Flavonoids : Biosynthesis, Biological Effects and Dietary Sources.

By: Keller, Raymond BSeries: Nutrition and Diet Research ProgressPublisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2009Copyright date: ©2009Description: 1 online resource (363 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781617619144Subject(s): Flavonoids.;Plant pigmentsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Flavonoids: Biosynthesis, Biological Effects and Dietary SourcesDDC classification: 612/.0154 LOC classification: QP671.F52 -- F527 2009ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- FLAVONOIDS: BIOSYNTHESIS, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND DIETARY SOURCES -- FLAVONOIDS: BIOSYNTHESIS, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND DIETARY SOURCES -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- BIOAVAILABILITY AND METABOLISM OF DIETARY FLAVONOIDS - MUCH KNOWN - MUCH MORE TO DISCOVER -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- FLAVONOID ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT -- The Oral Cavity -- The Stomach -- The Small Intestine -- The Colon and Microflora -- DISTRIBUTION OF FLAVONOID METABOLITES ROUND THE BODY -- FLAVONOID BIOAVAILABILITY TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM -- BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID METABOLITES -- Quercetin/Flavonols -- Isoflavones -- Catechins -- Other Flavonoids -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CYTOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS IN RELATION TO THEIR CHEMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF FLAVONOIDS -- PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FLAVONOIDS -- The UV Absorption of Flavonoids -- Physical Properties of Flavonoids -- Bond Dissociation Energy (BDE) -- Lipophilicity (Log P) -- HEALTH EFFECTS OF FLAVONOIDS -- CYTOPROTECTION ASSAY -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- Materials -- Assessment of Cell Viability -- Culture and Treatment of HT-29 Cells -- Annexin V Staining and Flow Cytometric Analysis -- Calculation of Results -- Cell Death Index (CDI) -- Quantum Chemical Calculations -- Calculation of Heat of Formation -- Calculation of Log P -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- Cytotoxic Effects of H2O2 -- Cytotoxicity of Flavonoids -- The Influence of Trolox on Cytotoxic Effects of H2O2 -- Structural Related Cytoprotective Activity of Flavonoids -- Effects of Hydroxyl Groups in the B Ring -- Effect of the 3-OH Group, 2,3-Double Bond and 4-Keto Group -- Effect of the Carbohydrate Moieties -- Cytoprotective Activities and Physicochemical Properties of Flavonoids.
Correlation between O-H Bond Dissociation Enthalpy (BDE) and Cytoprotective Activity (EC50) of Flavonoids -- Correlation between Partition Coefficient (Log P) and Cytoprotective Activity (EC50) of Flavonoids -- Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Model -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- OLIGOMERIC NATURE, COLLOIDAL STATE, RHEOLOGY, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF POLYFLAVONOIDS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- THE OLIGOMERIC NATURE OF POLYFLAVONOIDS -- Profisetinindin and Prorobinetinidin Type Polyflavonoids -- Procyanidin and Prodelphinidin Type Polyflavonoids -- Colloidal State of Polyflavonoid Extracts -- RHEOLOGY OF INDUSTRIAL POLYFLAVONOIDS -- ANTI-OXYDANT CAPABILITY OF POLYFLAVONOIDS -- ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF POLYFLAVONOIDS -- REFERENCES -- GRAPEFRUIT FLAVONOIDS: NARINGIN AND NARINGININ -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- REFERENCES -- DEVELOPMENT OF PROMISING NATURALLY DERIVED MOLECULES TO IMPROVE THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES -- ABSTRACT -- A) INTRODUCTION -- B) PHYTOCHEMICALS PREVENT CARCINOGENESIS PATHWAYS -- 1. Anti-Initiation Activities of Phytonatural Compounds -- 2. Anti-Promotion Activities of Phytonatural Compounds -- 3. Anti-Progression Activities of Phytonatural Compounds -- C) POLYPHENOLS AS CHEMOSENSITIZER AGENTS -- 1. Phytochemical Combinations -- 2. Polyphenols as Adjuvant for Chemosensitization -- 3. Chemical Modifications of Natural Polyphenols to Improve Their Efficacy -- E) PATTERN OF VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS -- 1. Production Methods -- 2. Modification of Structures -- 3. Formulation -- 4. Combination Treatment -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- EFFECT OF A DIET RICH IN COCOA FLAVONOIDS ON EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE INFLAMMATION -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS -- 2.1. Animals -- 2.2. Isolation of Peritoneal Macrophages.
