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Modeling and Optimization of LCD Optical Performance.

By: Contributor(s): Series: Wiley Series in Display Technology SerPublisher: New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015Copyright date: ©2012Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (581 pages)Content type:
  • text
Media type:
  • computer
Carrier type:
  • online resource
ISBN:
  • 9781118706732
Subject(s): Genre/Form: Additional physical formats: Print version:: Modeling and Optimization of LCD Optical PerformanceDDC classification:
  • 621.3815
LOC classification:
  • TK7872.L56 -- .Y35 2015eb
Online resources:
Contents:
Intro -- Modeling and Optimization of LCD Optical Performance -- Contents -- Series Editor's Foreword -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- List of Abbreviations -- About the Companion Website -- 1 Polarization of Monochromatic Waves. Background of the Jones Matrix Methods. The Jones Calculus -- 1.1 Homogeneous Waves in Isotropic Media -- 1.1.1 Plane Waves -- 1.1.2 Polarization. Jones Vectors -- 1.1.3 Coordinate Transformation Rules for Jones Vectors. Orthogonal Polarizations. Decomposition of a Wave into Two Orthogonally Polarized Waves -- 1.2 Interface Optics for Isotropic Media -- 1.2.1 Fresnels Formulas. Snells Law -- 1.2.2 Reflection and Transmission Jones Matrices for a Plane Interface between Isotropic Media -- 1.3 Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Media -- 1.3.1 Wave Equations -- 1.3.2 Waves in a Uniaxial Layer -- 1.3.3 A Simple Birefringent Layer and Its Principal Axes -- 1.3.4 Transmission Jones Matrices of a Simple Birefringent Layer at Normal Incidence -- 1.3.5 Linear Retarders -- 1.3.6 Jones Matrices of Absorptive Polarizers. Ideal Polarizer -- 1.4 Jones Calculus -- 1.4.1 Basic Principles of the Jones Calculus -- 1.4.2 Three Useful Theorems for Transmissive Systems -- 1.4.3 Reciprocity Relations. Joness Reversibility Theorem -- 1.4.4 Theorem of Polarization Reversibility for Systems Without Diattenuation -- 1.4.5 Particular Variants of Application of the Jones Calculus. Cartesian Jones Vectors for Wave Fields in Anisotropic Media -- References -- 2 The Jones Calculus: Solutions for Ideal Twisted Structures and Their Applications in LCD Optics -- 2.1 Jones Matrix and Eigenmodes of a Liquid Crystal Layer with an Ideal Twisted Structure -- 2.2 LCD Optics and the Gooch-Tarry Formulas -- 2.3 Interactive Simulation -- 2.4 Parameter Space -- References -- 3 Optical Equivalence Theorem -- 3.1 General Optical Equivalence Theorem.
3.2 Optical Equivalence for the Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell -- 3.3 Polarization Conserving Modes -- 3.3.1 LP1 Modes -- 3.3.2 LP2 Modes -- 3.3.3 LP3 Modes -- 3.3.4 CP Modes -- 3.4 Application to Nematic Bistable LCDs -- 3.4.1 2 Bistable TN Displays -- 3.4.2 Bistable TN Displays -- 3.5 Application to Reflective Displays -- 3.6 Measurement of Characteristic Parameters of an LC Cell -- 3.6.1 Characteristic Angle Ω -- 3.6.2 Characteristic Phase Γ -- References -- 4 Electro-optical Modes: Practical Examples of LCD Modeling and Optimization -- 4.1 Optimization of LCD Performance in Various Electro-optical Modes -- 4.1.1 Electrically Controlled Birefringence -- 4.1.2 Twist Effect -- 4.1.3 Supertwist Effect -- 4.1.4 Optimization of Optical Performance of Reflective LCDs -- 4.2 Transflective LCDs -- 4.2.1 Dual-Mode Single-Cell-Gap Approach -- 4.2.2 Single-Mode Single-Cell-Gap Approach -- 4.3 Total Internal Reflection Mode -- 4.4 Ferroelectric LCDs -- 4.4.1 Basic Physical Properties -- 4.4.2 Electro-optical Effects in FLC Cells -- 4.5 Birefringent Color Generation in Dichromatic Reflective FLCDs -- References -- 5 Necessary Mathematics. Radiometric Terms. Conventions. Various Stokes and Jones Vectors -- 5.1 Some Definitions and Relations from Matrix Algebra -- 5.1.1 General Definitions -- 5.1.2 Some Important Properties of Matrix Products -- 5.1.3 Unitary Matrices. Unimodular Unitary 2 × 2 Matrices. STU Matrices -- 5.1.4 Norms of Vectors and Matrices -- 5.1.5 Kronecker Product of Matrices -- 5.1.6 Approximations -- 5.2 Some Radiometric Quantities. Conventions -- 5.3 Stokes Vectors of Plane Waves and Collimated Beams Propagating in Isotropic Nonabsorbing Media -- 5.4 Jones Vectors -- 5.4.1 Fitted-to-Electric-Field Jones Vectors and Fitted-to-Transverse-Component-of-Electric-Field Jones Vectors -- 5.4.2 Fitted-to-Irradiance Jones Vectors.
