Medicinal Plants : Classification, Biosynthesis and Pharmacology.

By: Varela, AlejandroContributor(s): Ibañez, JasiahSeries: Biotechnology in Agriculture, Industry and MedicinePublisher: Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2009Copyright date: ©2009Description: 1 online resource (385 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781617616624Subject(s): Materia medica, VegetableGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Medicinal Plants : Classification, Biosynthesis and PharmacologyLOC classification: RS164.M354 2009Online resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- MEDICINAL PLANTS: CLASSIFICATION, BIOSYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGY -- MEDICINAL PLANTS: CLASSIFICATION, BIOSYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGY -- Contents -- Preface -- Biological Effects of β-Carotene -- Abstract -- Introduction -- β-Carotene and Cardiovascular Disease -- β-Carotene and Immune Response -- β-Carotene as Anti-Inflammatory -- β-Carotene as Antioxidant -- β-Carotene and Skin Photodamage -- β-Carotene and Diabetes -- β-Carotene and Maculopathy -- β-Carotene and Pregnancy -- β-Carotene and Cancer -- Cancer Prostate -- Colon Cancer -- Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia -- Lung Cancer -- Gastrointestinal Cancer -- Mechanisms of β-Carotene in Cancer -- Clinical Studies on Cancer -- Discussion -- References -- Native Medicinal Plants used in the Ethnomedicine of the Córdoba Hills in Central Argentina: Relevance and Interest for Primary Health Care and Conservation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Objectives -- Traditional Medicine in Peasant Populations of Argentina -- Ecology, Plant Resources and Highland Culture -- Methodological Aspects -- Results and Discussion -- I. Health and Medicine of the Highland Peasants -- 1. How Peasants Name, Diagnose and Explain the Causes of Different Ailments -- A- Organic imbalances (originated by natural causes) -- Originated by temperature imbalances -- Originated by food imbalances -- Originated by blows or strains -- Originated by alterations in the properties of blood and body humours -- Originated by agents affecting the skin -- Other imbalances and ailments -- B. Imbalances generated by conflictive social relationships -- 2. How Peasants Prevent and Cure Different Afflictions -- A.The use of remedies -- B. Symbolic and ritualistic aspects of peasant cures -- II. Peasant Medicinal Plants -- Characterization of Plant Pharmacopoeia -- Legislation and Control.
III. Extraction, Use, Comercialization and Conservation of Medicinal Plants -- Conclusion -- References -- Gastroprotective Triterpenoids: Pharmacological Mechanism -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Peptic Ulcer -- 2.1. Definition -- 2.2. Gastric Anatomy -- 2.3. Pathology -- 3. Gastroprotection -- 3.1. Functional Factors -- 3.1.1. Mucus-bicarbonate-phospholipid barrier -- 3.1.2. Mucosal microcirculation -- 3.1.3. Motility -- 3.2. Humoral Factors -- 3.2.1. Prostaglandins (PGs) -- 3.2.2. Nitric oxide (NO) -- 3.2.3. Lipoxins -- 3.2.4. Resolvins -- 3.2.5. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) -- 3.3. Neuronal Factors -- 3.4. Other Gastroprotective Mechanism. -- 3.4.1. Cytokines -- 3.4.2. Annexin-1 -- 3.4.3. Proteinase-activated receptors (PAR) -- 3.3.4. LTB4 and leukocyte adherence -- 3.3.5. TNF-α -- 4. Experimental Models to Study Gastroprotection -- 4.1. Ethanol Induce Gastric Damage -- 4.2. NSAIDs-Induced Gastric Damage -- 5. Gastroprotective Triterpenoids -- 5.1. Triterpenoid Classification -- 5.2. Kind of Triterpenoids with Antiulcer Activity -- 5.3. Gastroprotective Mechanisms Described for Triterpenoids -- 6. Summary and Conclusions -- 7. Acknowledgements -- References -- Biosyntheses and Bioactivities of Flavonoids in the Medicinal Plant Scutellaria Baicalensis -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Chemical Structures -- 3. Natural Resources -- 4. Biosyntheses -- 5. Analytical Methods -- 6. Biological Activities -- 6.1. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Effects -- 6.2. Anti-Inflammation Effect -- 6.3. Anticancer Effects -- 6.4. Antibacterial Effects -- 6.5. Antivirus Effects -- 6.6. Other Bioactivities -- 7. Conclusion -- References -- Management of Diabetes with Diet and Plant-Derived Drugs -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Current Therapies for Diabetes -- Management of Diabetes with Traditional Medicinal Plants and Dietary Control.
