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Intro -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- ANCIENT EGYPT -- THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT -- THE ROOTS AND ORIGIN OF ALL THINGS: THE PRODUCTIVE ECONOMY IN EGYPT (Neolithic Age, ca. 5500-4500 BC) -- THE CHALCOLITHIC AGE OR BUILDING INEQUALITY: THE BADARI CULTURE (4500-3800 BC) -- EMBRYONIC SIGNS OF THE STATE: NAQADA I, II AND III (4000 BC) -- Economy -- The embryos of cities -- Social differentiation: the elite and the others -- Egyptian society of the pre-state period in burial rituals -- LOWER EGYPT: BETWEEN THE PHARAOH AND THE RED SEA -- Economy -- Settlements -- Burials -- Beyond everyday borders: contact with Asia -- CONFRONTING THE ENEMY: NUBIA -- THE BURIAL OF THE FAMOUS AND POWERFUL IN THE NORTHERN PART OF UPPER EGYPT: ABYDOS -- BURIAL GROUNDS OF THE SOUTHERN KINGDOM OF UPPER EGYPT: AN ELITE BURIAL SITE IN HIERACONPOLIS -- "SIMPLE" EGYPTIANS -- THE DAWN OF THE EGYPTIAN WRITING SYSTEM -- THE BIRTH OF THE EGYPTIAN STATE -- STABILIZATION OF THE EARLY EGYPTIAN STATE -- ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA -- CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EARLY EGYPTIAN STATE -- THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT -- THE DAWN OF A MORE ADVANCED SOCIAL STRUCTURE (the Halaf culture, 6000-5000 BC) -- EARLY HISTORIOGRAPHY: SUSA at the Close of the 5th Millenium BC -- Mausoleum of Susa -- Painted pottery of Susa: the people and their communities -- Painted pottery of Susa: the people and their work -- Painted pottery of Susa: deities -- Painted pottery of Susa: Why? -- SUSA AT THE DAWN OF THE URUK PERIOD: FIRST REPORTS FROM THE CREATION OF THE STATE (early 4th millenium BC) -- The sacral face of the age: activating fertility powers -- The secular face of the age: building, protection, tradition -- SUMER, THE SOUTHERN PART OF MESOPOTAMIA: WHILE THIS WAS HAPPENING -- Activating the potential of fertility powers -- Writing! Writing? -- The enchantment of cylinder seals -- "You will not be like gods".
BEHOLD, CIVILIZATION: THE GREATER COMMUNITY OF THE LATE PERIOD OF URUK CULTURE (3500-3200 BC) - EN, NIN, NAMESHDA -- Economy: redistribution prevails -- Spiritual and political leaders: EN, NIN, NAMESHDA -- Innovations at the dawn of the 3rd millenium BC: LUGAL, NIN, NAMESHDA -- The wise Owl of Minerva flies at dusk: the crisis of the 27th century BC and what came of it - LUGAL, ENSI2, EN -- "THE END OF THE BEGINNING": THE SUMERIAN STATE AT THE CLOSE OF THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD (ca. 2500-2334 BC) -- The king and his court -- The powerful and revered -- Careful and resourceful -- "He who shackles slaves…" -- CONCLUSION -- ANCIENT INDIA -- THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT -- PREHISTORIC BEGINNINGS -- THE PREPARATORY PERIOD -- THE PROTO-INDIAN CULTURE (2500-1900 BC) -- Economy -- City life -- Mohenjo-daro -- Harappa -- Towns and cities -- Rural life -- A state organism? -- The spiritual culture -- THE DEMISE OF PROTO-INDIAN CULTURE -- ANCIENT CHINA -- THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT -- PREHISTORIC BEGINNINGS: "MEsOLITHIC-NEOLITHIC" - HUNTERS, GATHERERS AND FARMERS -- The Neolithic Period in southern China -- THE CHALCOLITHIC PERIOD (WE ARE NO LONGER ALL EQUAL) -- China's Northern Regions during the Chalcolithic Period -- THE BEGINNINGS OF THE STATE -- The Traditional Interpretation of Chinese History -- The Erlitou Culture -- In the cities and peripheral areas of the first state -- Zhengzhou -- Anyang -- Western Zhou -- THE ECONOMY OF THE FIRST CHINESE STATE -- SOCIETY -- Characteristics of the Oldest Chinese State -- A state arises from kinship -- What followed? -- What the elite took with them on their journey to the next world -- The spiritual world -- HOW THEN IS A STATE BORN? -- FIRST, A BRIEF REVIEW -- SUBSISTENCE -- Agriculture -- Craft -- Trading -- Settlements -- Burials -- SOCIETY.
Organizational centers of the Chalcolithic societies and their facilities -- Courtiers of the first rulers: clever, resolute and foresighted -- Courtiers of the first rulers: Those who speak with the gods -- Egypt -- Sumer and Akkad -- What was the deification of the Mesopotamian rulers like? -- India and China -- Three social estates and the birth of the state -- METAPHYSICS -- The human world, space, time and their nature -- The non-human world -- Is the world around us composed of the elements? -- Powers of the overworld -- Art -- CONCLUSION -- APPENDIX: THE STATE IN TROUBLE -- Egypt -- Mesopotamia -- India -- China -- BIBLIOGRAPHY -- Index.
In the book titled Birth of the State, readers learn what researchers nowadays think about the rise and stabilization of the oldest statehood in the original civilization centres of the Old World - Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. The scholar takes them through essential economic, political and spiritual changes caused in those societies by the rise and stabilization of the first states. The overviews are completed with a comprehensive view of the entire theme, attempting to provide a balanced view of the rise of the oldest states not only as a question of economy, politics or power, but also as exceeding the basic threshold in the spiritual sphere. The book allows the very founders and cultivators of the oldest state units to speak: in the moments when their work seemed to be on the verge of total collapse, they spoke to their contemporaries urging them to defend the ideals that formed the basis of their civilizations. The book is intended for university students as well as others interested in the rise and development of the oldest states of the humankind.
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.