5.4.3 Conventional Jones Vectors -- References -- 6 Simple Models and Representations for Solving Optimization and Inverse Optical Problems. Real Optics of LC Cells and Useful Approximations -- 6.1 Polarization Transfer Factor of an Optical System -- 6.2 Optics of LC Cells in Terms of Polarization Transport Coefficients -- 6.2.1 Polarization-Dependent Losses and Depolarization. Unpolarized Transmittance -- 6.2.2 Rotations -- 6.2.3 Symmetry of the Sample -- 6.3 Retroreflection Geometry -- 6.4 Applications of Polarization Transport Coefficients in Optimization of LC Devices -- 6.5 Evaluation of Ultimate Characteristics of an LCD that can be Attained by Fitting the Compensation System. Modulation Efficiency of LC Layers -- References -- 7 Some Physical Models and Mathematical Algorithms Used in Modeling the Optical Performance of LCDs -- 7.1 Physical Models of the Light-Layered System Interaction Used in Modeling the Optical Behavior of LC Devices. Plane-Wave Approximations. Transfer Channel Approach -- 7.2 Transfer Matrix Technique and Adding Technique -- 7.2.1 Transfer Matrix Technique -- 7.2.2 Adding Technique -- 7.3 Optical Models of Some Elements of LCDs -- References -- 8 Modeling Methods Based on the Rigorous Theory of the Interaction of a Plane Monochromatic Wave with an Ideal Stratified Medium. Eigenwave (EW) Methods. EW Jones Matrix Method -- 8.1 General Properties of the Electromagnetic Field Induced by a Plane Monochromatic Wave in a Linear Stratified Medium -- 8.1.1 Maxwells Equations and Constitutive Relations -- 8.1.2 Plane Waves -- 8.1.3 Field Geometry -- 8.2 Transmission and Reflection Operators of Fragments (TR Units) of a Stratified Medium and Their Calculation -- 8.2.1 EW Jones Vector. EW Jones Matrices. Transmission and Reflection Operators.
8.2.2 Calculation of Overall Transmission and Overall Reflection Operators for Layered Systems by Using Transfer Matrices -- 8.3 Berremans Method -- 8.3.1 Transfer Matrices -- 8.3.2 Transfer Matrix of a Homogeneous Layer -- 8.3.3 Transfer Matrix of a Smoothly Inhomogeneous Layer. Staircase Approximation -- 8.3.4 Coordinate Systems -- 8.4 Simplifications, Useful Relations, and Advanced Techniques -- 8.4.1 Orthogonality Relations and Other Useful Relations for Eigenwave Bases -- 8.4.2 Simple General Formulas for Transmission Operators of Interfaces -- 8.4.3 Calculation of Transmission and Reflection Operators of Layered Systems by Using the Adding Technique -- 8.5 Transmissivities and Reflectivities -- 8.6 Mathematical Properties of Transfer Matrices and Transmission and Reflection EW Jones Matrices of Lossless Media and Reciprocal Media -- 8.6.1 Properties of Matrix Operators for Nonabsorbing Regions -- 8.6.2 Properties of Matrix Operators for Reciprocal Regions -- 8.7 Calculation of EW 4 × 4 Transfer Matrices for LC Layers -- 8.8 Transformation of the Elements of EW Jones Vectors and EW Jones Matrices Under Changes of Eigenwave Bases -- 8.8.1 Coordinates of the EW Jones Vector of a Wave Field in Different Eigenwave Bases -- 8.8.2 EW Jones Operators in Different Eigenwave Bases -- References -- 9 Choice of Eigenwave Bases for Isotropic, Uniaxial, and Biaxial Media -- 9.1 General Aspects of EWB Specification. EWB-generating routines -- 9.2 Isotropic Media -- 9.3 Uniaxial Media -- 9.4 Biaxial Media -- References -- 10 Efficient Methods for Calculating Optical Characteristics of Layered Systems for Quasimonochromatic Incident Light. Main Routines of LMOPTICS Library -- 10.1 EW Stokes Vectors and EW Mueller Matrices -- 10.2 Calculation of the EW Mueller Matrices of the Overall Transmission and Reflection of a System Consisting of "Thin" and "Thick" Layers.
