Immunogenicity.

By: Villanueva, Christian JSeries: Immunology and Immune System DisordersPublisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2011Copyright date: ©2011Description: 1 online resource (281 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781617616945Subject(s): Immune response.;VaccinesGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: ImmunogenicityDDC classification: 616.079 LOC classification: QR186 -- .I454 2010ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- IMMUNOGENICITY -- IMMUNOGENICITY -- Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data -- Contents -- Preface -- Chapter 1 Molecular Aspects Involved in the Immunogenicity against Viral Epitopes: An Immunoinformatic Perspective -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Endogenous Antigen Processing Pathway -- 2.1. Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) -- 2.2. TAP Transport -- 2.3. MHCBinding -- 2.4. TCRInteraction -- 2.5. Cross Presentation -- 3. Immunogenicity: Heaven or Hell in T-Lymphocyte's Judgment -- 3.1. Antigens Recognition -- 3.2. Cross Reactivity -- 3.3. Molecular Mimicry -- 4. Softwares That Simulate the Antigens Presentation Pathway -- 4.1. EpiJen -- 4.2. Netchop 3.0 -- 4.3. PAProC I -- 4.4. TAPPred -- 5. Molecular Docking -- 6. Immunology Usage of Molecular Dynamics -- 7. Immunoinformatics Databases -- 7.1. Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) -- 7.2. SYFPEITHI -- 7.3. International Immunogenetics Information System (IMGT) -- 7.4. HIV Molecular Immunology Database -- 7.5. AntiJen -- 7.6. EPIMHC -- 7.7. MHCBN -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 2 Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of the Envelope Glycoprotein (gpG) of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Rhabdovirus (VHSV) -- Summary -- Importance of Rhabdoviral Diseases in Farmed Fish -- Viral Haemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) -- The Structure-Function Relationships in the Glycoprotein G of VHSV (gpGVHSV) -- The Importance of the gpGVHSV in Vaccination against VHSV -- Early gpGVHSV Immunogenicity: Activation of the Interferon (IFN) System -- Long-Term gpG Immunogenicity: Induction of T Cellular Responses -- Long-Term gpGVHSV Antigenicity: Antibody Responses -- References -- Chapter 3 Influenza Infection and Immunological Memory Responses -- Introduction -- Humoral Memory against Influenza Infection -- T Cell Memory Responses to Influenza Infection.
The Vaccine and Immunological Memory -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Chapter 4 Vaccine Delivery Systems Based on Amphiphilic Bioresorbable Polymers and Their Role in Vaccine Immunogenicity -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1. Appropriate Immune Responses -- 1.2. Immunobioengineering Principles -- 2. Molecular Design and Characterization -- 2.1. Bioresorbable Polymers -- 2.2. Synthesis of Copolymers -- 2.3. Analytical Methods for the Characterization of Copolymers -- 2.3.1. Gel permeation chromatography -- 2.3.2. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance -- 2.3.3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry -- 3. Bioresorbable Polymers in Protein or Vaccine Delivery -- 3.1. Polymeric Surfactants -- 3.2. Polymer-Based Emulsions -- 3.3. Optimization of Nanoemulsion Based on Bioresorbable Polymer -- 3.4. Use of Bioresorbable Polymers to Manipulate the Immune Systems -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 5 Immunogenicity and Cardiovascular Disease -- Abstract -- I. Introduction -- II. Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses and Immunogenicity -- II.A. Initiation of the Innate Immune Response -- II.A.1. Receptors in Innate Immunity -- II.A.2. Inflammasomes and Innate Immunity -- II.A.3. Inflammation -- II.B. Effectors of the Innate Immune Response -- II.B.1. Phagocytes -- II.B.2. Cytokines -- II.B.3. Complement -- II.C. The Adaptive Immune Response -- II.D. Pathological Consequences of Unregulated Immune Responses -- III. Inflammation and Autoimmunity in Atherogenesis -- III.A. Atherogenesis and Innate Immune Response Effectors -- III.A.1. Monocytes and Macrophages -- III.A.2. Mast Cells and Neutrophils -- III.A.3. Platelets as Nontraditional Effectors -- III.B. Cytokines and Atherogenesis -- III.B.1. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines -- III.B.2. Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines -- III.B.3. Chemokines.