Pytochemicals with Anti-Diabetic Activities -- Conclusion -- References -- Biomolecules with Anti-Mycobacterial Activity -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Anti-TB Compounds Derived from Plants -- Conclusion -- References -- Metal Concentrations in Taiwanese Health Food, Angelica Keiskei, Other Products and Maximum Daily Intake -- 1. Abstract -- 2. Introduction -- 3. Experimental -- 3.1. Preparation of Activated Samples -- 3.2. Irradiation Filters and Irradiation Schemes -- 3.3. Counting and Analysis -- 4. Results and Discussion -- 4.1. Elemental Concentrations in Taiwanese AK -- 4.2. Root -- 4.3. Fresh Leaves and Stems -- 4.4. Capsules -- 4.5. Tea Bags -- 4.6. Maximum Daily Intake of AK -- 5. Conclusions -- 6. Acknowledgments -- References -- Pharmacologic Study of Some Plant Species from the Brazilian Northeast: Calotropis Procera, Agava Sisalana, Solanum Paludosum, Dioscorea Cayenensis and Crotalaria Retusa -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Calotropis Procera -- 2.1. Pro-inflammatory, Anti-inflammatory and Allergenic Properties -- 2.2. Antinociceptive Properties -- 2.3. Antitumoral Properties -- 2.4. Hepatoprotector Properties -- 2.5. Anti-diarrhea Properties -- 2.6. Larvicide Property -- 2.7. Other Important Properties of C. Procera -- 3. Agave Sisalana -- 4. Solanum Paludosum -- 5. Dioscorea Cayenensis -- 6. Crotalaria Genus -- 6.1. Pirrolizidinic Alkaloid (PA) -- 6.2. Chemical Structure of PA -- 6.3. Toxicity: Experimental Data -- 6.4. Possible action Mechanism -- 7. Final Considerations -- References -- Ethnobotany and Experimental Pharmacology of Echinodorus Grandiflorus (chapéu de couro) -- Abstract -- General Considerations -- Geographical Distribution -- Macroscopic Description -- Microscopic Description -- Chemical Constituents -- Ethnopharmacology -- Experimental Pharmacology -- Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities -- Diuretic Activity.
Hypotensive and Anti-hypertensive Activities -- Vasodilating Activity -- Antimicrobial Activity -- In Vitro Trypanocidal Activity -- Leishmanicide Activity -- Hypocolesterolemic Activity -- n Vitro Antineoplastic Activity -- Toxicity -- Conclusion -- References -- Non-Invasive Near Infrared Spectroscopic Techniques for the Characterization of Medicinal Plants and their Constituents -- Abstract -- Introduction -- 2. Near Infrared Spectroscopy -- 3. Chemometrics -- 4. Characterization of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents -- 4.1. Flos Primulae Veris -- 4.2. St. John´s Wort -- 4.3. Achillea Genus -- Conclusions -- Abbreviation List -- References -- What is the Future of Phytotherapy? (Commentary) -- References -- Quality Control of Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants and Fungi -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Isolation and Fraction of Polysaccharides -- 3. Qualitative Analysis of Polysaccharides -- 3.1. Purity -- 3.2. Molecular Weight and the Distribution -- 3.3. The Types and Ratios of Constituent Monosaccharides -- 3.4. The Features of Glycosidic Linkages -- 3.5. Fingerprint -- 4. Quantitative Analysis of Polysaccharides -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Medicinal Plants: A Tool to Overcome Antibiotic Resistance? -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Extraction and Biological Tests of Medicinal Plants -- 2.1. Extraction -- 2.2. Agar Diffusion Methods -- 2.3. Liquid-and Agar-Dilution Methods -- 2.4. Synergy between Plant Extracts and Antibiotics -- 2.5. Bioautography on Thin-Layer Chromatoplates -- 2.6. Antiparasitic Test -- 2.7. General Toxicity Tests -- 3. Plant Compounds with Direct Antimicrobial Activity -- 3.1. Mechanisms of Direct Antimicrobial Action -- 3.1.1. Association with Macromolecules -- 3.1.2. Detergent-Like Membrane Disruption -- 3.1.3. Other Mechanisms -- 3.2. Phytochemical Classes of Antimicrobial Compounds.
3.2.1. Antibiotic Compounds from Microorganisms -- 3.2.2. Phenolic Compounds -- 3.2.2. Terpenoids -- 3.2.3. Alkaloids -- 3.2.4. Defensins -- 4. Effects of Plant Compounds on Antibiotic Resistance -- 4.1. Efflux Pumps Inhibitors -- 4.1.1. Efflux Systems -- 4.1.2. Efflux Pumps Inhibitors (EPIs) -- 4.1.2.1. Alkaloids -- 4.1.2.2. Flavonoids -- 4.1.2.3. Alkyl Gallates -- 4.1.2.4. Terpenoids -- 4.2. Β-Lactamases Inhibitors -- 4.3. Inhibitors of PBP 2a -- 4.4. Other Inhibitors of Antibiotic Resistance -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Index.
