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Cover -- Half Title -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Table of Contents -- Detailed Table of Contents -- Foreword -- Preface -- Introduction -- Reform and Renewal in Islamic Thought: Origins and Evolution -- Reform Movements as Responses to External Threats and -- Encounter with Modernity -- Modernity and Imperialism -- Non-European Responses to Modernity -- Muslim Responses to Modernity: A Historical Perspective -- Afghani, Abduh, and the New Islamic Reformism -- Ascendance of the Modernizers: An Ephemeral Victory? -- The Return of Islam: A Reaction to Modernization or Its Result? -- Contemporary Muslim Reformist Movements: Genesis and Ideas -- Success and Disillusionment: The Case of Iran -- Failure and Its Consequences: Turkey and the Arab World -- The Rise of Extremism and the Changing International System -- Islamic Reformist Thinking: Early Debates and Themes -- Reason versus Tradition -- Literalism versus Contextualism -- Current Islamic Reformist Thinking: Diverse Influences and Common Traits -- Structure and Methodology of This Book -- A Note on Spelling and Transliteration -- 1. Islamic Reformist Discourse in Iran Proponents and Prospects -- Tradition and Modernity: The Still Relevant Paradigm -- Iranian Responses to Modernity: Historical Background -- The Pahlavi Era: Modernization Without Modernity -- Islamic Forces Under the Pahlavis -- Islamic Reformist Thinking Before the Revolution: Revivers and Intellectuals -- Revivers of Islam -- Ayatullah Murtaza Mutahari -- Ayatullah Muhammad Husseini Beheshti -- Ayatullah Mahmud Taleqani: Reviver and Intellectual -- Religious Intellectuals -- Mehdi Bazargan and the Scientific Reading of Islam -- Ali Shariati: The Ideologue of the Islamic Revolution? -- Shariati's Vision of Islam -- Shariati and Marxism -- Islam, Government, and Revolution.
Islamic Revolution: Impact on Islamic Reformist Thinking -- Typology of Reformist Thinkers -- Reformist Clerics -- Hujat al-Islam Muhammad Khatami -- Ayatullah Hussein Ali Muntazeri -- Ayatullah Yussef Saanei -- Ayatullah Muhammad Moussavi Bojnourdi -- Hujat al-Islam Muhsen Kadivar -- Sheikh Abdullah Nouri -- Ex-Clerics -- Muhammad Mujtahed Shabestari -- Preconceptions of Fuqaha and the Limits of Fiqh -- Governance, Democracy, and Human Rights -- Muhsen Saidzadeh -- Yussefi Eshkevari -- Ahmad Qabel -- Lay Religious Reformists -- Abdolkarim Soroush -- Mustafa Malekian -- Ali Reza Alavitabar -- Emmad Eddin Baqi -- Conclusions -- 2. Reformist and Moderate Voices of Islam in the Arab East -- The Range and Characteristics of Reformist and Moderate Discourses -- Intermediary Islam and the Muslim Brotherhood -- New Reformist Projects -- The Syrian Reform Project -- The Egyptian Reform Project -- Other Reform Projects -- Enlightened Islam -- Islamic Left -- Democracy and Muslim Moderates -- Muslim Reformist Activists -- Hisham Ga'far -- Mohammad Mus'ad -- Ahmad Abdullah -- Magdi Sa'id -- 'Amr Abu Khalil -- Ahmad Muhammad and Muhammad abd al-Gawwad -- Peaceful Islam: The "Repentants" (al-Ta'ibun) -- Gamal Sultan and al-Manar al-Jadid -- Liberal Islam -- Abd el-Aziz al-Kasim -- Abdallah al-Hamid -- Hassan al-Malki -- Mansour al-Nogaidan -- Muhammad Sa'id Tayyeb -- 'A'id al-Quirni -- Practical Objectives of Saudi Reformist Discourse -- The New Preachers (al-Du'ah al-Judud) -- Shi'a Moderate and Reformist Thinking -- Conclusions -- 3. Reformist Islamic Thinkers in the Maghreb Toward an Islamic Age of Enlightenment? -- Islamic Reformist Thinking in the Maghreb: A Brief History -- Post-Independence Nation Building: Impact on the Evolution of Islamic Discourse -- Maghreb's Muslim Reformist Thinkers: Who Are They? -- The Philosophy of Reformist Thinkers.
Methodologies of Reformist Thinkers -- Reformist Muslim Thinkers and the State of the Arab-Islamic World -- Reformist Scholars and Contemporary Political and Social Issues -- Secularism and Democracy -- Freedom of Conscience, Human Rights, Individual Liberties -- Women's Rights -- Moderate Islamist Parties -- Conclusions -- 4. Islamic Modernist and Reformist Discourse in South Asia -- The Pioneers of Islamic Reformism and Modernism -- Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim Modernism: Philosophy and Methodology -- Sir Sayyid's Disciples -- Mulawi Chriaq Ali: Advancing Sir Sayyid's Reformist Agenda -- Mahdi Ali Khan (Muhsin al-Mulk): A More Cautious Reformism -- Sayyid Mumtaz Ali: Defender of Women's Rights -- Muhammad Iqbal: Reconstruction of Islamic Thought -- Iqbal's Religious Philosophy: The Self and the Purpose of Life -- Iqbal's Epistemology -- Iqbal and the "Reconstruction" of Religious Thought in Islam -- Iqbal's Views on Democracy -- Iqbal's Views on Women -- Fazlur Rahman: Pakistan's Influential Reformist Thinker -- Fazlur Rahman's Philosophy and Methodology -- Fazlur Rahman's Views on Revelation -- Fazlur Rahman's Views on Democracy -- Fazlur Rahman's Views on Women's Rights -- Muhammad Khalid Masud: Keeper of the Reformist Tradition -- Khalid Masud's Philosophy and Methodology -- Khalid Masud's View on Democracy -- Khalid Masud's Views on Pluralism in Islam -- Khalid Masud and Review of the Hudud Ordinances (1979) -- Riffat Hassan: Theology of Women in the Islamic Tradition -- Riffat Hassan's Methodology for Interpreting Islamic Texts -- Javed Ahmad Ghamidi: Contemporary Reformist Thinker in Pakistan -- Javed Ahmad Ghamidi's Approach to Interpreting Islamic Texts -- Javed Ahmad Ghamidi's Views on Governance and Democracy -- Javed Ahmad Ghamidi's Views on Women -- Asghar Ali Engineer: India's Reformist Scholar-Activist.
