Norms and Usage in Language History, 1600–1900 : A sociolinguistic and comparative perspective.

By: Rutten, GijsbertContributor(s): Vosters, Rik | Vandenbussche, WimSeries: Advances in Historical SociolinguisticsPublisher: Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014Copyright date: ©2014Description: 1 online resource (342 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789027268792Subject(s): Language and languages -- Usage -- History.;Linguistic change -- Social aspects -- History.;Linguistics -- Historiography.;Sociolinguistics -- HistoryGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Norms and Usage in Language History, 1600–1900 : A sociolinguistic and comparative perspectiveDDC classification: 418.009 LOC classification: P301.5.S63 -- .N67 2014ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Norms and Usage in Language History, 1600-1900 -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Table of contents -- Acknowledgements -- The interplay of language norms and usage patterns -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Overview of the contributions -- 3. Phased standardization and diaglossia -- 3.1 Target groups and nationalization -- 3.2 Standard language ideology -- 3.3 Sources -- 3.4 Supralocalization -- 3.5 Diaglossia and diglossia -- References -- Language norms and language use in seventeenth-century Dutch: Negation and the genitive -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Texts and corpora -- 3. The normative tradition -- 4. Case study 1: Negation -- 4.1 Negation in the history of Dutch -- 4.2 Results -- 5. Case study 2: Genitival constructions -- 5.1 The genitive case and deflection -- 5.2 Results -- 6. Discussion and conclusions -- Websites -- References -- Language norms and language use in eighteenth-century Dutch: Final n and the genitive -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Texts and corpora -- 3. Language norms -- 4. Case study 1: n-deletion -- 4.1 Deletion of final n in Dutch -- 4.2 Results -- 5. Case study 2: Genitival constructions -- 5.1 The genitive case and deflection -- 5.2 Results -- 6. Discussion and conclusions -- Websites -- References -- Norms and usage in nineteenth-century Southern Dutch -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Prescriptivism and explicit language norms -- 2.1 North -- 2.2 South -- 2.2.1 Early eighteenth century -- 2.2.2 Later eighteenth century -- 2.2.3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands -- 3. Three case studies -- 4. Prescriptions and typical usage in normative works -- 4.1 Long A -- 4.2 Verbal endings -- 4.3 E + R clusters -- 4.4 Overview -- 5. Usage in a corpus of early nineteenth-century manuscripts -- 6. Discussion: Norms and usage -- 7. Conclusion -- References -- Norms and usage in seventeenth-century English -- 1. Introduction.
1.1 Language regulation and speaker agency -- 1.2 Vernacularization -- 1.3 Accessing actual usage and targeting norms -- 2. Attitudes to varieties and normative regulation -- 2.1 Views on varieties -- 2.2 Proposals for normative regulation -- 3. Emergent norms in the seventeenth century -- 3.1 Spelling -- 3.2 Lexis -- 3.3 Literary language -- 4. Sources for the study of seventeenth-century usage -- 4.1 Dictionaries and lexicons -- 4.2 Contemporary grammars -- 4.3 Corpora and databases -- 5. Comparing norms and usage -- 5.1 Spelling -- 5.2 Vocabulary -- 5.3 Grammar -- 6. Conclusion -- Appendix: Corpora and databases -- References -- Eighteenth-century English normative grammars and their readers -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The subscribers to Postlethwaite's grammar -- 3. Postlethwaite and Lowth's grammar -- 4. From grammars to usage guides -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Nineteenth-century English -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Grammar writing in nineteenth-century England -- 3. Schooling in nineteenth-century England -- 4. Nineteenth-century language usage -- 5. Concluding remarks -- Corpora and databases -- References -- From l'usage to le bon usage and back -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Codification and prescription in seventeenth-century France -- 1.2 The socio-cultural context -- 2. Normative publications -- 2.1 Linguistic commentaries -- 2.2 Remarks and observations on French -- 2.3 Grammars and methods -- 2.4 Dictionaries -- 2.5 More specialist works -- 3. Sources for research on seventeenth-century French usage -- 3.1 Ego-documents -- 3.1.1 Private correspondence -- 3.1.2 Other ego-documents -- 3.1.3 Jean Héroard's journal -- 3.2 Multi-genre databases and corpora -- 3.3 Convergence of different types of sources -- 4. Norms and usage -- 4.1 Influence on literary usage -- 4.2 Influence or reflection? -- References.
Jacques-Louis Ménétra and his experience of the langue d'oc -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The linguistic value of Ménétra's text -- 3. Ménétra's tours de France and the languages of France -- 4. Ménétra's linguistic experiences -- 4.1 Ménétra and the langue d'oc -- 4.2 Diffusion of French into the south -- 4.3 The linguistic distance between French and Occitan and accommodation -- 5. Conclusion -- Appendix A -- Appendix B -- Appendix C -- Appendix D -- References -- From local to supra-local -- 1. Introduction -- 2. French in Canada in the nineteenth century -- 3. Accessing a supra-local norm: The Papineau family -- 4. Charles Morin: The mastery of the writing medium -- 4.1 Charles Morin and his journal -- 4.2 Local vernacular features in Charles Morin's diary -- 4.3 Standard features and language display in Charles Morin's diary -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Language description, prescription and usage in seventeenth-century German -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The codification of German in the seventeenth century -- 3. Prescription and practice: Schottelius's codification of German and its influence on usage -- 3.1 Scenario 1: Prescription of practice that is already widespread: Soll rather than sol -- bey or bei -- 3.2 Scenario 2: The prescription codifies practice that is found, but which is more or less marginal compared with other forms, spellings and structures -- 3.3 Scenario 3: Stigmatization of a variant -- 3.4 Scenario 4: Promotion of spellings that are not found at all in earlier practice -- 3.5 Scenario 5: Prescriptive authority is silent with regard to variants which are nevertheless attested, whose frequency may increase or decrease, regardless of any backing or stigmatization by authorities -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Standard German in the eighteenth century norms and use* -- 1. Introduction.
2. Sources for the eighteenth century -- 3. Changes in the language -- 3.1 Loss of genitive -- 3.2 Verb periphrases -- 3.3 Morphological agreement -- 3.4 Verb positions in sub-clauses -- 3.5 Polynegation -- 4. Evaluating linguistic difference -- 4.1 Loss of genitive: Wegen with dative -- 4.2 Auxiliary tun -- 4.3 Polynegation -- 4.4 Doppelperfekt -- 4.5 Diminutive suffixes -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Prescriptive norms and norms of usage in nineteenth-century German -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The socio-historical background of written German usage in the nineteenth-century German-speaking countries -- 3. The ideological roots of prescriptive norms -- 4. Different concepts of 'standard' and different models of the standardisation of German -- 5. Sources -- 5.1 Sources of prescriptive norms in Germany and their circulation -- 5.2 Language use - text sources and text corpora -- 6. The relationship between prescriptive norms and language use in nineteenth-century German -- 6.1 (Possible) effects of prescriptive norms -- 6.2 Limits of prescriptive norms -- 7. Conclusion -- References -- Grammar books, model letter writers, guides for 'good language' -- Research literature -- Index.
Summary: The nineteenth century has attracted considerable interest in German historical (socio)linguistics over the last twenty-five years, as it is considered to be the century in which the 'roots' of present-day German can be found. A great deal of the research literature has been devoted to the rise of standard German. Little attention has been paid to the relationship between norms and usage. In order to gain an understanding of their complex relationship, this chapter will first look at socio-historical developments and language ideologies which can be seen as crucial for the external language history of nineteenth-century German. It will then discuss different models of standardization, shaped by different ideologies and notions of 'standard language'. Next, an overview will be given of the main prescriptive works and the most important text sources and corpora for research on the language use of this period. This relationship will be illustrated with a few examples from grammar, followed by the conclusions.
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Norms and Usage in Language History, 1600-1900 -- Editorial page -- Title page -- LCC data -- Table of contents -- Acknowledgements -- The interplay of language norms and usage patterns -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Overview of the contributions -- 3. Phased standardization and diaglossia -- 3.1 Target groups and nationalization -- 3.2 Standard language ideology -- 3.3 Sources -- 3.4 Supralocalization -- 3.5 Diaglossia and diglossia -- References -- Language norms and language use in seventeenth-century Dutch: Negation and the genitive -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Texts and corpora -- 3. The normative tradition -- 4. Case study 1: Negation -- 4.1 Negation in the history of Dutch -- 4.2 Results -- 5. Case study 2: Genitival constructions -- 5.1 The genitive case and deflection -- 5.2 Results -- 6. Discussion and conclusions -- Websites -- References -- Language norms and language use in eighteenth-century Dutch: Final n and the genitive -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Texts and corpora -- 3. Language norms -- 4. Case study 1: n-deletion -- 4.1 Deletion of final n in Dutch -- 4.2 Results -- 5. Case study 2: Genitival constructions -- 5.1 The genitive case and deflection -- 5.2 Results -- 6. Discussion and conclusions -- Websites -- References -- Norms and usage in nineteenth-century Southern Dutch -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Prescriptivism and explicit language norms -- 2.1 North -- 2.2 South -- 2.2.1 Early eighteenth century -- 2.2.2 Later eighteenth century -- 2.2.3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands -- 3. Three case studies -- 4. Prescriptions and typical usage in normative works -- 4.1 Long A -- 4.2 Verbal endings -- 4.3 E + R clusters -- 4.4 Overview -- 5. Usage in a corpus of early nineteenth-century manuscripts -- 6. Discussion: Norms and usage -- 7. Conclusion -- References -- Norms and usage in seventeenth-century English -- 1. Introduction.

