Bones and Cartilage : Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology.

By: Hall, Brian KPublisher: San Diego : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 2nd edDescription: 1 online resource (911 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780124166851Subject(s): Bones.;Bones -- Phsyiology.;Bones -- GrowthGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Bones and Cartilage : Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal BiologyDDC classification: 611/.71 LOC classification: QM101 -- .H355 2015ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Front Cover -- Bones and Cartilage -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Epigraphs -- I. Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues -- 1 Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues -- Bone -- Cartilage -- Dentine -- Enamel -- Intermediate Tissues -- Cementum -- Enameloid -- Chondroid and Chondroid Bone -- Cartilage into Bone: Direct and Indirect Ossification -- Notes -- 2 Bone -- Discovery of the Basic Structure of Bone -- Cellular Bone -- Osteocytes -- Sclerostin -- Osteocyte Connections, Function and Maintenance -- Intramembranous and Endochondral Bone -- Embryonic Origins -- Subperiosteal Ossification and Suppression of the Cartilage Phase -- Metabolic Differences Between Bone Types -- Morphogenetic Differences Between Bones -- Osteones -- Growth -- Regional Remodelling -- Ageing -- Ageing at the Cellular Level -- Ageing at Cellular and Tissue Levels -- Ageing at the Organ Level -- Ageing of the Skeletal System -- Osteones Over Time -- Acellular Bone -- Caisson Disease and Abnormal Acellular Bone in Mammals -- Acellular Bone in Teleost Fishes -- Development -- Mechanical Properties -- Resorption -- Repair of Fractures -- Ca2+ Regulation -- Aspidine -- Bone in Sharks and Rays (Cartilaginous Fishes) -- Notes -- 3 Vertebrate Cartilages -- Types -- Chondrones -- Cartilage Growth -- Cartilage Canals -- Secondary Centres of Ossification -- Elastic Cartilage -- Elastic Fibres -- The Cells -- Elastic Cartilage, Adipocytes and Intermediate Tissues -- Shark Cartilage -- Development and Mineralisation -- Tesserae -- Growth -- Inhibition of Vascular Invasion -- Lampreys -- Mucocartilage -- Lamprin -- Mineralisation -- Hagfish -- Acellular Cartilage in a Freshwater Stingray -- Notes -- II. Origins and Types of Skeletal Tissues -- 4 Invertebrate Cartilages, Notochordal Cartilage and Cartilage Origins -- Chondroid and Cartilage -- Odontophore Cartilage in Caenogastropods.
Branchial (Gill Book) Cartilage in the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus -- Cranial Cartilages in Squid, Cuttlefish and Octopuses -- Composition of the Extracellular Matrix -- Glycosaminoglycans -- Collagens -- Tentacular Cartilage in Polychaete Annelids -- Lophophore Cartilage in an Articulate Brachiopod, Terebratalia transversa -- Mineralisation of Invertebrate Cartilages -- Cartilage Origins -- Hemichordates -- Notochordal Cartilage -- Notes -- 5 Intermediate Tissues -- Scleroblasts -- Modulation and Intermediate Tissues -- Cartilage from Fibrous Tissue and Metaplasia -- Metaplasia of Epithelial Cells to Chondroblasts or Osteoblasts -- Chondroid -- Chondroid in Teleosts -- Chondroid in Mammals -- Chondroid Bone -- Chondroid Bone in Teleosts -- Trematode Infections and Biomechanical Stress -- Kype Tissues in Migrating Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar -- Chondroid Bone and Pharyngeal Jaws -- Chondroid Bone in Mammals -- Tissues Intermediate Between Bone and Dentine -- Dentine -- Cementum -- Enameloid: a Tissue Intermediate Between Dentine and Enamel -- Notes -- 6 Lessons from Fossils -- Fossilised Skeletal Tissues -- All Four Skeletal Tissues Are Ancient -- A Family of Skeletal Tissues in Fossil Agnatha -- Dinosaur Bone, Dinosaur Growth and Life History -- Patterns of Ossification and Bone Growth -- Developing Skeletons in Fossils -- Patterns of Growth and Homoeostasis -- Palaeopathology -- Conodonts -- What Are Conodonts? -- Conodont Elements as Teeth and Conodonts as Chordates -- Conodonts as Chordates -- Conodont Elements as Teeth -- Notes -- III. Unusual Modes of Skeletogenesis -- 7 Horns and Ossicones -- Horns -- Distribution of Horns as Organs -- Bovidae -- Rhinos -- Titanotheres -- Pronghorn Antelopes -- Giraffes -- Horn as a Tissue -- Development and Growth of Horns -- Notes -- 8 Antlers -- Antlers -- Combat and Dominance.