Asghar Ali Engineer: A Leader of the Dawoodi Bohra Reform Movement -- Asghar Ali Engineer's Philosophy and Methodology -- Yoginder Singh Sikand: A Moderate Muslim Voice in India -- Conclusions -- 5. Liberal and Progressive Voices in Indonesian Islam -- The Beginnings of Islamic Reform in Indonesia -- Reformist Movements and Organizations: A Brief History -- The Traditionalist Reaction -- Politicization of Islamic Reformism -- From Party Politics to Da'wa -- Nurcholish Madjid and the Movement for "Renewal of Religious Thought" -- First Provocative Ideas -- The Yogyakarta Group and Intellectual Influences on the Renewal Movement -- The Renewal Movement and the New Order -- Institutionalization of the Renewal Movement: Paramadina -- Core Elements in Nurcholish's Thought -- Traditionalist Islam, the Pesantren, and the Search for a Socially Relevant Fiqh -- Abdurrahman Wahid: Maverick Modern Traditionalist -- Nahdatul Ulama, NGO Activists, and the "Fiqh of Social Questions" -- Gender Issues, Liberation Theology, and Human Rights in Traditionalist Circles -- Women's Rights -- Developing a Rights-Based Islamic Discourse -- Institutional Networks -- The "Five Basic Needs" as a Basis for an Islamic Human Rights Discourse -- Eclecticism, Social Activism, and Discourse -- Post-Suharto Developments -- Inter-Religious Tensions and the Defense of Religious Pluralism -- The Liberal Islam Network -- Conclusions -- 6. Reformist Muslim Thinkers in Malaysia Engaging with Power to Uplift the Umma? -- Reformist Islam in Historical Context -- Early Reformist Thinkers -- The Traditionalist/Reformist Encounter -- Fighting Islam with Islam: Malaysia's State-Sponsored Islamization -- Imperatives of Development and Islam -- Statist, Modernist, Developmentalist Islam -- Power and Patronage: Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas and the Pitfalls of State Power.
The Failure of State-Sponsored Islamic Reformism -- Liminality and Critique: Chandra Muzaffar and the Struggle for Reform in Islam -- Other Reformist Voices -- Kassim Ahmad, the Critic of Hadith -- Islamic Feminism -- Emerging Reformist Clergy -- Has "Reformist Islam" Become a Hostage to Malaysian Politics? -- 7. Islamic Reformist Discourses and Intellectuals in Turkey Permanent Religion with Dynamic Law -- The Fall of the Empire and the Rise of the Republic -- Opposition, Resistance, and the Development of Turkish Democracy -- Islamic Reformist Thinkers in the Republican Era -- Transitional Figures -- Second Generation -- Third Generation -- Reforming Islam from Within: Revival or Inner Secularization? -- Reform via Usul al-Fiqh -- Hayrettin Karaman -- Fethullah Gülen -- Reform via Historicism -- Historicity of the Qur'an: Ömer Özsoy and Mehmet Paçacı -- Historicity of the Hadith: Hayri Kırbaşoğ lu -- Historicity of Theology: İlhami Güler -- Historicity of the Law: Practical Questions -- Reform and Sufi Thought -- Conclusions -- 8. Reformist and Moderate Voices in European Islam -- Muslim Immigration to Europe -- Economic Downturn and Social Revolution: Challenges to Europe's Muslims -- Major Questions Facing Europe's Muslims -- Moderate and Reformist Muslim Responses: Defining Moderation and Reform -- Traditional, Moderate, and Reformist Muslim Associations -- Positions of Muslim Organizations on Key Issues in European-Muslim Relations -- Transnational Organizations -- The New Muslim Intellectuals -- Global Islamic Intellectuals: Tariq Ramadan -- Building Bridges Between Muslims and British Society: Zaki Badawi -- The New Middle-Class Intellectual: Ziauddin Sardar and "Mere Islam" -- Other British Muslim Reformists -- Free-Floating Muslim Intellectuals -- Self-Proclaimed Preachers: The Case of Hassan Iquioussen.
Imam of Muslims as a Religious Minority: The Case of Tariq Oubrou.
In recent years, Islamic fundamentalist, revolutionary, and jihadist movements have overshadowed more moderate and reformist voices and trends within Islam. This compelling volume introduces the current generation of reformist thinkers and activists, the intellectual traditions they carry on, and the reasons for the failure of reformist movements to sustain broad support in the Islamic world today. Richly detailed regionally focused chapters cover Iran, the Arab East, the Maghreb, South Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Europe, and North America. The editor's introductory chapter traces the roots of reformist thinking both in Islamic tradition and as a response to the challenge of modernity for Muslims struggling to reconcile the requirements of modernization with their cultural and religious values. The concluding chapter identifies commonalities, comparisons, and trends in the modernizing movements.
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.