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Intro -- MEDICINAL PLANTS: CLASSIFICATION, BIOSYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGY -- MEDICINAL PLANTS: CLASSIFICATION, BIOSYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGY -- Contents -- Preface -- Biological Effects of β-Carotene -- Abstract -- Introduction -- β-Carotene and Cardiovascular Disease -- β-Carotene and Immune Response -- β-Carotene as Anti-Inflammatory -- β-Carotene as Antioxidant -- β-Carotene and Skin Photodamage -- β-Carotene and Diabetes -- β-Carotene and Maculopathy -- β-Carotene and Pregnancy -- β-Carotene and Cancer -- Cancer Prostate -- Colon Cancer -- Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia -- Lung Cancer -- Gastrointestinal Cancer -- Mechanisms of β-Carotene in Cancer -- Clinical Studies on Cancer -- Discussion -- References -- Native Medicinal Plants used in the Ethnomedicine of the Córdoba Hills in Central Argentina: Relevance and Interest for Primary Health Care and Conservation -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Objectives -- Traditional Medicine in Peasant Populations of Argentina -- Ecology, Plant Resources and Highland Culture -- Methodological Aspects -- Results and Discussion -- I. Health and Medicine of the Highland Peasants -- 1. How Peasants Name, Diagnose and Explain the Causes of Different Ailments -- A- Organic imbalances (originated by natural causes) -- Originated by temperature imbalances -- Originated by food imbalances -- Originated by blows or strains -- Originated by alterations in the properties of blood and body humours -- Originated by agents affecting the skin -- Other imbalances and ailments -- B. Imbalances generated by conflictive social relationships -- 2. How Peasants Prevent and Cure Different Afflictions -- A.The use of remedies -- B. Symbolic and ritualistic aspects of peasant cures -- II. Peasant Medicinal Plants -- Characterization of Plant Pharmacopoeia -- Legislation and Control.

III. Extraction, Use, Comercialization and Conservation of Medicinal Plants -- Conclusion -- References -- Gastroprotective Triterpenoids: Pharmacological Mechanism -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Peptic Ulcer -- 2.1. Definition -- 2.2. Gastric Anatomy -- 2.3. Pathology -- 3. Gastroprotection -- 3.1. Functional Factors -- 3.1.1. Mucus-bicarbonate-phospholipid barrier -- 3.1.2. Mucosal microcirculation -- 3.1.3. Motility -- 3.2. Humoral Factors -- 3.2.1. Prostaglandins (PGs) -- 3.2.2. Nitric oxide (NO) -- 3.2.3. Lipoxins -- 3.2.4. Resolvins -- 3.2.5. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) -- 3.3. Neuronal Factors -- 3.4. Other Gastroprotective Mechanism. -- 3.4.1. Cytokines -- 3.4.2. Annexin-1 -- 3.4.3. Proteinase-activated receptors (PAR) -- 3.3.4. LTB4 and leukocyte adherence -- 3.3.5. TNF-α -- 4. Experimental Models to Study Gastroprotection -- 4.1. Ethanol Induce Gastric Damage -- 4.2. NSAIDs-Induced Gastric Damage -- 5. Gastroprotective Triterpenoids -- 5.1. Triterpenoid Classification -- 5.2. Kind of Triterpenoids with Antiulcer Activity -- 5.3. Gastroprotective Mechanisms Described for Triterpenoids -- 6. Summary and Conclusions -- 7. Acknowledgements -- References -- Biosyntheses and Bioactivities of Flavonoids in the Medicinal Plant Scutellaria Baicalensis -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Chemical Structures -- 3. Natural Resources -- 4. Biosyntheses -- 5. Analytical Methods -- 6. Biological Activities -- 6.1. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Effects -- 6.2. Anti-Inflammation Effect -- 6.3. Anticancer Effects -- 6.4. Antibacterial Effects -- 6.5. Antivirus Effects -- 6.6. Other Bioactivities -- 7. Conclusion -- References -- Management of Diabetes with Diet and Plant-Derived Drugs -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Current Therapies for Diabetes -- Management of Diabetes with Traditional Medicinal Plants and Dietary Control.