10.3 Main Routines of LMOPTICS -- 10.3.1 Routines for Computing 4 × 4 Transfer Matrices and EW Jones Matrices -- 10.3.2 Routines for Computing EW Mueller Matrices -- 10.3.3 Other Useful Routines -- References -- 11 Calculation of Transmission Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Liquid Crystal Layers with Negligible Bulk Reflection -- 11.1 Application of Jones Matrix Methods to Inhomogeneous LC Layers -- 11.1.1 Calculation of Transmission Jones Matrices of LC Layers Using the Classical Jones Calculus -- 11.1.2 Extended Jones Matrix Methods -- 11.2 NBRA. Basic Differential Equations -- 11.3 NBRA. Numerical Methods -- 11.3.1 Approximating Multilayer Method -- 11.3.2 Discretization Method -- 11.3.3 Power Series Method -- 11.4 NBRA. Analytical Solutions -- 11.4.1 Twisted Structures -- 11.4.2 Nontwisted Structures -- 11.4.3 NBRA and GOA. Adiabatic and Quasiadiabatic Approximations -- 11.5 Effect of Errors in Values of the Transmission Matrix of the LC Layer on the Accuracy of Modeling the Transmittance of the LCD Panel -- References -- 12 Some Approximate Representations in EW Jones Matrix Method and Their Application in Solving Optimization and Inverse Problems for LCDs -- 12.1 Theory of STUM Approximation -- 12.2 Exact and Approximate Expressions for Transmission Operators of Interfaces at Normal Incidence -- 12.3 Polarization Jones Matrix of an Inhomogeneous Nonabsorbing Anisotropic Layer with Negligible Bulk Reflection at Normal Incidence. Simple Representations of Polarization Matrices of LC Layers at Normal Incidence -- 12.4 Immersion Model of the Polarization-Converting System of an LCD -- 12.5 Determining Configurational and Optical Parameters of LC Layers With a Twisted Structure: Spectral Fitting Method -- 12.5.1 How to Bring Together the Experiment and Unitary Approximation -- 12.5.2 Parameterization and Solving the Inverse Problem.
12.5.3 Appendix to Section 12.5.
Summary: Focusing on polarization matrix optics in many forms, this book includes coverage of a wide range of methods which have been applied to LCD modeling, ranging from the simple Jones matrix method to elaborate and high accuracy algorithms suitable for off-axis optics. Researchers and scientists are constantly striving for improved performance, faster response times, wide viewing angles, improved colour in liquid crystal display development, and with this comes the need to model LCD devices effectively. The authors have significant experience in dealing with the problems related to the practical application of liquid crystals, in particular their optical performance. Key features: Explores analytical solutions and approximations to important cases in the matrix treatment of different LC layer configurations, and the application of these results to improve the computational method Provides the analysis of accuracies of the different approaches discussed in the book Explains the development of the Eigenwave Jones matrix method which offers a path to improved accuracy compared to Jones matrix and extended Jones matrix formalisms, while achieving significant improvement in computational speed and versatility compared to full 4x4 matrix methods Includes a companion website hosting the authors' program library LMOPTICS (FORTRAN 90), a collection of routines for calculating the optical characteristics of stratified media, the use of which allows for the easy implementation of the methods described in this book. The website also contains a set of sample programs (source codes) using LMOPTICS, which exemplify the application of these methods in different situations.
