and Acute Kidney Injury -- Mechanisms of Kidney Injury with pH1N1 -- The Immune System in Uremia -- Treatment of pH1N1 in End Stage Renal Disease -- Conclusion -- References -- Biomarkers in Acute Kidney Injury* -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Urinary Proteins with Enzymatic Activity -- Other Urinary Antigens -- Filtered Low-Molecular Weight Proteins -- Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) -- Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) -- Interleukin-18 (IL-18) -- Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP) -- Exosome Associated Proteins -- Other Biomarkers -- Future Directions -- Conclusion -- References -- Sepsis: Acute Kidney Injury and β2-Adrenoceptor Therapy* -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Sepsis-Induced Renal Injury -- Acute Kidney Injury -- Role of Cytokines in ARF -- The Risk of ARF and Polymorphisms -- Immunologic Effects of 2-AR -- Modulation of Immune Function -- Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Sepsis -- Intracellular Mechanisms -- Kidney and 2-AR System -- 2-AR -- Renal 2 AR Pharmacology -- Defense Mechanisms for Septic ARF -- (1) Inhibition of renal TNF- production -- (2) Modulation of IL-6 -- (3) Inhibition of apoptosis -- (4) Modulation of innate immunity.
Strategy for Septic ARF -- 2-AR Agonists -- (1) Endotoxin-induced sepsis -- (2) HUS -- 2-AR Gene Therapy -- (1) Contribution of 2-AR gene delivery to renal physiology -- (2) Effects of AR gene therapy on septic ARF -- (3) Optional route of administration and safety -- (4) Other gene therapies to sepsis -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Role of Oxidative Stress in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury -- Abstract -- Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury -- Mechanisms of Acute Kidney Injury -- Reactive Oxygen Species and Acute Kidney Injury -- Treatment of AKI: Present and Future -- Conclusions -- References -- Index.
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Intro -- ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY: CAUSES, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT -- ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY: CAUSES, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT -- Contents -- Preface -- How to Define and Classify Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): The "Risk Injury Failure Loss of Kidney Function End-Stage Kidney Disease" (RIFLE) and "Acute Kidney Injury Network" (AKIN) Classifications -- Abstract -- Introduction -- The Risk Injury Failure Loss of Kidney Function End-Stage Kidney Disease (RIFLE) Classification -- Validation of the RIFLE Criteria -- Hospitalized Patients -- ICU Patients -- Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery -- Patients Undergoing Aortic Arch Surgery -- Patients Undergoing Abdominal Aortic Surgery -- Chirrotic Patients -- Patients Submitted to Hepatic Transplantation -- Septic Patients -- Burn Patients -- Critically Ill Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients -- Trauma Patients -- Patients Receiving Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation -- Strenghts and Weaknesses of the RIFLE Classification -- Strenghts of the RIFLE Classification -- Weaknesses of the RIFLE Classification -- The Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification -- Strengths and Weaknesses of the AKIN Classification -- Strengths of the AKIN Classification -- Weaknesses of the AKIN Classification -- Which Classification Should We Use in Clinical Practice? -- References -- Acute Renal Failure in the Newborn (NB) -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Characteristics of the Kidney in the Newborn -- Acute Renal Impairment in Newborns -- Physiopathology -- Definition of AKI -- Diagnosis of AKI: Clinical and Laboratorial Aspects -- New Biomarkers -- Suggested Intervals for the Control of Renal Function -- Handling the IRA in the NB -- Prognosis of the NB with AKI -- Conclusion -- References -- Kidney Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury -- Abstract -- Kidney Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury -- Vascular Endothelial Cells.