1.1 Language regulation and speaker agency -- 1.2 Vernacularization -- 1.3 Accessing actual usage and targeting norms -- 2. Attitudes to varieties and normative regulation -- 2.1 Views on varieties -- 2.2 Proposals for normative regulation -- 3. Emergent norms in the seventeenth century -- 3.1 Spelling -- 3.2 Lexis -- 3.3 Literary language -- 4. Sources for the study of seventeenth-century usage -- 4.1 Dictionaries and lexicons -- 4.2 Contemporary grammars -- 4.3 Corpora and databases -- 5. Comparing norms and usage -- 5.1 Spelling -- 5.2 Vocabulary -- 5.3 Grammar -- 6. Conclusion -- Appendix: Corpora and databases -- References -- Eighteenth-century English normative grammars and their readers -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The subscribers to Postlethwaite's grammar -- 3. Postlethwaite and Lowth's grammar -- 4. From grammars to usage guides -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Nineteenth-century English -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Grammar writing in nineteenth-century England -- 3. Schooling in nineteenth-century England -- 4. Nineteenth-century language usage -- 5. Concluding remarks -- Corpora and databases -- References -- From l'usage to le bon usage and back -- 1. Introduction -- 1.1 Codification and prescription in seventeenth-century France -- 1.2 The socio-cultural context -- 2. Normative publications -- 2.1 Linguistic commentaries -- 2.2 Remarks and observations on French -- 2.3 Grammars and methods -- 2.4 Dictionaries -- 2.5 More specialist works -- 3. Sources for research on seventeenth-century French usage -- 3.1 Ego-documents -- 3.1.1 Private correspondence -- 3.1.2 Other ego-documents -- 3.1.3 Jean Héroard's journal -- 3.2 Multi-genre databases and corpora -- 3.3 Convergence of different types of sources -- 4. Norms and usage -- 4.1 Influence on literary usage -- 4.2 Influence or reflection? -- References.