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Intro -- Modeling and Optimization of LCD Optical Performance -- Contents -- Series Editor's Foreword -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- List of Abbreviations -- About the Companion Website -- 1 Polarization of Monochromatic Waves. Background of the Jones Matrix Methods. The Jones Calculus -- 1.1 Homogeneous Waves in Isotropic Media -- 1.1.1 Plane Waves -- 1.1.2 Polarization. Jones Vectors -- 1.1.3 Coordinate Transformation Rules for Jones Vectors. Orthogonal Polarizations. Decomposition of a Wave into Two Orthogonally Polarized Waves -- 1.2 Interface Optics for Isotropic Media -- 1.2.1 Fresnels Formulas. Snells Law -- 1.2.2 Reflection and Transmission Jones Matrices for a Plane Interface between Isotropic Media -- 1.3 Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Media -- 1.3.1 Wave Equations -- 1.3.2 Waves in a Uniaxial Layer -- 1.3.3 A Simple Birefringent Layer and Its Principal Axes -- 1.3.4 Transmission Jones Matrices of a Simple Birefringent Layer at Normal Incidence -- 1.3.5 Linear Retarders -- 1.3.6 Jones Matrices of Absorptive Polarizers. Ideal Polarizer -- 1.4 Jones Calculus -- 1.4.1 Basic Principles of the Jones Calculus -- 1.4.2 Three Useful Theorems for Transmissive Systems -- 1.4.3 Reciprocity Relations. Joness Reversibility Theorem -- 1.4.4 Theorem of Polarization Reversibility for Systems Without Diattenuation -- 1.4.5 Particular Variants of Application of the Jones Calculus. Cartesian Jones Vectors for Wave Fields in Anisotropic Media -- References -- 2 The Jones Calculus: Solutions for Ideal Twisted Structures and Their Applications in LCD Optics -- 2.1 Jones Matrix and Eigenmodes of a Liquid Crystal Layer with an Ideal Twisted Structure -- 2.2 LCD Optics and the Gooch-Tarry Formulas -- 2.3 Interactive Simulation -- 2.4 Parameter Space -- References -- 3 Optical Equivalence Theorem -- 3.1 General Optical Equivalence Theorem.

3.2 Optical Equivalence for the Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell -- 3.3 Polarization Conserving Modes -- 3.3.1 LP1 Modes -- 3.3.2 LP2 Modes -- 3.3.3 LP3 Modes -- 3.3.4 CP Modes -- 3.4 Application to Nematic Bistable LCDs -- 3.4.1 2 Bistable TN Displays -- 3.4.2 Bistable TN Displays -- 3.5 Application to Reflective Displays -- 3.6 Measurement of Characteristic Parameters of an LC Cell -- 3.6.1 Characteristic Angle Ω -- 3.6.2 Characteristic Phase Γ -- References -- 4 Electro-optical Modes: Practical Examples of LCD Modeling and Optimization -- 4.1 Optimization of LCD Performance in Various Electro-optical Modes -- 4.1.1 Electrically Controlled Birefringence -- 4.1.2 Twist Effect -- 4.1.3 Supertwist Effect -- 4.1.4 Optimization of Optical Performance of Reflective LCDs -- 4.2 Transflective LCDs -- 4.2.1 Dual-Mode Single-Cell-Gap Approach -- 4.2.2 Single-Mode Single-Cell-Gap Approach -- 4.3 Total Internal Reflection Mode -- 4.4 Ferroelectric LCDs -- 4.4.1 Basic Physical Properties -- 4.4.2 Electro-optical Effects in FLC Cells -- 4.5 Birefringent Color Generation in Dichromatic Reflective FLCDs -- References -- 5 Necessary Mathematics. Radiometric Terms. Conventions. Various Stokes and Jones Vectors -- 5.1 Some Definitions and Relations from Matrix Algebra -- 5.1.1 General Definitions -- 5.1.2 Some Important Properties of Matrix Products -- 5.1.3 Unitary Matrices. Unimodular Unitary 2 × 2 Matrices. STU Matrices -- 5.1.4 Norms of Vectors and Matrices -- 5.1.5 Kronecker Product of Matrices -- 5.1.6 Approximations -- 5.2 Some Radiometric Quantities. Conventions -- 5.3 Stokes Vectors of Plane Waves and Collimated Beams Propagating in Isotropic Nonabsorbing Media -- 5.4 Jones Vectors -- 5.4.1 Fitted-to-Electric-Field Jones Vectors and Fitted-to-Transverse-Component-of-Electric-Field Jones Vectors -- 5.4.2 Fitted-to-Irradiance Jones Vectors.