Pytochemicals with Anti-Diabetic Activities -- Conclusion -- References -- Biomolecules with Anti-Mycobacterial Activity -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Anti-TB Compounds Derived from Plants -- Conclusion -- References -- Metal Concentrations in Taiwanese Health Food, Angelica Keiskei, Other Products and Maximum Daily Intake -- 1. Abstract -- 2. Introduction -- 3. Experimental -- 3.1. Preparation of Activated Samples -- 3.2. Irradiation Filters and Irradiation Schemes -- 3.3. Counting and Analysis -- 4. Results and Discussion -- 4.1. Elemental Concentrations in Taiwanese AK -- 4.2. Root -- 4.3. Fresh Leaves and Stems -- 4.4. Capsules -- 4.5. Tea Bags -- 4.6. Maximum Daily Intake of AK -- 5. Conclusions -- 6. Acknowledgments -- References -- Pharmacologic Study of Some Plant Species from the Brazilian Northeast: Calotropis Procera, Agava Sisalana, Solanum Paludosum, Dioscorea Cayenensis and Crotalaria Retusa -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Calotropis Procera -- 2.1. Pro-inflammatory, Anti-inflammatory and Allergenic Properties -- 2.2. Antinociceptive Properties -- 2.3. Antitumoral Properties -- 2.4. Hepatoprotector Properties -- 2.5. Anti-diarrhea Properties -- 2.6. Larvicide Property -- 2.7. Other Important Properties of C. Procera -- 3. Agave Sisalana -- 4. Solanum Paludosum -- 5. Dioscorea Cayenensis -- 6. Crotalaria Genus -- 6.1. Pirrolizidinic Alkaloid (PA) -- 6.2. Chemical Structure of PA -- 6.3. Toxicity: Experimental Data -- 6.4. Possible action Mechanism -- 7. Final Considerations -- References -- Ethnobotany and Experimental Pharmacology of Echinodorus Grandiflorus (chapéu de couro) -- Abstract -- General Considerations -- Geographical Distribution -- Macroscopic Description -- Microscopic Description -- Chemical Constituents -- Ethnopharmacology -- Experimental Pharmacology -- Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities -- Diuretic Activity.

Hypotensive and Anti-hypertensive Activities -- Vasodilating Activity -- Antimicrobial Activity -- In Vitro Trypanocidal Activity -- Leishmanicide Activity -- Hypocolesterolemic Activity -- n Vitro Antineoplastic Activity -- Toxicity -- Conclusion -- References -- Non-Invasive Near Infrared Spectroscopic Techniques for the Characterization of Medicinal Plants and their Constituents -- Abstract -- Introduction -- 2. Near Infrared Spectroscopy -- 3. Chemometrics -- 4. Characterization of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents -- 4.1. Flos Primulae Veris -- 4.2. St. John´s Wort -- 4.3. Achillea Genus -- Conclusions -- Abbreviation List -- References -- What is the Future of Phytotherapy? (Commentary) -- References -- Quality Control of Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants and Fungi -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Isolation and Fraction of Polysaccharides -- 3. Qualitative Analysis of Polysaccharides -- 3.1. Purity -- 3.2. Molecular Weight and the Distribution -- 3.3. The Types and Ratios of Constituent Monosaccharides -- 3.4. The Features of Glycosidic Linkages -- 3.5. Fingerprint -- 4. Quantitative Analysis of Polysaccharides -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Medicinal Plants: A Tool to Overcome Antibiotic Resistance? -- Abstract -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Extraction and Biological Tests of Medicinal Plants -- 2.1. Extraction -- 2.2. Agar Diffusion Methods -- 2.3. Liquid-and Agar-Dilution Methods -- 2.4. Synergy between Plant Extracts and Antibiotics -- 2.5. Bioautography on Thin-Layer Chromatoplates -- 2.6. Antiparasitic Test -- 2.7. General Toxicity Tests -- 3. Plant Compounds with Direct Antimicrobial Activity -- 3.1. Mechanisms of Direct Antimicrobial Action -- 3.1.1. Association with Macromolecules -- 3.1.2. Detergent-Like Membrane Disruption -- 3.1.3. Other Mechanisms -- 3.2. Phytochemical Classes of Antimicrobial Compounds.

3.2.1. Antibiotic Compounds from Microorganisms -- 3.2.2. Phenolic Compounds -- 3.2.2. Terpenoids -- 3.2.3. Alkaloids -- 3.2.4. Defensins -- 4. Effects of Plant Compounds on Antibiotic Resistance -- 4.1. Efflux Pumps Inhibitors -- 4.1.1. Efflux Systems -- 4.1.2. Efflux Pumps Inhibitors (EPIs) -- 4.1.2.1. Alkaloids -- 4.1.2.2. Flavonoids -- 4.1.2.3. Alkyl Gallates -- 4.1.2.4. Terpenoids -- 4.2. Β-Lactamases Inhibitors -- 4.3. Inhibitors of PBP 2a -- 4.4. Other Inhibitors of Antibiotic Resistance -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Index.

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