Bone Regeneration : Growth Factors, Augmentation Procedures and Tissue Engineering Applications.

By: Legard, VincentContributor(s): Schluter, RemiSeries: Human Anatomy and PhysiologyPublisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2010Copyright date: ©2010Description: 1 online resource (367 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781617618789Subject(s): Bone regeneration.;Tissue engineeringGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Bone Regeneration: Growth Factors, Augmentation Procedures and Tissue Engineering ApplicationsDDC classification: 612/.028 LOC classification: RC930 -- .B666 2010ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- BONE REGENERATION: GROWTH FACTORS, AUGMENTATION PROCEDURES AND TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS -- BONE REGENERATION: GROWTH FACTORS, AUGMENTATION PROCEDURES AND TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS -- Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data -- Contents -- Preface -- Chapter I Biodegradable Composites for Bone Regeneration -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Principles of Tissue Engineering -- Biocompatibility Testing of Medical Devices: "Tests for in vitro Cytotoxicity (EN ISO 10993-5)" -- Principles of Synthetic Bone Substitutes -- Polymers for Bone Tissue Engineering -- Silica-Based Materials and Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration -- The Use of Calcium Sulphate in Bone Regeneration -- Realization and Performance Analysis of PCL/ Silica Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration -- Mechanical Alloys (Chemical Physical and Mechanical Properties) -- Chemical Modification and Characterization of Nanocomposites -- Morphologic Analysis (SEM) -- Biological Evaluation -- Conclusion -- Experimental -- Materials -- Preparation of silica nanoparticles -- Preparation of nanocomposites -- (a) Mechanical alloys -- (a) Functionalised nanocomposites -- Differential thermal analysis (DSC) -- Mechanical tests -- Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) -- Elution test -- Preparation and characterization of bone marrow MSCs -- Direct contact test -- MTT test -- Alkaline phosphatase assay -- Osteocalcin synthesis -- Statistical analysis -- Novel Injectable Alginate/ N-Succinylchitosan/Calcium Sulphate Composites as Bone-Defect Fillers -- Biological Evaluation -- Conclusion -- Experimental -- Materials -- Preparation of N-succinylchitosan -- Mechanical tests -- Osteogenic markers (AP, OC) evaluation -- Extracellular matrix mineralization -- References -- Chapter II BMP Signaling and Bone Formation -- Abstract -- Introduction.
Bone Formation and Regeneration -- Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Their Receptors -- BMP Signaling -- Mutations in BMP Signaling -- Antagonist to BMP Signaling -- Clinical Use of BMPs -- BMPs in Bone Tumors -- BMPs and Cartilage -- BMPs and Tendons -- Human Disease Due to Disruptions in BMP Signaling -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter III Bone Regeneration: Growth Factors, Augmentation Procedures and Tissue Engineering Application -- The Role of Growth Factors for Bone Regeneration -- Bone Augmentation -- Autogenous Bone Grafts -- Bone Substitutes -- Tissue Engineering Applications and Bone Repair -- References -- Chapter IV Bone Tissue Engineering: Synthetic Materials and Stem Cells -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Autografts and Allografts -- Natural Materials -- Synthetic Materials -- Mesenchymal Stem Cells -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter V Platelet Rich Plasma: Highlights and Shadows from the Bench to the Bedside -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation -- Platelet Release Reaction -- Platelet Concentrates for in vitro and in vivo Application -- Anticoagulants -- Platelet Activators -- Leukocytes -- Devices for Preparing PRP -- Classification of PRP Protocols -- Osteogenic Differentiation and Platelet Growth Factors -- Osteoclast Generation and Platelet Growth Factors -- Endothelial Cells and Platelet Growth Factors -- PRP Effects on Experimental Animals -- The Clinical Use of Platelet Rich Plasma for Bone Repair -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter VI Bone Regeneration by Octacalcium Phosphate and Collagen Composites -- Abstract -- 1. Biomaterials for Regeneration of Bone Tissues -- 2. Octacalcium Phosphate -- 3. Osteogenic Properties of OCP -- 4. Bone Regeneration by Synthetic OCP -- 5. Synthetic OCP and Collagen Composites -- (1) Preparation of Synthetic OCP and Collagen Composites.