III.C. Atherogenesis and Inflammatory Mediators -- III.D. Atherogenesis and the Adaptive Immune Response -- III.D.1. T-Cells -- III.D.2. Tregs -- III.D.3. B-Cells -- III.D.4. oxLDL as an Autoantigen -- III.D.5. HSP as an Autoantigen -- III.E. Atherogenesis as a Consequence of Other Pathologies -- IV. Inflammation and Autoimmunity in Diabetic Atherosclerosis -- IV.A. Insulin Resistance -- IV.B. β-Cell Destruction -- IV.C. Diabetic Atherosclerosis -- IV.D. Immune Responses Uniting DM with CVD -- IV.E. Endothelial Dysfunction as an Ancestor for DM and CVD -- IV.F. Therapeutic Strategies -- Immunogenicity and Stem Cell Therapy -- V.A. Immunogenicity of Stem Cells -- V.A.1. Antigen Matching -- V.A.2. Stem Cell Antigen Expression -- V.A.3. Immunogenicity of Self Antigens -- V.B. Stem Cell Selection -- V.B.1. Embryonic Stem Cells -- V.B.2. Adult Stem Cells -- V.B.3. Skeletal Myoblasts -- V.B.4. Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells -- V.B.5. "Cardiac Stem Cells" -- V.C. Stem Cell Therapy -- V.C.1. Vascular Therapy -- V.C.2. Cardiac Therapy -- VI. Immunogenicity and Immunosuppression -- VI.A. Anti-Inflammatory Drugs -- VI.B. Immunosuppressive Antibodies -- VI.B.1. Receptor Antibodies -- VI.B.2. Co-Stimulatory Signal Antibodies -- VI.C. Tolerance -- VI.C.1. HSPs -- VI.C.2. oxLDL -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 6 Immunogenicity of Three Chlamydial VaccineStrains for Domestic Animals -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Research of Immunoprophylaxis to OEA -- Research of Immunogenicity Differences Between Ovine Abortion Isolate and Goat Abortion Isolate -- 1. Vaccine Potency Tests -- 1.1.Immune Efficacy of Goat Chlamydial Abortion Vaccine (CpGA) to Goats -- 1.2 Immune Efficacy of Ovine Chlamydial Abortion Vaccine (CpSH23) to Sheep -- 1.3.Cross Immune Test of the Two Vaccines (CpGAand CpSH23) -- 2. Minimal Immunization Dosage Test.
3. Immunity Persistent Period Test -- 4. Vaccine Conservation Period Test -- 5. Field Immune Test -- Conclusion -- Research of Immunoprophylaxis to Swine Chlamydial Abortion -- The Minimal Immune Dosage Test -- Conservation Period of Vaccine(CpD13) -- Immunity Protective Period of Vaccine (CpD13) -- FieldTrials of Vaccine(CpD13) -- Conclusion -- Research of Immunoprophylaxis to Chlamydial Abortion in Cow -- MinimalImmune Dosage Test of Vaccine (CpSX5) -- The Vaccine Immune Potency Tests -- The Vaccine Field Immunologic Trials -- Conclusion -- Comparisons of the Three Vaccine Strains's ompA Gene Homoly -- Cross Protective Testsof the Three Vaccines Agaist Chlamydia Infection in Mice -- Discussion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 7 DNA Vaccines: A Modern-Day Vaccine Revolution -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Historical Perspective -- General Attributes of DNA Vaccines -- Key Features of A DNA Vaccine Vector -- 1. Origin of Replication -- 2. Selectable Marker -- 3. Promoter/Enhancer -- 4. Intron -- 5. Terminator/Polyadenylation -- 6. Gene of Interest -- Advantages of DNA Vaccines -- Routes of Administration -- Induction of Immunity by DNA Vaccines -- 1. Direct Transfection of MHC Class II-Negative Somatic Cells -- 2. Direct Transfection of APCs Directly Mediate Cellular Responses -- Further Developments and Applications -- Vectors -- Prime-Boost Strategies -- Some Examples of DNA Vaccine Research -- Malaria -- DNA Vaccines Against Allergy -- Prophylactic Versus Therapeutic Applications -- Strategies Using DNA Therapies for Cancer and Transplantation -- Safety and DNA Vaccines -- Commercial Use of DNA Vaccines -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 8 Barriers to, and Prospective Solutions for, Colorectal Cancer Immunotherapy -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Immune Tolerance -- Vaccine Delivery Strategies -- Tumor-Mediated Suppressive Networks.