2.3. ROS Production by DCF Assay -- 2.4. Cytokine and NO Production -- 2.5. Induction of Acute Inflammation in Rat Hind Paws -- 2.6. Inflammation Assessment -- 2.7. Statistics -- 3. RESULTS -- 3.1. Peritoneal Macrophages Viability -- 3.2. ROS and NO Production by Peritoneal Macrophages -- 3.3. TNFα and IL-6 Secretion from Peritoneal Macrophages -- 3.4. Paw Edema Induced by Carrageenin -- 3.5. Acute Paw Edema Induced by Inflammatory Mediators -- DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- MECHANISMS AT THE ROOT OF FLAVONOID ACTION IN CANCER: A STEP TOWARD SOLVING THE RUBIK'S CUBE -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. PROOXIDANT/ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS -- 3. FLAVONOIDS AS KINASE INHIBITORS -- 4. FLAVONOIDS AS NUCLEAR RECEPTOR LIGANDS -- 4.1. Flavonoids as Estrogen Receptor Ligands -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- ANTIOPHIDIAN MECHANISMS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- Animals -- Venoms -- Phytochemicals -- M. Laevigata Extract -- P. Reticulata Extract -- Protein Precipitation Assay and Tannins Determination -- Thin Layer Chromatography -- Mouse Phrenic Nerve-Diaphragm Muscle (PND) Preparation -- Experimental Design -- Statistical Analysis -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- MOLECULAR TARGETS OF FLAVONOIDS DURING APOPTOSIS IN CANCER CELLS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- 1. TEA POLYPHENOL CATECHINS -- 2. SOY ISOFLAVONES -- 3. QUERCETIN -- 4. ANTHOCYANINS -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- FLAVAN-3-OL MONOMERS AND CONDENSED TANNINS IN DIETARY AND MEDICINAL PLANTS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- CHEMICAL STRUCTURES OF FLAVAN-3-OL MONOMERS -- Oligomers of Flavan-3-ols (Harborne FRS JB and Baxter H, 1999) -- Astringency and Bitterness -- Chemical Properties -- Isolation and Identification Methods -- Determination of Polyphenol Contents.
TANNINS IN SOME DIETARY MATERIALS -- Peanut Skins -- Tea Polyphenols -- Flavan-3-ols in Wine -- Grape Tannins -- Cynomorium Tannins -- Distribution in Other Dietary Sources -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHEMOTAXONOMIC APPLICATIONS OF FLAVONOIDS -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FOR CHEMOTAXONOMY -- 3. APPLICATION OF CHEMOTAXONOMIC TECHNIQUES -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- BIOANALYSIS OF THE FLAVONOID COMPOSITION OF HERBAL EXTRACTS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS -- ABSTRACT -- FLAVONOIDS: SOURCE, CLINICAL PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURES -- ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOIDS - A REVIEW -- MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS' APPLICATION TO THE ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOIDS IN PLANT EXTRACT AND METABOLITES IN VIVO -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF THE FLAVONOIDS OF THE LEAVES OF AFROFITTONIA SILVESTRIS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- General Experimental Procedure -- Plant Material -- Extraction of A. Silvestris Leaves -- Antibacterial Test -- Minimum Inhibitory Concentration -- Activity-Guided Fractionation of A. Silvestris -- Isolation and Characterization -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- WHY IS BIOAVAILABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS SO LOW? -- 1. CHEMISTRY, DIETARY INTAKE AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS -- 2. GENERAL MECHANISTIC ASPECTS OF LIMITED ANTHOCYANIN BIOAVAILABILITY -- 2.1. Transporter-Mediated Absorption at the Cellular Level -- 2.1.1. Consequences of Transporter-Mediated Absorption: Rapidity -- 2.1.2. Consequences of Transporter-Mediated Absorption: Saturability -- 2.1.3. Bilitranslocase: An Anthocyanin-Specific Membrane Transporter -- 2.2. Environment-Dependent Absorption at the Supra-Cellular Level -- 2.2.1. Distribution and Density of Anthocyanin-Specific Transporters.
2.2.2. Occurrence of Bilitranslocase in the Gastro-Intestinal Epithelium -- 2.2.3. Absorption of Anthocyanins into Intestinal Cell Monolayers: A Unique Role for Bilitranslocase? -- 2.2.4. Retention of Anthocyanins into the Intestinal Epithelium: Absence of Efflux Transporters? -- 2.3. Anthocyanin Instability in the Intestinal Tract and in Plasma: Chemistry or Biochemistry? -- CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- INDEX.