Size and Absence of Antlers -- Initiation of Antler Formation -- Pedicle Formation -- The Antler Bud and Dermal-Epidermal Interactions -- Hormonal Control of Pedicle Development and Growth -- Antler Replacement -- The Shedding Cycle -- Histogenesis of Antlers -- White-Tailed Deer, American Elk, European Fallow and Roe Deer -- Rocky Mountain Mule Deer -- Sika Deer -- Hormones, Photoperiod and Antler Growth -- Photoperiod and Testosterone -- Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin -- Notes -- 9 Tendon Skeletogenesis and Sesamoids -- Tendons and Skeletogenesis -- Difficult Cases -- Fibrocartilage in Tendons -- Rodent Achilles Tendons -- Ossification of Avian Tendons -- Formation and Composition of Tendon Fibrocartilages -- Condensation -- Scleraxis -- Composition of Tendon Extracellular Matrices -- Sesamoids -- Anuran Amphibians -- Reptiles -- Birds -- Notes -- IV. Stem and Progenitor Cells -- 10 Embryonic Stem and Progenitor Cells -- Stem Cells -- Set-Aside Cells -- Periosteal Progenitor Cell for Periosteal Osteogenesis in Long Bones -- Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways of Cell Populations -- Fibroblast-Chondroblast Modulation -- Modulation of Glycosaminoglycan Synthesis -- Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways in Single Cells -- Degradative Activity -- Notes -- 11 Stem and Progenitor Cells in Adults -- Fibroblast Colony-Forming Cells -- Niches and Haemospheres -- Osteogenic Precursor Cells -- Clonal Analysis -- Lineages of Cells -- Dexamethasone, Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis -- Epithelial Induction of Ectopic Bone -- Transitional Epithelium of the Urinary Bladder -- Epithelial Cell Lines -- Chondrogenic Precursor Cells -- Conversion to Stem Cells -- Mesenchymal Stem Cells -- miRNAs -- Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells -- Notes -- V. Skeletogenic Cells -- 12 Bipotential Osteochondroprogenitor Cells.
Identifying Osteochondroprogenitor Cells -- Execrable Terminology -- Features -- Cell Cycle Dynamics -- Bipotential Progenitor Cells for Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis -- Bipotential Cell Populations or Bipotential Cells? -- Uncovering Bipotentiality -- Discovering Bipotentiality -- Biochemical and Metabolic Markers -- Collagen Types -- The Tumour Suppressor Gene p53 -- Condylar Cartilage on the Condylar Process of the Mammalian Dentary -- Histodifferentiation and Scurvy -- One or Two Cell Populations -- Two Cell Populations -- One Cell Population -- Evidence Against Bipotentiality -- Evidence Supporting Bipotentiality -- Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Cell Population? -- Secondary Cartilage on Avian Membrane Bones -- Notes -- 13 Dedifferentiation of Chondrocytes and Endochondral Ossification -- The Fate of Hypertrophic Chondrocytes of the Condylar Cartilage -- The Temporomandibular Joint -- Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Survive -- Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Transform to Osteoprogenitor Cells -- Meckel's Cartilage -- Fate of Meckel's Cartilage in Mammals -- Middle Ear Ossicles -- The Poster Child for Evolution -- Fossil Evidence -- Embryological Evidence -- Homeobox Gene Control of Mandibular Skeletal Development -- Msx and Dlx genes -- Msx Genes and Bmp4 -- Prx1, Prx2 -- Alx3 -- Pitx1 -- Dedifferentiation During Endochondral Bone Formation -- Rodent Ribs -- Mice -- Rats -- Appendicular Long Bones -- Enzyme Activity -- Evidence from 3H-Thymidine Labelling and Other Approaches -- Murine Interpubic Joints -- Notes -- 14 Dedifferentiation and Stem Cells: Regeneration of Urodele Limbs and Mammalian Fingertips -- Urodele Limb Regeneration -- Dedifferentiation -- Morphological Dedifferentiation -- Functional Dedifferentiation -- Hyaluronan -- Blastema Formation -- More Than One Cell Fate -- Myoblast and Chondroblast Fates -- Innervation -- Aneurogenic Limbs.