Colorectal Cancer-Associated Antigens -- Cancer Mucosa Antigens -- Regulatory and Intellectual Property Hurdles -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 9 Immunogenicity of B and T Epitopes Displayed on Bacteriophage Fd -- Abstract -- Introduction -- The Fd Phage -- Antigen Display on PVIII and PIII -- Generation of Phage-Based Immunogens -- Antibody Responses to Pathogen Epitopes Exposed on Bacteriophages -- Antibody Responses to Beta-Amyloid Epitopes Exposed on Bacteriophages -- Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) Responses to Peptides Exposed on Bacteriophages -- Future Perspectives and Applications -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 10 Allergenicity and Immunogenicity of Sugar Alcohol Sweeteners -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Sugar Alcohols -- Properties of Sugar Alcohols -- Immunogenicity of Saccharides/Carbohydrates -- Antigenicity of Small Molecules/Haptens -- Conjugation of Saccharides/Carbohydrates to Proteins -- Non-Enzymic Glycosylation of Proteins -- Antibodies to Mono-, Di- and Oligo-Saccharides -- Adverse Reactions to Sugars and Sugar Alcohols -- Allergenicity of Sugar Alcohols -- Mannitol Hypersensitivity -- Erythritol Hypersensitivity -- Xylitol Hypersensitivity -- Mechanism for the Allergenicity of Sugar Alcohols -- Immunogenicity of Sugar Alcohols -- Monosaccharitols -- Disaccharitols -- Applications of Sugar Alcohol-Specific Antibodies -- Conclusion -- References -- Index.
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Intro -- IMMUNOGENICITY -- IMMUNOGENICITY -- Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data -- Contents -- Preface -- Chapter 1 Molecular Aspects Involved in the Immunogenicity against Viral Epitopes: An Immunoinformatic Perspective -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Endogenous Antigen Processing Pathway -- 2.1. Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) -- 2.2. TAP Transport -- 2.3. MHCBinding -- 2.4. TCRInteraction -- 2.5. Cross Presentation -- 3. Immunogenicity: Heaven or Hell in T-Lymphocyte's Judgment -- 3.1. Antigens Recognition -- 3.2. Cross Reactivity -- 3.3. Molecular Mimicry -- 4. Softwares That Simulate the Antigens Presentation Pathway -- 4.1. EpiJen -- 4.2. Netchop 3.0 -- 4.3. PAProC I -- 4.4. TAPPred -- 5. Molecular Docking -- 6. Immunology Usage of Molecular Dynamics -- 7. Immunoinformatics Databases -- 7.1. Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) -- 7.2. SYFPEITHI -- 7.3. International Immunogenetics Information System (IMGT) -- 7.4. HIV Molecular Immunology Database -- 7.5. AntiJen -- 7.6. EPIMHC -- 7.7. MHCBN -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 2 Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of the Envelope Glycoprotein (gpG) of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Rhabdovirus (VHSV) -- Summary -- Importance of Rhabdoviral Diseases in Farmed Fish -- Viral Haemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) -- The Structure-Function Relationships in the Glycoprotein G of VHSV (gpGVHSV) -- The Importance of the gpGVHSV in Vaccination against VHSV -- Early gpGVHSV Immunogenicity: Activation of the Interferon (IFN) System -- Long-Term gpG Immunogenicity: Induction of T Cellular Responses -- Long-Term gpGVHSV Antigenicity: Antibody Responses -- References -- Chapter 3 Influenza Infection and Immunological Memory Responses -- Introduction -- Humoral Memory against Influenza Infection -- T Cell Memory Responses to Influenza Infection.