5.4.3 Conventional Jones Vectors -- References -- 6 Simple Models and Representations for Solving Optimization and Inverse Optical Problems. Real Optics of LC Cells and Useful Approximations -- 6.1 Polarization Transfer Factor of an Optical System -- 6.2 Optics of LC Cells in Terms of Polarization Transport Coefficients -- 6.2.1 Polarization-Dependent Losses and Depolarization. Unpolarized Transmittance -- 6.2.2 Rotations -- 6.2.3 Symmetry of the Sample -- 6.3 Retroreflection Geometry -- 6.4 Applications of Polarization Transport Coefficients in Optimization of LC Devices -- 6.5 Evaluation of Ultimate Characteristics of an LCD that can be Attained by Fitting the Compensation System. Modulation Efficiency of LC Layers -- References -- 7 Some Physical Models and Mathematical Algorithms Used in Modeling the Optical Performance of LCDs -- 7.1 Physical Models of the Light-Layered System Interaction Used in Modeling the Optical Behavior of LC Devices. Plane-Wave Approximations. Transfer Channel Approach -- 7.2 Transfer Matrix Technique and Adding Technique -- 7.2.1 Transfer Matrix Technique -- 7.2.2 Adding Technique -- 7.3 Optical Models of Some Elements of LCDs -- References -- 8 Modeling Methods Based on the Rigorous Theory of the Interaction of a Plane Monochromatic Wave with an Ideal Stratified Medium. Eigenwave (EW) Methods. EW Jones Matrix Method -- 8.1 General Properties of the Electromagnetic Field Induced by a Plane Monochromatic Wave in a Linear Stratified Medium -- 8.1.1 Maxwells Equations and Constitutive Relations -- 8.1.2 Plane Waves -- 8.1.3 Field Geometry -- 8.2 Transmission and Reflection Operators of Fragments (TR Units) of a Stratified Medium and Their Calculation -- 8.2.1 EW Jones Vector. EW Jones Matrices. Transmission and Reflection Operators.

8.2.2 Calculation of Overall Transmission and Overall Reflection Operators for Layered Systems by Using Transfer Matrices -- 8.3 Berremans Method -- 8.3.1 Transfer Matrices -- 8.3.2 Transfer Matrix of a Homogeneous Layer -- 8.3.3 Transfer Matrix of a Smoothly Inhomogeneous Layer. Staircase Approximation -- 8.3.4 Coordinate Systems -- 8.4 Simplifications, Useful Relations, and Advanced Techniques -- 8.4.1 Orthogonality Relations and Other Useful Relations for Eigenwave Bases -- 8.4.2 Simple General Formulas for Transmission Operators of Interfaces -- 8.4.3 Calculation of Transmission and Reflection Operators of Layered Systems by Using the Adding Technique -- 8.5 Transmissivities and Reflectivities -- 8.6 Mathematical Properties of Transfer Matrices and Transmission and Reflection EW Jones Matrices of Lossless Media and Reciprocal Media -- 8.6.1 Properties of Matrix Operators for Nonabsorbing Regions -- 8.6.2 Properties of Matrix Operators for Reciprocal Regions -- 8.7 Calculation of EW 4 × 4 Transfer Matrices for LC Layers -- 8.8 Transformation of the Elements of EW Jones Vectors and EW Jones Matrices Under Changes of Eigenwave Bases -- 8.8.1 Coordinates of the EW Jones Vector of a Wave Field in Different Eigenwave Bases -- 8.8.2 EW Jones Operators in Different Eigenwave Bases -- References -- 9 Choice of Eigenwave Bases for Isotropic, Uniaxial, and Biaxial Media -- 9.1 General Aspects of EWB Specification. EWB-generating routines -- 9.2 Isotropic Media -- 9.3 Uniaxial Media -- 9.4 Biaxial Media -- References -- 10 Efficient Methods for Calculating Optical Characteristics of Layered Systems for Quasimonochromatic Incident Light. Main Routines of LMOPTICS Library -- 10.1 EW Stokes Vectors and EW Mueller Matrices -- 10.2 Calculation of the EW Mueller Matrices of the Overall Transmission and Reflection of a System Consisting of "Thin" and "Thick" Layers.