Electrical Signals? -- Hox Genes -- FgfR1 and FgfR2 -- Radical Fringe -- Why Frogs Cannot Regenerate Their Limbs -- Anuran and Urodele Regeneration -- Augmenting Regeneration -- Fingertips of Mice, Monkeys and Humans -- Monkeys and Humans -- Mice -- Mouse Digit and Newt Limb Regeneration -- Demineralised Bone Matrix and Skeletal Repair -- The Approach -- Cartilage Induction but Bone Formation -- The Active Agent: Bmp -- Carriers -- Notes -- 15 Cells to Make and Cells to Break -- Clasts and Blasts -- Resorption of Bone -- Proximity to Bone Matrix -- Vacuolar Proton Pump (V-ATPase) -- Worms that Digest Whale Bones -- Osteoclasts In Vitro -- Coupling Bone Resorption to Bone Formation -- Coupling Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts -- Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) -- TGFß Signalling -- Osteoprotegerin and RankL -- Osteocalcin and Mechanical Stimulation -- When Coupling Goes Awry -- Osteoporosis -- Statins -- Trap-Staining for Osteoclasts -- Mammalian Osteoclasts -- Teleost Osteoclasts -- Nitric Oxide: It's a Gas -- Progenitor Cells for Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts -- Japanese Quail: Domestic Fowl Chimeras -- Osteopetrosis and Osteoclast Origins -- IS The Lineage Macrophage →Phagocyte→ Osteoclast or is it Monocyte→ Osteoclast? -- Phagocyte-Macrophage Origin -- Interleukins -- Evidence Against Monocytes -- Evidence for Monocytes -- Chondroclasts and Osteoclasts -- Synovial Cells and Reportion of Articular Cartilage -- Notes -- VI. Embryonic Origins -- 16 Skeletal Origins: Somitic Mesoderm, Vertebrae, Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles -- Somitic Mesoderm and the Origin of the Vertebral Column -- Paraxial Mesoderm→Somites -- Sclerotome Formation, Migration and Vertebral Development -- Origin of Teleost Vertebrae in the Notochordal Sheath -- Resegmentation of Somites -- Intervertebral Discs and Nucleus Pulposus -- Somites Provide the Muscles for Limb Buds.
Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles.
Summary: Bones and Cartilage provides the most in-depth review and synthesis assembled on the topic, across all vertebrates. It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. It describes how bone and cartilage develop in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone is repaired when we break a leg, or regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a new tail. The second edition of Bones and Cartilage includes the most recent knowledge of molecular, cellular, developmental and evolutionary processes, which are integrated to outline a unified discipline of developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. Additionally, coverage includes how the molecular and cellular aspects of bones and cartilage differ in different skeletal systems and across species, along with the latest studies and hypotheses of relationships between skeletal cells and the most recent information on coupling between osteocytes and osteoclasts All chapters have been revised and updated to include the latest research. Offers complete coverage of every aspect of bone and cartilage, with updated references and extensive illustrations Integrates development and evolution of the skeleton, as well a synthesis of differentiation, growth and patterning Treats all levels from molecular to clinical, embryos to evolution, and covers all vertebrates as well as invertebrate cartilages Includes new chapters on evolutionary skeletal biology that highlight normal variation and variability, and variation outside the norm (neomorphs, atavisms) Updates hypotheses on the origination of cartilage using new phylogenetic, cellular and genetic data Covers stem cells in embryos and adults, including mesenchymal stem cells and their use in genetic engineering of cartilage, and the concept of the stem cell niche.