The Vaccine and Immunological Memory -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgement -- References -- Chapter 4 Vaccine Delivery Systems Based on Amphiphilic Bioresorbable Polymers and Their Role in Vaccine Immunogenicity -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1. Appropriate Immune Responses -- 1.2. Immunobioengineering Principles -- 2. Molecular Design and Characterization -- 2.1. Bioresorbable Polymers -- 2.2. Synthesis of Copolymers -- 2.3. Analytical Methods for the Characterization of Copolymers -- 2.3.1. Gel permeation chromatography -- 2.3.2. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance -- 2.3.3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry -- 3. Bioresorbable Polymers in Protein or Vaccine Delivery -- 3.1. Polymeric Surfactants -- 3.2. Polymer-Based Emulsions -- 3.3. Optimization of Nanoemulsion Based on Bioresorbable Polymer -- 3.4. Use of Bioresorbable Polymers to Manipulate the Immune Systems -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 5 Immunogenicity and Cardiovascular Disease -- Abstract -- I. Introduction -- II. Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses and Immunogenicity -- II.A. Initiation of the Innate Immune Response -- II.A.1. Receptors in Innate Immunity -- II.A.2. Inflammasomes and Innate Immunity -- II.A.3. Inflammation -- II.B. Effectors of the Innate Immune Response -- II.B.1. Phagocytes -- II.B.2. Cytokines -- II.B.3. Complement -- II.C. The Adaptive Immune Response -- II.D. Pathological Consequences of Unregulated Immune Responses -- III. Inflammation and Autoimmunity in Atherogenesis -- III.A. Atherogenesis and Innate Immune Response Effectors -- III.A.1. Monocytes and Macrophages -- III.A.2. Mast Cells and Neutrophils -- III.A.3. Platelets as Nontraditional Effectors -- III.B. Cytokines and Atherogenesis -- III.B.1. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines -- III.B.2. Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines -- III.B.3. Chemokines.

III.C. Atherogenesis and Inflammatory Mediators -- III.D. Atherogenesis and the Adaptive Immune Response -- III.D.1. T-Cells -- III.D.2. Tregs -- III.D.3. B-Cells -- III.D.4. oxLDL as an Autoantigen -- III.D.5. HSP as an Autoantigen -- III.E. Atherogenesis as a Consequence of Other Pathologies -- IV. Inflammation and Autoimmunity in Diabetic Atherosclerosis -- IV.A. Insulin Resistance -- IV.B. β-Cell Destruction -- IV.C. Diabetic Atherosclerosis -- IV.D. Immune Responses Uniting DM with CVD -- IV.E. Endothelial Dysfunction as an Ancestor for DM and CVD -- IV.F. Therapeutic Strategies -- Immunogenicity and Stem Cell Therapy -- V.A. Immunogenicity of Stem Cells -- V.A.1. Antigen Matching -- V.A.2. Stem Cell Antigen Expression -- V.A.3. Immunogenicity of Self Antigens -- V.B. Stem Cell Selection -- V.B.1. Embryonic Stem Cells -- V.B.2. Adult Stem Cells -- V.B.3. Skeletal Myoblasts -- V.B.4. Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells -- V.B.5. "Cardiac Stem Cells" -- V.C. Stem Cell Therapy -- V.C.1. Vascular Therapy -- V.C.2. Cardiac Therapy -- VI. Immunogenicity and Immunosuppression -- VI.A. Anti-Inflammatory Drugs -- VI.B. Immunosuppressive Antibodies -- VI.B.1. Receptor Antibodies -- VI.B.2. Co-Stimulatory Signal Antibodies -- VI.C. Tolerance -- VI.C.1. HSPs -- VI.C.2. oxLDL -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 6 Immunogenicity of Three Chlamydial VaccineStrains for Domestic Animals -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Research of Immunoprophylaxis to OEA -- Research of Immunogenicity Differences Between Ovine Abortion Isolate and Goat Abortion Isolate -- 1. Vaccine Potency Tests -- 1.1.Immune Efficacy of Goat Chlamydial Abortion Vaccine (CpGA) to Goats -- 1.2 Immune Efficacy of Ovine Chlamydial Abortion Vaccine (CpSH23) to Sheep -- 1.3.Cross Immune Test of the Two Vaccines (CpGAand CpSH23) -- 2. Minimal Immunization Dosage Test.