(2) Influences of Dehydrothermal Treatment of Collagen in OCP/Col -- (3) Bone Regeneration by Synthetic OCP and Collagen Composites -- 5. Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter VII Gelatin Based Microcarriers for Bone Tissue Engineering -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Materials and Methods -- 2.1. Osteogenic Cell Cultures -- 2.1.1. Culture of UMR-106 osteosarcoma cells and MC3T3-E1 cells -- 2.1.2. Isolation and culture of rat bone marrow derived cells -- 2.1.3. Isolation and culture of goat bone marrow derived cells -- 2.2. Preparation of Scaffolds -- 2.2.1. Synthesis of methacrylate-endcapped oligomer -- 2.2.2. Scaffold preparation -- 2.2.3. Cell seeding and differentiation on porous scaffolds -- Osteocalcin -- Histology -- Transmission electron microscopy -- 2.3. Microcarrier Seeding and Expansion -- 2.3.1. Microcarrier colonization -- 2.3.2. Cell viability -- 2.3.3. Cell differentiation -- 2.4. Encapsulation of Cell-Seeded Microcarriers onto The Polymer Scaffold -- 2.4.1. Encapsulation process -- 2.4.2. Toxicity of dental curing unit -- 2.4.3. Light and electron microscopy analysis -- 2.5. In Vivo Evaluation of Cell Seeded Microcarriers Encapsulated in Injectable Scaffolds -- 2.5.1. Surgical procedure -- 2.5.2. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis -- 3. Results -- 3.1. Migration and Differentiation on Preformed Scaffolds -- Conclusion -- 3.2. Expansion and Differentiation of Osteogenic Cells on Microcarriers -- Conclusion -- 3.3. Encapsulation of Cell Seeded Microcarriers into Injectable Photopolymerizable Scaffolds -- 3.3.1. Toxicity of dental curing unit -- 3.3.2. Encapsulation of microcarriers into the three-dimensional scaffold -- 3.3.3. Cell viability of encapsulated cells -- Histology -- Transmission electron microscopy -- Conclusion.
3.4. In vivo Evaluation of Cell Seeded Microcarriers Encapsulated in an Injectable Photopolymerizable Scaffold -- Conclusion -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Chapter VIII The Induction of Bone Formation from Non-Human to Human Primates: Bone Tissue Engineering from Laboratory to Patients -- Abstract -- Tissue Induction and Morphogenesis -- Bone Morphogenetic/Osteogenic Proteins -- Endochondral Bone Induction by the Mammalian Transforming Growth Factor- β Isoforms and Synergistic Induction of Bone Formation -- Perspective of Tissue Engineering of Bone in Clinical Contexts -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter IX Mechanisms of Bony Repair at the Injured Growth Plate Cartilage -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Growth Plate Injury Responses -- Bony Repair Mechanisms at the Injured Growth Plate -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter X Application of Carbon Nanotubes on Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration -- Abstract -- Introduction -- CNTs -- Bone Tissue Compatibility of MWCNTs -- Promotion of Bone Formation Using MWCNTs -- Effects of MWCNTs on HA Crystallization -- Effects of MWCNTs on Osteoclasts -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter XI Proteases as Therapeutic Targets in Bone Regeneration -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Bone Regeneration and Therapeutic Targets -- Bone Regeneration and Proteolytic Events -- Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) -- MMPs Expressed in Bone Regeneration -- Regulation of MMP Activity -- Development of MMP Inhibitors for the Treatments of Osteogenic Diseases -- Cathepsins -- Inhibitors of Cathepsins -- Shedding of Membrane-Bound RANKL by Proteolysis -- Proteolytic Processing of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) -- Site-1 Protease (S1P) -- Conclusion -- References.
Chapter XII Ex Vivo Gene Therapy in Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells for Tissue-engineered Craniomaxillofacial Bone Regeneration -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Results -- Recombinant Adenovirus Construction with Human BMP-2 Expression -- The Cranial Defects Repair Model -- The Maxilla Defect Repair Model -- Histology Examination -- Biomechanic Test -- Immunohistochemistry for Adenovirus Hexon Protein -- Discussion -- Materials and Methods -- Construction of Recombinant Adenovirus -- Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture and Adenoviral Infection -- Western Blot Detection of Adenovirus BMP-2 Expression in MSC in vitro -- Open Implantation on the Cranial Defects -- Open Implantation after Creating Maxillary Bone Defect -- 3D CT Model -- Histologic Examination of Bone Samples Harvested from the Maxilla Defects -- Immunohistochemistry for Adenovirus Hexon Protein -- Biomechanical Analysis -- Statistical Analysis -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Chapter Sources -- Index.