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Front Cover -- Bones and Cartilage -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface -- Epigraphs -- I. Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues -- 1 Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues -- Bone -- Cartilage -- Dentine -- Enamel -- Intermediate Tissues -- Cementum -- Enameloid -- Chondroid and Chondroid Bone -- Cartilage into Bone: Direct and Indirect Ossification -- Notes -- 2 Bone -- Discovery of the Basic Structure of Bone -- Cellular Bone -- Osteocytes -- Sclerostin -- Osteocyte Connections, Function and Maintenance -- Intramembranous and Endochondral Bone -- Embryonic Origins -- Subperiosteal Ossification and Suppression of the Cartilage Phase -- Metabolic Differences Between Bone Types -- Morphogenetic Differences Between Bones -- Osteones -- Growth -- Regional Remodelling -- Ageing -- Ageing at the Cellular Level -- Ageing at Cellular and Tissue Levels -- Ageing at the Organ Level -- Ageing of the Skeletal System -- Osteones Over Time -- Acellular Bone -- Caisson Disease and Abnormal Acellular Bone in Mammals -- Acellular Bone in Teleost Fishes -- Development -- Mechanical Properties -- Resorption -- Repair of Fractures -- Ca2+ Regulation -- Aspidine -- Bone in Sharks and Rays (Cartilaginous Fishes) -- Notes -- 3 Vertebrate Cartilages -- Types -- Chondrones -- Cartilage Growth -- Cartilage Canals -- Secondary Centres of Ossification -- Elastic Cartilage -- Elastic Fibres -- The Cells -- Elastic Cartilage, Adipocytes and Intermediate Tissues -- Shark Cartilage -- Development and Mineralisation -- Tesserae -- Growth -- Inhibition of Vascular Invasion -- Lampreys -- Mucocartilage -- Lamprin -- Mineralisation -- Hagfish -- Acellular Cartilage in a Freshwater Stingray -- Notes -- II. Origins and Types of Skeletal Tissues -- 4 Invertebrate Cartilages, Notochordal Cartilage and Cartilage Origins -- Chondroid and Cartilage -- Odontophore Cartilage in Caenogastropods.

Branchial (Gill Book) Cartilage in the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus -- Cranial Cartilages in Squid, Cuttlefish and Octopuses -- Composition of the Extracellular Matrix -- Glycosaminoglycans -- Collagens -- Tentacular Cartilage in Polychaete Annelids -- Lophophore Cartilage in an Articulate Brachiopod, Terebratalia transversa -- Mineralisation of Invertebrate Cartilages -- Cartilage Origins -- Hemichordates -- Notochordal Cartilage -- Notes -- 5 Intermediate Tissues -- Scleroblasts -- Modulation and Intermediate Tissues -- Cartilage from Fibrous Tissue and Metaplasia -- Metaplasia of Epithelial Cells to Chondroblasts or Osteoblasts -- Chondroid -- Chondroid in Teleosts -- Chondroid in Mammals -- Chondroid Bone -- Chondroid Bone in Teleosts -- Trematode Infections and Biomechanical Stress -- Kype Tissues in Migrating Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar -- Chondroid Bone and Pharyngeal Jaws -- Chondroid Bone in Mammals -- Tissues Intermediate Between Bone and Dentine -- Dentine -- Cementum -- Enameloid: a Tissue Intermediate Between Dentine and Enamel -- Notes -- 6 Lessons from Fossils -- Fossilised Skeletal Tissues -- All Four Skeletal Tissues Are Ancient -- A Family of Skeletal Tissues in Fossil Agnatha -- Dinosaur Bone, Dinosaur Growth and Life History -- Patterns of Ossification and Bone Growth -- Developing Skeletons in Fossils -- Patterns of Growth and Homoeostasis -- Palaeopathology -- Conodonts -- What Are Conodonts? -- Conodont Elements as Teeth and Conodonts as Chordates -- Conodonts as Chordates -- Conodont Elements as Teeth -- Notes -- III. Unusual Modes of Skeletogenesis -- 7 Horns and Ossicones -- Horns -- Distribution of Horns as Organs -- Bovidae -- Rhinos -- Titanotheres -- Pronghorn Antelopes -- Giraffes -- Horn as a Tissue -- Development and Growth of Horns -- Notes -- 8 Antlers -- Antlers -- Combat and Dominance.