Jacques-Louis Ménétra and his experience of the langue d'oc -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The linguistic value of Ménétra's text -- 3. Ménétra's tours de France and the languages of France -- 4. Ménétra's linguistic experiences -- 4.1 Ménétra and the langue d'oc -- 4.2 Diffusion of French into the south -- 4.3 The linguistic distance between French and Occitan and accommodation -- 5. Conclusion -- Appendix A -- Appendix B -- Appendix C -- Appendix D -- References -- From local to supra-local -- 1. Introduction -- 2. French in Canada in the nineteenth century -- 3. Accessing a supra-local norm: The Papineau family -- 4. Charles Morin: The mastery of the writing medium -- 4.1 Charles Morin and his journal -- 4.2 Local vernacular features in Charles Morin's diary -- 4.3 Standard features and language display in Charles Morin's diary -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Language description, prescription and usage in seventeenth-century German -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The codification of German in the seventeenth century -- 3. Prescription and practice: Schottelius's codification of German and its influence on usage -- 3.1 Scenario 1: Prescription of practice that is already widespread: Soll rather than sol -- bey or bei -- 3.2 Scenario 2: The prescription codifies practice that is found, but which is more or less marginal compared with other forms, spellings and structures -- 3.3 Scenario 3: Stigmatization of a variant -- 3.4 Scenario 4: Promotion of spellings that are not found at all in earlier practice -- 3.5 Scenario 5: Prescriptive authority is silent with regard to variants which are nevertheless attested, whose frequency may increase or decrease, regardless of any backing or stigmatization by authorities -- 4. Conclusion -- References -- Standard German in the eighteenth century norms and use* -- 1. Introduction.

2. Sources for the eighteenth century -- 3. Changes in the language -- 3.1 Loss of genitive -- 3.2 Verb periphrases -- 3.3 Morphological agreement -- 3.4 Verb positions in sub-clauses -- 3.5 Polynegation -- 4. Evaluating linguistic difference -- 4.1 Loss of genitive: Wegen with dative -- 4.2 Auxiliary tun -- 4.3 Polynegation -- 4.4 Doppelperfekt -- 4.5 Diminutive suffixes -- 5. Conclusion -- References -- Prescriptive norms and norms of usage in nineteenth-century German -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The socio-historical background of written German usage in the nineteenth-century German-speaking countries -- 3. The ideological roots of prescriptive norms -- 4. Different concepts of 'standard' and different models of the standardisation of German -- 5. Sources -- 5.1 Sources of prescriptive norms in Germany and their circulation -- 5.2 Language use - text sources and text corpora -- 6. The relationship between prescriptive norms and language use in nineteenth-century German -- 6.1 (Possible) effects of prescriptive norms -- 6.2 Limits of prescriptive norms -- 7. Conclusion -- References -- Grammar books, model letter writers, guides for 'good language' -- Research literature -- Index.

The nineteenth century has attracted considerable interest in German historical (socio)linguistics over the last twenty-five years, as it is considered to be the century in which the 'roots' of present-day German can be found. A great deal of the research literature has been devoted to the rise of standard German. Little attention has been paid to the relationship between norms and usage. In order to gain an understanding of their complex relationship, this chapter will first look at socio-historical developments and language ideologies which can be seen as crucial for the external language history of nineteenth-century German. It will then discuss different models of standardization, shaped by different ideologies and notions of 'standard language'. Next, an overview will be given of the main prescriptive works and the most important text sources and corpora for research on the language use of this period. This relationship will be illustrated with a few examples from grammar, followed by the conclusions.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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