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Intro -- FLAVONOIDS: BIOSYNTHESIS, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND DIETARY SOURCES -- FLAVONOIDS: BIOSYNTHESIS, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND DIETARY SOURCES -- CONTENTS -- PREFACE -- BIOAVAILABILITY AND METABOLISM OF DIETARY FLAVONOIDS - MUCH KNOWN - MUCH MORE TO DISCOVER -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- FLAVONOID ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT -- The Oral Cavity -- The Stomach -- The Small Intestine -- The Colon and Microflora -- DISTRIBUTION OF FLAVONOID METABOLITES ROUND THE BODY -- FLAVONOID BIOAVAILABILITY TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM -- BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID METABOLITES -- Quercetin/Flavonols -- Isoflavones -- Catechins -- Other Flavonoids -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CYTOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS IN RELATION TO THEIR CHEMICAL STRUCTURES AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF FLAVONOIDS -- PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FLAVONOIDS -- The UV Absorption of Flavonoids -- Physical Properties of Flavonoids -- Bond Dissociation Energy (BDE) -- Lipophilicity (Log P) -- HEALTH EFFECTS OF FLAVONOIDS -- CYTOPROTECTION ASSAY -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- Materials -- Assessment of Cell Viability -- Culture and Treatment of HT-29 Cells -- Annexin V Staining and Flow Cytometric Analysis -- Calculation of Results -- Cell Death Index (CDI) -- Quantum Chemical Calculations -- Calculation of Heat of Formation -- Calculation of Log P -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- Cytotoxic Effects of H2O2 -- Cytotoxicity of Flavonoids -- The Influence of Trolox on Cytotoxic Effects of H2O2 -- Structural Related Cytoprotective Activity of Flavonoids -- Effects of Hydroxyl Groups in the B Ring -- Effect of the 3-OH Group, 2,3-Double Bond and 4-Keto Group -- Effect of the Carbohydrate Moieties -- Cytoprotective Activities and Physicochemical Properties of Flavonoids.

Correlation between O-H Bond Dissociation Enthalpy (BDE) and Cytoprotective Activity (EC50) of Flavonoids -- Correlation between Partition Coefficient (Log P) and Cytoprotective Activity (EC50) of Flavonoids -- Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Model -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- OLIGOMERIC NATURE, COLLOIDAL STATE, RHEOLOGY, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF POLYFLAVONOIDS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- THE OLIGOMERIC NATURE OF POLYFLAVONOIDS -- Profisetinindin and Prorobinetinidin Type Polyflavonoids -- Procyanidin and Prodelphinidin Type Polyflavonoids -- Colloidal State of Polyflavonoid Extracts -- RHEOLOGY OF INDUSTRIAL POLYFLAVONOIDS -- ANTI-OXYDANT CAPABILITY OF POLYFLAVONOIDS -- ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF POLYFLAVONOIDS -- REFERENCES -- GRAPEFRUIT FLAVONOIDS: NARINGIN AND NARINGININ -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- REFERENCES -- DEVELOPMENT OF PROMISING NATURALLY DERIVED MOLECULES TO IMPROVE THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES -- ABSTRACT -- A) INTRODUCTION -- B) PHYTOCHEMICALS PREVENT CARCINOGENESIS PATHWAYS -- 1. Anti-Initiation Activities of Phytonatural Compounds -- 2. Anti-Promotion Activities of Phytonatural Compounds -- 3. Anti-Progression Activities of Phytonatural Compounds -- C) POLYPHENOLS AS CHEMOSENSITIZER AGENTS -- 1. Phytochemical Combinations -- 2. Polyphenols as Adjuvant for Chemosensitization -- 3. Chemical Modifications of Natural Polyphenols to Improve Their Efficacy -- E) PATTERN OF VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS -- 1. Production Methods -- 2. Modification of Structures -- 3. Formulation -- 4. Combination Treatment -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- EFFECT OF A DIET RICH IN COCOA FLAVONOIDS ON EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE INFLAMMATION -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS -- 2.1. Animals -- 2.2. Isolation of Peritoneal Macrophages.