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Intro -- BONE REGENERATION: GROWTH FACTORS, AUGMENTATION PROCEDURES AND TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS -- BONE REGENERATION: GROWTH FACTORS, AUGMENTATION PROCEDURES AND TISSUE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS -- Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data -- Contents -- Preface -- Chapter I Biodegradable Composites for Bone Regeneration -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Principles of Tissue Engineering -- Biocompatibility Testing of Medical Devices: "Tests for in vitro Cytotoxicity (EN ISO 10993-5)" -- Principles of Synthetic Bone Substitutes -- Polymers for Bone Tissue Engineering -- Silica-Based Materials and Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration -- The Use of Calcium Sulphate in Bone Regeneration -- Realization and Performance Analysis of PCL/ Silica Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration -- Mechanical Alloys (Chemical Physical and Mechanical Properties) -- Chemical Modification and Characterization of Nanocomposites -- Morphologic Analysis (SEM) -- Biological Evaluation -- Conclusion -- Experimental -- Materials -- Preparation of silica nanoparticles -- Preparation of nanocomposites -- (a) Mechanical alloys -- (a) Functionalised nanocomposites -- Differential thermal analysis (DSC) -- Mechanical tests -- Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) -- Elution test -- Preparation and characterization of bone marrow MSCs -- Direct contact test -- MTT test -- Alkaline phosphatase assay -- Osteocalcin synthesis -- Statistical analysis -- Novel Injectable Alginate/ N-Succinylchitosan/Calcium Sulphate Composites as Bone-Defect Fillers -- Biological Evaluation -- Conclusion -- Experimental -- Materials -- Preparation of N-succinylchitosan -- Mechanical tests -- Osteogenic markers (AP, OC) evaluation -- Extracellular matrix mineralization -- References -- Chapter II BMP Signaling and Bone Formation -- Abstract -- Introduction.

Bone Formation and Regeneration -- Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Their Receptors -- BMP Signaling -- Mutations in BMP Signaling -- Antagonist to BMP Signaling -- Clinical Use of BMPs -- BMPs in Bone Tumors -- BMPs and Cartilage -- BMPs and Tendons -- Human Disease Due to Disruptions in BMP Signaling -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter III Bone Regeneration: Growth Factors, Augmentation Procedures and Tissue Engineering Application -- The Role of Growth Factors for Bone Regeneration -- Bone Augmentation -- Autogenous Bone Grafts -- Bone Substitutes -- Tissue Engineering Applications and Bone Repair -- References -- Chapter IV Bone Tissue Engineering: Synthetic Materials and Stem Cells -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Autografts and Allografts -- Natural Materials -- Synthetic Materials -- Mesenchymal Stem Cells -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter V Platelet Rich Plasma: Highlights and Shadows from the Bench to the Bedside -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation -- Platelet Release Reaction -- Platelet Concentrates for in vitro and in vivo Application -- Anticoagulants -- Platelet Activators -- Leukocytes -- Devices for Preparing PRP -- Classification of PRP Protocols -- Osteogenic Differentiation and Platelet Growth Factors -- Osteoclast Generation and Platelet Growth Factors -- Endothelial Cells and Platelet Growth Factors -- PRP Effects on Experimental Animals -- The Clinical Use of Platelet Rich Plasma for Bone Repair -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter VI Bone Regeneration by Octacalcium Phosphate and Collagen Composites -- Abstract -- 1. Biomaterials for Regeneration of Bone Tissues -- 2. Octacalcium Phosphate -- 3. Osteogenic Properties of OCP -- 4. Bone Regeneration by Synthetic OCP -- 5. Synthetic OCP and Collagen Composites -- (1) Preparation of Synthetic OCP and Collagen Composites.