3. Immunity Persistent Period Test -- 4. Vaccine Conservation Period Test -- 5. Field Immune Test -- Conclusion -- Research of Immunoprophylaxis to Swine Chlamydial Abortion -- The Minimal Immune Dosage Test -- Conservation Period of Vaccine(CpD13) -- Immunity Protective Period of Vaccine (CpD13) -- FieldTrials of Vaccine(CpD13) -- Conclusion -- Research of Immunoprophylaxis to Chlamydial Abortion in Cow -- MinimalImmune Dosage Test of Vaccine (CpSX5) -- The Vaccine Immune Potency Tests -- The Vaccine Field Immunologic Trials -- Conclusion -- Comparisons of the Three Vaccine Strains's ompA Gene Homoly -- Cross Protective Testsof the Three Vaccines Agaist Chlamydia Infection in Mice -- Discussion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 7 DNA Vaccines: A Modern-Day Vaccine Revolution -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Historical Perspective -- General Attributes of DNA Vaccines -- Key Features of A DNA Vaccine Vector -- 1. Origin of Replication -- 2. Selectable Marker -- 3. Promoter/Enhancer -- 4. Intron -- 5. Terminator/Polyadenylation -- 6. Gene of Interest -- Advantages of DNA Vaccines -- Routes of Administration -- Induction of Immunity by DNA Vaccines -- 1. Direct Transfection of MHC Class II-Negative Somatic Cells -- 2. Direct Transfection of APCs Directly Mediate Cellular Responses -- Further Developments and Applications -- Vectors -- Prime-Boost Strategies -- Some Examples of DNA Vaccine Research -- Malaria -- DNA Vaccines Against Allergy -- Prophylactic Versus Therapeutic Applications -- Strategies Using DNA Therapies for Cancer and Transplantation -- Safety and DNA Vaccines -- Commercial Use of DNA Vaccines -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 8 Barriers to, and Prospective Solutions for, Colorectal Cancer Immunotherapy -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Immune Tolerance -- Vaccine Delivery Strategies -- Tumor-Mediated Suppressive Networks.

Colorectal Cancer-Associated Antigens -- Cancer Mucosa Antigens -- Regulatory and Intellectual Property Hurdles -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 9 Immunogenicity of B and T Epitopes Displayed on Bacteriophage Fd -- Abstract -- Introduction -- The Fd Phage -- Antigen Display on PVIII and PIII -- Generation of Phage-Based Immunogens -- Antibody Responses to Pathogen Epitopes Exposed on Bacteriophages -- Antibody Responses to Beta-Amyloid Epitopes Exposed on Bacteriophages -- Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) Responses to Peptides Exposed on Bacteriophages -- Future Perspectives and Applications -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 10 Allergenicity and Immunogenicity of Sugar Alcohol Sweeteners -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Sugar Alcohols -- Properties of Sugar Alcohols -- Immunogenicity of Saccharides/Carbohydrates -- Antigenicity of Small Molecules/Haptens -- Conjugation of Saccharides/Carbohydrates to Proteins -- Non-Enzymic Glycosylation of Proteins -- Antibodies to Mono-, Di- and Oligo-Saccharides -- Adverse Reactions to Sugars and Sugar Alcohols -- Allergenicity of Sugar Alcohols -- Mannitol Hypersensitivity -- Erythritol Hypersensitivity -- Xylitol Hypersensitivity -- Mechanism for the Allergenicity of Sugar Alcohols -- Immunogenicity of Sugar Alcohols -- Monosaccharitols -- Disaccharitols -- Applications of Sugar Alcohol-Specific Antibodies -- Conclusion -- References -- Index.

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