Size and Absence of Antlers -- Initiation of Antler Formation -- Pedicle Formation -- The Antler Bud and Dermal-Epidermal Interactions -- Hormonal Control of Pedicle Development and Growth -- Antler Replacement -- The Shedding Cycle -- Histogenesis of Antlers -- White-Tailed Deer, American Elk, European Fallow and Roe Deer -- Rocky Mountain Mule Deer -- Sika Deer -- Hormones, Photoperiod and Antler Growth -- Photoperiod and Testosterone -- Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin -- Notes -- 9 Tendon Skeletogenesis and Sesamoids -- Tendons and Skeletogenesis -- Difficult Cases -- Fibrocartilage in Tendons -- Rodent Achilles Tendons -- Ossification of Avian Tendons -- Formation and Composition of Tendon Fibrocartilages -- Condensation -- Scleraxis -- Composition of Tendon Extracellular Matrices -- Sesamoids -- Anuran Amphibians -- Reptiles -- Birds -- Notes -- IV. Stem and Progenitor Cells -- 10 Embryonic Stem and Progenitor Cells -- Stem Cells -- Set-Aside Cells -- Periosteal Progenitor Cell for Periosteal Osteogenesis in Long Bones -- Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways of Cell Populations -- Fibroblast-Chondroblast Modulation -- Modulation of Glycosaminoglycan Synthesis -- Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways in Single Cells -- Degradative Activity -- Notes -- 11 Stem and Progenitor Cells in Adults -- Fibroblast Colony-Forming Cells -- Niches and Haemospheres -- Osteogenic Precursor Cells -- Clonal Analysis -- Lineages of Cells -- Dexamethasone, Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis -- Epithelial Induction of Ectopic Bone -- Transitional Epithelium of the Urinary Bladder -- Epithelial Cell Lines -- Chondrogenic Precursor Cells -- Conversion to Stem Cells -- Mesenchymal Stem Cells -- miRNAs -- Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells -- Notes -- V. Skeletogenic Cells -- 12 Bipotential Osteochondroprogenitor Cells.

Identifying Osteochondroprogenitor Cells -- Execrable Terminology -- Features -- Cell Cycle Dynamics -- Bipotential Progenitor Cells for Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis -- Bipotential Cell Populations or Bipotential Cells? -- Uncovering Bipotentiality -- Discovering Bipotentiality -- Biochemical and Metabolic Markers -- Collagen Types -- The Tumour Suppressor Gene p53 -- Condylar Cartilage on the Condylar Process of the Mammalian Dentary -- Histodifferentiation and Scurvy -- One or Two Cell Populations -- Two Cell Populations -- One Cell Population -- Evidence Against Bipotentiality -- Evidence Supporting Bipotentiality -- Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Cell Population? -- Secondary Cartilage on Avian Membrane Bones -- Notes -- 13 Dedifferentiation of Chondrocytes and Endochondral Ossification -- The Fate of Hypertrophic Chondrocytes of the Condylar Cartilage -- The Temporomandibular Joint -- Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Survive -- Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Transform to Osteoprogenitor Cells -- Meckel's Cartilage -- Fate of Meckel's Cartilage in Mammals -- Middle Ear Ossicles -- The Poster Child for Evolution -- Fossil Evidence -- Embryological Evidence -- Homeobox Gene Control of Mandibular Skeletal Development -- Msx and Dlx genes -- Msx Genes and Bmp4 -- Prx1, Prx2 -- Alx3 -- Pitx1 -- Dedifferentiation During Endochondral Bone Formation -- Rodent Ribs -- Mice -- Rats -- Appendicular Long Bones -- Enzyme Activity -- Evidence from 3H-Thymidine Labelling and Other Approaches -- Murine Interpubic Joints -- Notes -- 14 Dedifferentiation and Stem Cells: Regeneration of Urodele Limbs and Mammalian Fingertips -- Urodele Limb Regeneration -- Dedifferentiation -- Morphological Dedifferentiation -- Functional Dedifferentiation -- Hyaluronan -- Blastema Formation -- More Than One Cell Fate -- Myoblast and Chondroblast Fates -- Innervation -- Aneurogenic Limbs.