(2) Influences of Dehydrothermal Treatment of Collagen in OCP/Col -- (3) Bone Regeneration by Synthetic OCP and Collagen Composites -- 5. Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter VII Gelatin Based Microcarriers for Bone Tissue Engineering -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Materials and Methods -- 2.1. Osteogenic Cell Cultures -- 2.1.1. Culture of UMR-106 osteosarcoma cells and MC3T3-E1 cells -- 2.1.2. Isolation and culture of rat bone marrow derived cells -- 2.1.3. Isolation and culture of goat bone marrow derived cells -- 2.2. Preparation of Scaffolds -- 2.2.1. Synthesis of methacrylate-endcapped oligomer -- 2.2.2. Scaffold preparation -- 2.2.3. Cell seeding and differentiation on porous scaffolds -- Osteocalcin -- Histology -- Transmission electron microscopy -- 2.3. Microcarrier Seeding and Expansion -- 2.3.1. Microcarrier colonization -- 2.3.2. Cell viability -- 2.3.3. Cell differentiation -- 2.4. Encapsulation of Cell-Seeded Microcarriers onto The Polymer Scaffold -- 2.4.1. Encapsulation process -- 2.4.2. Toxicity of dental curing unit -- 2.4.3. Light and electron microscopy analysis -- 2.5. In Vivo Evaluation of Cell Seeded Microcarriers Encapsulated in Injectable Scaffolds -- 2.5.1. Surgical procedure -- 2.5.2. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis -- 3. Results -- 3.1. Migration and Differentiation on Preformed Scaffolds -- Conclusion -- 3.2. Expansion and Differentiation of Osteogenic Cells on Microcarriers -- Conclusion -- 3.3. Encapsulation of Cell Seeded Microcarriers into Injectable Photopolymerizable Scaffolds -- 3.3.1. Toxicity of dental curing unit -- 3.3.2. Encapsulation of microcarriers into the three-dimensional scaffold -- 3.3.3. Cell viability of encapsulated cells -- Histology -- Transmission electron microscopy -- Conclusion.

3.4. In vivo Evaluation of Cell Seeded Microcarriers Encapsulated in an Injectable Photopolymerizable Scaffold -- Conclusion -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Chapter VIII The Induction of Bone Formation from Non-Human to Human Primates: Bone Tissue Engineering from Laboratory to Patients -- Abstract -- Tissue Induction and Morphogenesis -- Bone Morphogenetic/Osteogenic Proteins -- Endochondral Bone Induction by the Mammalian Transforming Growth Factor- β Isoforms and Synergistic Induction of Bone Formation -- Perspective of Tissue Engineering of Bone in Clinical Contexts -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter IX Mechanisms of Bony Repair at the Injured Growth Plate Cartilage -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Growth Plate Injury Responses -- Bony Repair Mechanisms at the Injured Growth Plate -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter X Application of Carbon Nanotubes on Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration -- Abstract -- Introduction -- CNTs -- Bone Tissue Compatibility of MWCNTs -- Promotion of Bone Formation Using MWCNTs -- Effects of MWCNTs on HA Crystallization -- Effects of MWCNTs on Osteoclasts -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter XI Proteases as Therapeutic Targets in Bone Regeneration -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Bone Regeneration and Therapeutic Targets -- Bone Regeneration and Proteolytic Events -- Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) -- MMPs Expressed in Bone Regeneration -- Regulation of MMP Activity -- Development of MMP Inhibitors for the Treatments of Osteogenic Diseases -- Cathepsins -- Inhibitors of Cathepsins -- Shedding of Membrane-Bound RANKL by Proteolysis -- Proteolytic Processing of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) -- Site-1 Protease (S1P) -- Conclusion -- References.

Chapter XII Ex Vivo Gene Therapy in Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells for Tissue-engineered Craniomaxillofacial Bone Regeneration -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Results -- Recombinant Adenovirus Construction with Human BMP-2 Expression -- The Cranial Defects Repair Model -- The Maxilla Defect Repair Model -- Histology Examination -- Biomechanic Test -- Immunohistochemistry for Adenovirus Hexon Protein -- Discussion -- Materials and Methods -- Construction of Recombinant Adenovirus -- Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture and Adenoviral Infection -- Western Blot Detection of Adenovirus BMP-2 Expression in MSC in vitro -- Open Implantation on the Cranial Defects -- Open Implantation after Creating Maxillary Bone Defect -- 3D CT Model -- Histologic Examination of Bone Samples Harvested from the Maxilla Defects -- Immunohistochemistry for Adenovirus Hexon Protein -- Biomechanical Analysis -- Statistical Analysis -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Chapter Sources -- Index.

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