Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases.

By: Farooqui, Akhlaq A
Contributor(s): Farooqui, Tahira
Publisher: Somerset : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (401 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118840573Subject(s): Brain -- Physiology.;Aging -- PhysiologyGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological DiseasesDDC classification: 612.8 LOC classification: QP376 -- .D54 2015ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- CONTENTS -- CONTRIBUTORS -- FOREWORD: KIRK I. ERICKSON -- FOREWORD: SHIN MURAKAMI -- PREFACE -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- CHAPTER 1 NUTRITION, GENES, AND NEUROSCIENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH, AND DISEASE -- 1.1 INTRODUCTION -- 1.2 NUTRITION AND COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE -- 1.2.1 Specific Nutrients -- 1.2.2 Mediterranean Diet -- 1.2.3 Energy Status -- 1.3 MECHANISMS UNDERLYING NUTRITION-GENE INTERACTIONS -- 1.3.1 Nutritional Regulation of Gene Expression -- 1.3.2 Epigenetics: Definition and Mechanisms -- 1.3.3 Gene Variability and Individual Responses to Nutrition -- 1.4 ENVIRONMENT AND EPIGENETICS IN NEUROLOGICAL HEALTH AND DISEASE -- 1.4.1 Epigenetics: Development and Metabolism -- 1.4.2 Energy Status, Signaling Molecules, and Cognitive Function -- 1.4.3 Neuroepigenetics and Neurological Disorders -- 1.5 EARLY NUTRITION, BRAIN DEVELOPMENT, AND LATER NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE -- 1.5.1 Programming of Health and Disease -- 1.5.2 Early Nutrition and Later Cognitive Function -- 1.5.3 Nutritional Programming: Epigenetics and Neurology -- 1.6 CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 2 NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN DIET CONSUMPTION ON HUMAN BRAIN -- 2.1 INTRODUCTION -- 2.2 EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM CONSUMPTION OF WESTERN DIET ON THE BRAIN -- 2.2.1 Harmful Effects of Fats in Western Diet -- 2.2.2 Harmful Effects of Carbohydrates in Western Diet -- 2.2.3 Harmful Effects of High Protein Contents in Western Diet -- 2.2.4 Harmful Effects of High Salt in Western Diet -- 2.3 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 3 EFFECT OF MEDITERRANEAN DIET ON HUMAN HEALTH IN SENIORS: RELATIONSHIP WITH TELOMERS -- 3.1 INTRODUCTION -- 3.2 MD AND HUMAN HEALTH: WHAT'S THE EVIDENCE -- 3.3 EXPLANATORY MECHANISMS LINKING MD TO HUMAN HEALTH -- 3.4 CELLULAR SENESCENCE, TELOMERE SHORTENING, AND MD: CONNECTED AGENTS OF AGING?.
3.4.1 Replicative Cellular Senescence: Telomere/Telomerase System -- 3.4.2 MD and Telomere Dynamics -- 3.4.3 MD and Telomere Shortening: Regulatory Mechanisms -- 3.5 CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL REMARKS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 4 EFFECT OF A MEDITERRANEAN DIET ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF LIFE -- 4.1 INTRODUCTION -- 4.2 THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET -- 4.3 HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE -- 4.4 HOW DOES FOOD AFFECT QUALITY OF LIFE? -- 4.4.1 Insights from Observational Studies -- 4.4.2 Changing Diet to Improve Quality of Life: Evidence from Intervention Studies -- 4.5 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 5 KETOGENIC DIETS FOR THE TREATMENT OF NEUROLOGIC DISEASE -- 5.1 INTRODUCTION -- 5.2 HISTORY -- 5.3 PROPOSED MECHANISMS OF THE KD -- 5.4 THE KD IN PRACTICE -- 5.5 ALTERNATIVE KD -- 5.6 THE KD IN EPILEPSY: EVIDENCE FOR USE -- 5.7 THE KD FOR NEUROLOGIC DISEASES OTHER THAN EPILEPSY -- 5.7.1 Alzheimer's Disease -- 5.7.2 Malignant Brain Tumors -- 5.7.3 Autism Spectrum Disorder -- 5.8 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 6 LEVELS OF N-3 FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR METABOLITES IN THE BRAIN: THEIR IMPACT ON BRAIN FUNCTION AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS -- 6.1 INTRODUCTION -- 6.2 EPA-DERIVED LIPID MEDIATORS -- 6.3 DHA-DERIVED LIPID MEDIATORS -- 6.3.1 17s RvDs -- 6.3.2 Protectins and Neuroprotectin -- 6.4 GENERATION OF EPA- AND DHA-DERIVED LIPID MEDIATORS AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS -- 6.5 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 7 HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS -- 7.1 INTRODUCTION -- 7.2 Hcy IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS -- 7.2.1 Hcy and CMI -- 7.2.2 Hcy and AD -- 7.2.3 Hcy and Vascular Dementia -- 7.2.4 Hcy and Multiple Sclerosis -- 7.2.5 Hcy and PD -- 7.2.6 Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome -- 7.3 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 8 TABLE SALT AND DEMENTIA -- 8.1 INTRODUCTION -- 8.2 SALT AND HYPERTENSION -- 8.3 PATHWAYS FROM SALT TO HYPERTENSION AND RAAS.