Electrical Signals? -- Hox Genes -- FgfR1 and FgfR2 -- Radical Fringe -- Why Frogs Cannot Regenerate Their Limbs -- Anuran and Urodele Regeneration -- Augmenting Regeneration -- Fingertips of Mice, Monkeys and Humans -- Monkeys and Humans -- Mice -- Mouse Digit and Newt Limb Regeneration -- Demineralised Bone Matrix and Skeletal Repair -- The Approach -- Cartilage Induction but Bone Formation -- The Active Agent: Bmp -- Carriers -- Notes -- 15 Cells to Make and Cells to Break -- Clasts and Blasts -- Resorption of Bone -- Proximity to Bone Matrix -- Vacuolar Proton Pump (V-ATPase) -- Worms that Digest Whale Bones -- Osteoclasts In Vitro -- Coupling Bone Resorption to Bone Formation -- Coupling Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts -- Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) -- TGFß Signalling -- Osteoprotegerin and RankL -- Osteocalcin and Mechanical Stimulation -- When Coupling Goes Awry -- Osteoporosis -- Statins -- Trap-Staining for Osteoclasts -- Mammalian Osteoclasts -- Teleost Osteoclasts -- Nitric Oxide: It's a Gas -- Progenitor Cells for Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts -- Japanese Quail: Domestic Fowl Chimeras -- Osteopetrosis and Osteoclast Origins -- IS The Lineage Macrophage →Phagocyte→ Osteoclast or is it Monocyte→ Osteoclast? -- Phagocyte-Macrophage Origin -- Interleukins -- Evidence Against Monocytes -- Evidence for Monocytes -- Chondroclasts and Osteoclasts -- Synovial Cells and Reportion of Articular Cartilage -- Notes -- VI. Embryonic Origins -- 16 Skeletal Origins: Somitic Mesoderm, Vertebrae, Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles -- Somitic Mesoderm and the Origin of the Vertebral Column -- Paraxial Mesoderm→Somites -- Sclerotome Formation, Migration and Vertebral Development -- Origin of Teleost Vertebrae in the Notochordal Sheath -- Resegmentation of Somites -- Intervertebral Discs and Nucleus Pulposus -- Somites Provide the Muscles for Limb Buds.

Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles.

Bones and Cartilage provides the most in-depth review and synthesis assembled on the topic, across all vertebrates. It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. It describes how bone and cartilage develop in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone is repaired when we break a leg, or regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a new tail. The second edition of Bones and Cartilage includes the most recent knowledge of molecular, cellular, developmental and evolutionary processes, which are integrated to outline a unified discipline of developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. Additionally, coverage includes how the molecular and cellular aspects of bones and cartilage differ in different skeletal systems and across species, along with the latest studies and hypotheses of relationships between skeletal cells and the most recent information on coupling between osteocytes and osteoclasts All chapters have been revised and updated to include the latest research. Offers complete coverage of every aspect of bone and cartilage, with updated references and extensive illustrations Integrates development and evolution of the skeleton, as well a synthesis of differentiation, growth and patterning Treats all levels from molecular to clinical, embryos to evolution, and covers all vertebrates as well as invertebrate cartilages Includes new chapters on evolutionary skeletal biology that highlight normal variation and variability, and variation outside the norm (neomorphs, atavisms) Updates hypotheses on the origination of cartilage using new phylogenetic, cellular and genetic data Covers stem cells in embryos and adults, including mesenchymal stem cells and their use in genetic engineering of cartilage, and the concept of the stem cell niche.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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