10.3 Main Routines of LMOPTICS -- 10.3.1 Routines for Computing 4 × 4 Transfer Matrices and EW Jones Matrices -- 10.3.2 Routines for Computing EW Mueller Matrices -- 10.3.3 Other Useful Routines -- References -- 11 Calculation of Transmission Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Liquid Crystal Layers with Negligible Bulk Reflection -- 11.1 Application of Jones Matrix Methods to Inhomogeneous LC Layers -- 11.1.1 Calculation of Transmission Jones Matrices of LC Layers Using the Classical Jones Calculus -- 11.1.2 Extended Jones Matrix Methods -- 11.2 NBRA. Basic Differential Equations -- 11.3 NBRA. Numerical Methods -- 11.3.1 Approximating Multilayer Method -- 11.3.2 Discretization Method -- 11.3.3 Power Series Method -- 11.4 NBRA. Analytical Solutions -- 11.4.1 Twisted Structures -- 11.4.2 Nontwisted Structures -- 11.4.3 NBRA and GOA. Adiabatic and Quasiadiabatic Approximations -- 11.5 Effect of Errors in Values of the Transmission Matrix of the LC Layer on the Accuracy of Modeling the Transmittance of the LCD Panel -- References -- 12 Some Approximate Representations in EW Jones Matrix Method and Their Application in Solving Optimization and Inverse Problems for LCDs -- 12.1 Theory of STUM Approximation -- 12.2 Exact and Approximate Expressions for Transmission Operators of Interfaces at Normal Incidence -- 12.3 Polarization Jones Matrix of an Inhomogeneous Nonabsorbing Anisotropic Layer with Negligible Bulk Reflection at Normal Incidence. Simple Representations of Polarization Matrices of LC Layers at Normal Incidence -- 12.4 Immersion Model of the Polarization-Converting System of an LCD -- 12.5 Determining Configurational and Optical Parameters of LC Layers With a Twisted Structure: Spectral Fitting Method -- 12.5.1 How to Bring Together the Experiment and Unitary Approximation -- 12.5.2 Parameterization and Solving the Inverse Problem.

12.5.3 Appendix to Section 12.5.

Focusing on polarization matrix optics in many forms, this book includes coverage of a wide range of methods which have been applied to LCD modeling, ranging from the simple Jones matrix method to elaborate and high accuracy algorithms suitable for off-axis optics. Researchers and scientists are constantly striving for improved performance, faster response times, wide viewing angles, improved colour in liquid crystal display development, and with this comes the need to model LCD devices effectively. The authors have significant experience in dealing with the problems related to the practical application of liquid crystals, in particular their optical performance. Key features: Explores analytical solutions and approximations to important cases in the matrix treatment of different LC layer configurations, and the application of these results to improve the computational method Provides the analysis of accuracies of the different approaches discussed in the book Explains the development of the Eigenwave Jones matrix method which offers a path to improved accuracy compared to Jones matrix and extended Jones matrix formalisms, while achieving significant improvement in computational speed and versatility compared to full 4x4 matrix methods Includes a companion website hosting the authors' program library LMOPTICS (FORTRAN 90), a collection of routines for calculating the optical characteristics of stratified media, the use of which allows for the easy implementation of the methods described in this book. The website also contains a set of sample programs (source codes) using LMOPTICS, which exemplify the application of these methods in different situations.

Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.

Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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