2.3. ROS Production by DCF Assay -- 2.4. Cytokine and NO Production -- 2.5. Induction of Acute Inflammation in Rat Hind Paws -- 2.6. Inflammation Assessment -- 2.7. Statistics -- 3. RESULTS -- 3.1. Peritoneal Macrophages Viability -- 3.2. ROS and NO Production by Peritoneal Macrophages -- 3.3. TNFα and IL-6 Secretion from Peritoneal Macrophages -- 3.4. Paw Edema Induced by Carrageenin -- 3.5. Acute Paw Edema Induced by Inflammatory Mediators -- DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- MECHANISMS AT THE ROOT OF FLAVONOID ACTION IN CANCER: A STEP TOWARD SOLVING THE RUBIK'S CUBE -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. PROOXIDANT/ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS -- 3. FLAVONOIDS AS KINASE INHIBITORS -- 4. FLAVONOIDS AS NUCLEAR RECEPTOR LIGANDS -- 4.1. Flavonoids as Estrogen Receptor Ligands -- CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- ANTIOPHIDIAN MECHANISMS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- Animals -- Venoms -- Phytochemicals -- M. Laevigata Extract -- P. Reticulata Extract -- Protein Precipitation Assay and Tannins Determination -- Thin Layer Chromatography -- Mouse Phrenic Nerve-Diaphragm Muscle (PND) Preparation -- Experimental Design -- Statistical Analysis -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- MOLECULAR TARGETS OF FLAVONOIDS DURING APOPTOSIS IN CANCER CELLS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- 1. TEA POLYPHENOL CATECHINS -- 2. SOY ISOFLAVONES -- 3. QUERCETIN -- 4. ANTHOCYANINS -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- FLAVAN-3-OL MONOMERS AND CONDENSED TANNINS IN DIETARY AND MEDICINAL PLANTS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- CHEMICAL STRUCTURES OF FLAVAN-3-OL MONOMERS -- Oligomers of Flavan-3-ols (Harborne FRS JB and Baxter H, 1999) -- Astringency and Bitterness -- Chemical Properties -- Isolation and Identification Methods -- Determination of Polyphenol Contents.

TANNINS IN SOME DIETARY MATERIALS -- Peanut Skins -- Tea Polyphenols -- Flavan-3-ols in Wine -- Grape Tannins -- Cynomorium Tannins -- Distribution in Other Dietary Sources -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHEMOTAXONOMIC APPLICATIONS OF FLAVONOIDS -- ABSTRACT -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FOR CHEMOTAXONOMY -- 3. APPLICATION OF CHEMOTAXONOMIC TECHNIQUES -- CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- BIOANALYSIS OF THE FLAVONOID COMPOSITION OF HERBAL EXTRACTS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS -- ABSTRACT -- FLAVONOIDS: SOURCE, CLINICAL PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURES -- ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOIDS - A REVIEW -- MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS' APPLICATION TO THE ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOIDS IN PLANT EXTRACT AND METABOLITES IN VIVO -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF THE FLAVONOIDS OF THE LEAVES OF AFROFITTONIA SILVESTRIS -- ABSTRACT -- INTRODUCTION -- MATERIALS AND METHODS -- General Experimental Procedure -- Plant Material -- Extraction of A. Silvestris Leaves -- Antibacterial Test -- Minimum Inhibitory Concentration -- Activity-Guided Fractionation of A. Silvestris -- Isolation and Characterization -- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- WHY IS BIOAVAILABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS SO LOW? -- 1. CHEMISTRY, DIETARY INTAKE AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS -- 2. GENERAL MECHANISTIC ASPECTS OF LIMITED ANTHOCYANIN BIOAVAILABILITY -- 2.1. Transporter-Mediated Absorption at the Cellular Level -- 2.1.1. Consequences of Transporter-Mediated Absorption: Rapidity -- 2.1.2. Consequences of Transporter-Mediated Absorption: Saturability -- 2.1.3. Bilitranslocase: An Anthocyanin-Specific Membrane Transporter -- 2.2. Environment-Dependent Absorption at the Supra-Cellular Level -- 2.2.1. Distribution and Density of Anthocyanin-Specific Transporters.

2.2.2. Occurrence of Bilitranslocase in the Gastro-Intestinal Epithelium -- 2.2.3. Absorption of Anthocyanins into Intestinal Cell Monolayers: A Unique Role for Bilitranslocase? -- 2.2.4. Retention of Anthocyanins into the Intestinal Epithelium: Absence of Efflux Transporters? -- 2.3. Anthocyanin Instability in the Intestinal Tract and in Plasma: Chemistry or Biochemistry? -- CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- INDEX.

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