Tubular Epithelial Cells -- Activation of Kidney Resident Cells and Kidney-Infiltrating Leukocytes -- T Lymphocytes -- Increased Factors after IRI -- Adhesion Molecules -- Cytokines and Chemokines -- Hypoxia-Inducible Factor -- Toll-Like Receptors -- Changes in Renal Tissue after IRI -- FTY720 Modulates the Inflammatory Process after IRI (74) -- References -- Long-Term Prognostic Implication of Post-Angiographic Acute Kidney Injury and Hemodynamic Instability -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Post-Angiograhic AKI -- Role of Hemodynamics in the Formation of Post-Angiographic AKI -- Lessons from Animal Models -- Role of Hemodynamics in the Incidence of Post-Angiographic AKI -- from the Clinical Points of Views -- Short-Term Prognosis of Post-Angiographic AKI -- Long-Term Prognosis and Post-Angiographic AKI: Role of Hemodynamics -- Role of Contrast Media in the Formation of Future Post-Angiographic AKI -- Conclusion -- References -- Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury -- Introduction -- Epidemiology -- Risk Factors for CSA-AKI -- Pathophysiology -- Hypoperfusion -- Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome -- Embolic Injury -- Exogenous and Endogenous Toxins -- Others -- Diagnosis -- Biomarkers for AKI -- Diagnostic Issues with Biomarkers -- Prevention and Treatment of CSA-AKI -- Non-Pharmacologic Interventions in CSA-AKI -- Avoidance of Nephrotoxins -- Pharmacological Interventions in Preventing and Treating CSA-AKI -- 1- Drugs That Increase Renal Blood Flow -- 2. Drugs That Induce Natriuresis -- Natriuretic Peptides (ANP and BNP) -- 3-Drugs That Block Inflammation -- 4. Other Pharmacological Strategies: -- Treatment of Established CSA-AKI (Extracorporeal Therapy, RRT) -- Mode of RRT (Intermittent Hemodialysis (IHD) vs. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT)) -- Alternate Day IHD versus Daily IHD -- Timing of Initiation (Early versus Late).

Effect of Duration and Intensity of CRRT -- Elimination of Inflammatory Cytokines and Anaphylatoxins by CRRT -- Ongoing Trials -- Conclusion -- References -- Innate and Adaptive Immune Response in Acute Kidney Injury: New Plays in the Play-Offs! -- Abstract -- Acute Kidney Injury -- Role of Innate Immunity in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury -- Role of Innate Immunity in Acute Kidney Injury Triggered by Sepsis -- Role of Adaptive Immunity in Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury -- Role of Adaptive Immunity in Acute Kidney Injury Triggered by Sepsis -- References -- Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Infection and Acute Kidney Injury -- Abstract -- Introduction -- An Introduction to pH1N1 -- Influenza A H1N1 and Acute Kidney Injury -- Mechanisms of Kidney Injury with pH1N1 -- The Immune System in Uremia -- Treatment of pH1N1 in End Stage Renal Disease -- Conclusion -- References -- Biomarkers in Acute Kidney Injury* -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Urinary Proteins with Enzymatic Activity -- Other Urinary Antigens -- Filtered Low-Molecular Weight Proteins -- Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) -- Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) -- Interleukin-18 (IL-18) -- Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP) -- Exosome Associated Proteins -- Other Biomarkers -- Future Directions -- Conclusion -- References -- Sepsis: Acute Kidney Injury and β2-Adrenoceptor Therapy* -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Sepsis-Induced Renal Injury -- Acute Kidney Injury -- Role of Cytokines in ARF -- The Risk of ARF and Polymorphisms -- Immunologic Effects of 2-AR -- Modulation of Immune Function -- Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Sepsis -- Intracellular Mechanisms -- Kidney and 2-AR System -- 2-AR -- Renal 2 AR Pharmacology -- Defense Mechanisms for Septic ARF -- (1) Inhibition of renal TNF- production -- (2) Modulation of IL-6 -- (3) Inhibition of apoptosis -- (4) Modulation of innate immunity.

Strategy for Septic ARF -- 2-AR Agonists -- (1) Endotoxin-induced sepsis -- (2) HUS -- 2-AR Gene Therapy -- (1) Contribution of 2-AR gene delivery to renal physiology -- (2) Effects of AR gene therapy on septic ARF -- (3) Optional route of administration and safety -- (4) Other gene therapies to sepsis -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Role of Oxidative Stress in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury -- Abstract -- Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury -- Mechanisms of Acute Kidney Injury -- Reactive Oxygen Species and Acute Kidney Injury -- Treatment of AKI: Present and Future -- Conclusions -- References -- Index.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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