8.3.1 Physiology of Blood Pressure Control: RAAS -- 8.3.2 Hypervolemia, Hypertension Sodium Exchange, and Ouabain -- 8.4 STROKES: MULTI-INFARCT DEMENTIA -- 8.4.1 Hypertension and Vascular Dementia -- 8.4.2 Hypertension-Related Cardiac Causes of Stroke -- 8.5 SALT, AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSES, AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE -- 8.6 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 9 CONTRIBUTION OF DIET AND EXERCISE IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF MAJOR DEPRESSION -- 9.1 INTRODUCTION -- 9.2 DIET AND DEPRESSION -- 9.2.1 Is There a Relationship between Diet and Depression? -- 9.2.2 Are Dietary Interventions Effective for the Treatment of Depression? -- 9.3 POTENTIAL MECHANISMS BEHIND THE ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIONS OF DIET -- 9.3.1 Neurotransmitters Mechanisms -- 9.3.2 Inflammatory Mechanisms -- 9.3.3 Oxidative Stress Mechanisms -- 9.3.4 Neuroprogression -- 9.4 DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH -- 9.5 EXERCISE AND DEPRESSION -- 9.5.1 Is There a Relationship between Exercise and Depression? -- 9.5.2 Are Exercise Interventions Effective for the Treatment of Depression? -- 9.6 POTENTIAL MECHANISMS BEHIND THE ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECT OF EXERCISE -- 9.6.1 Neurotransmitters Mechanisms -- 9.6.2 Inflammatory Mechanisms -- 9.6.3 Oxidative Stress Mechanisms -- 9.6.4 Neuroprogression -- 9.7 Directions for Future Research -- 9.8 Conclusion -- References -- CHAPTER 10 ROLE OF DIET AND EXERCISE IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY -- 10.1 INTRODUCTION -- 10.2 METABOLIC DYSREGULATION IN DR -- 10.3 LIFESTYLE INTERVENTIONS OF DIABETES -- 10.3.1 Physical Activity -- 10.3.2 Role of Diet -- 10.4 CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 11 THE EFFECT OF WESTERN DIET ON COGNITION IN HUMANS -- 11.1 INTRODUCTION -- 11.2 COGNITIVE FUNCTION: MEMORY, ATTENTION, WORKING MEMORY, AND INHIBITION -- 11.2.1 Saturated Fat -- 11.2.2 Refined Sugar -- 11.2.3 Combined -- 11.2.4 Putative Causal Factors -- 11.3 DEPRESSION.
11.4 NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE -- 11.5 AFFECT/ADDICTION -- 11.6 BREAST-FEEDING -- 11.7 MITIGATING FACTORS -- 11.8 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 12 ROLE OF DIET AND EXERCISE IN INTERVENTION OF AGE INDUCED IMPAIRMENTS -- 12.1 INTRODUCTION -- 12.2 ROLE OF DIET IN ANTIAGING INTERVENTIONS -- 12.2.1 Caloric Restriction -- 12.2.2 Dietary Antioxidants -- 12.2.3 Ascorbic Acid and Other Vitamins -- 12.2.4 Plant Polyphenols -- 12.3 EXERCISE AS AN ANTIAGING INTERVENTION STRATEGY -- 12.4 ROLE OF DIET AND EXERCISE ON THE AGING BRAIN -- 12.5 CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 13 HORMESIS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: AN EVOLUTIONARY/ADAPTIVE ARABESQUE LEADING TO LONGEVITY -- 13.1 INTRODUCTION: STRESS FOR OPTIMUM SMARTNESS -- 13.2 LIFE IS AN ENERGY-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEM THAT ACCELERATES ENTROPY -- 13.3 THE CONCEPT OF HORMESIS -- 13.4 HORMESIS, INTELLIGENCE, AND THE MITOCHONDRION: INFLAMMATORY LESSONS -- 13.5 EXPANDING THE HYPOTHESIS: MITOCHONDRIAL PROTECTION OF QUANTUM THINKING -- 13.6 A QUANTUM THEORY OF INFORMATION AND HORMESIS INVOLVING THE MITOCHONDRION -- 13.7 CONCLUSION: HORMESIS DROVE THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE AND MAINTAINS IT TODAY -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 14 POLYPHENOLS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION -- 14.1 INTRODUCTION -- 14.2 AGING AND NEURODEGENERATION -- 14.3 BRAIN/COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, AND AGING -- 14.4 RESVERATROL -- 14.4.1 Resveratrol: Preclinical Studies Implicating Molecular/Cellular/Physiological Function and Link to Neuroprotection -- 14.4.2 Resveratrol: Preclinical Studies Examining Neuroprotection, Neurodegenerative Conditions, Learning and Memory, and Cognitive Function -- 14.5 FACTORS IMPORTANT IN HUMAN COGNITIVE FUNCTION -- 14.6 CLINICAL STUDIES ON POLYPHENOLIC COMPONDS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION -- 14.7 SUMMARY AND PERSPECTIVES -- REFERENCES.
CHAPTER 15 PREVENTION OF DEMENTIA THROUGH MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS -- 15.1 INTRODUCTION -- 15.2 DEMENTIA -- 15.2.1 Overview -- 15.2.2 Risk Factors -- 15.2.3 Prevention -- 15.3 DIET -- 15.3.1 Overview -- 15.3.2 Calories and Fat -- 15.3.3 Fish and Fatty Acids -- 15.3.4 Fruit and Vegetable -- 15.3.5 Mediterranean Diet -- 15.3.6 Tea and Coffee -- 15.3.7 Antioxidant and Nutritional Supplement -- 15.3.8 Food Combination -- 15.4 EXERCISE -- 15.4.1 Overview -- 15.4.2 Cognitive Exercise -- 15.4.3 Physical Exercise -- 15.5 CONCLUSION -- 15.5.1 Diet -- 15.5.2 Exercise -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 16 PHYSICAL EXERCISE IMPROVES COGNITION IN BRAIN DISORDERS: ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE -- 16.1 INTRODUCTION -- 16.2 EXERCISE AND NUTRITION BENEFITS -- 16.3 EXERCISE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN AD -- 16.4 CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 17 MOLECULAR, BIOCHEMICAL, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BENEFICIAL ACTIONS OF EXERCISE -- 17.1 INTRODUCTION -- 17.2 IL-6 HAS BOTH PRO- AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIONS -- 17.3 INTERACTION(S) BETWEEN CORTISOL AND CYTOKINES AND ITS RELEVANCE TO SEPSIS -- 17.4 EXERCISE, IL-6, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE -- 17.5 MYOSTATIN, FST, AND GDF-11 AND EXERCISE -- 17.6 GDF-11 AND EXERCISE -- 17.7 EXERCISE-INDUCED METABOLIC RESPONSES AND NUR-77 EXPRESSION -- 17.8 EXERCISE ENHANCES BDNF PRODUCTION -- 17.9 EXERCISE AUGMENTS THE FORMATION OF LIPOXINS AND NO -- 17.10 AUTOPHAGY, PGC-1α, AND EXERCISE -- 17.11 CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 18 BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND COGNITIVE TRAINING ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN OLDER ADULTS: INTRODUCTION OF SMART AGING STUDIES -- 18.1 INTRODUCTION -- 18.2 SMART AGING STUDIES FOR COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENTS -- 18.3 IMPROVEMENTS OF COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS AFTER INTERVENTIONS -- 18.4 NEW INTERVENTION PROGRAMS FOR SMART AGING -- 18.4.1 Highlights of New Intervention Programs for Smart Aging.
18.4.2 Summary of Results of RCTs Using Our Intervention Programs.
Summary: Diet and exercise have long been recognized as important components of a healthy lifestyle, as they have a great impact on improving cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions, lowering the risk of metabolic disorders, and contributing to healthy aging. As a greater proportion of the world's population is living longer, there has been increased interest in understanding the role  of nutrition and exercise  in long-term neurological health and cognitive function. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases  discusses the role and impact that nutrition and activity have on cognitive function and neurological health. The book is divided into two sections. The first section focuses on diet and its impact on neurobiological processes. Chapters focus on the impacts of specific diets, such as the Mediterranean,  ketogenic and vegan diets,  as well as the role of specific nutrients, fats, fatty acids, and calorie restriction  on neurological health and cognitive function. The second section of the book focuses on exercise, and its role in maintaining cognitive function, reducing neuroinflammatory responses, regulating adult neurogenesis, and healthy brain aging. Other chapters look at the impact of exercise  in the management of specific neurological disorders such Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases is a timely reference on the neurobiological interplay between diet and exercise on long-term brain health and cognitive function.
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Intro -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- CONTENTS -- CONTRIBUTORS -- FOREWORD: KIRK I. ERICKSON -- FOREWORD: SHIN MURAKAMI -- PREFACE -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- CHAPTER 1 NUTRITION, GENES, AND NEUROSCIENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH, AND DISEASE -- 1.1 INTRODUCTION -- 1.2 NUTRITION AND COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE -- 1.2.1 Specific Nutrients -- 1.2.2 Mediterranean Diet -- 1.2.3 Energy Status -- 1.3 MECHANISMS UNDERLYING NUTRITION-GENE INTERACTIONS -- 1.3.1 Nutritional Regulation of Gene Expression -- 1.3.2 Epigenetics: Definition and Mechanisms -- 1.3.3 Gene Variability and Individual Responses to Nutrition -- 1.4 ENVIRONMENT AND EPIGENETICS IN NEUROLOGICAL HEALTH AND DISEASE -- 1.4.1 Epigenetics: Development and Metabolism -- 1.4.2 Energy Status, Signaling Molecules, and Cognitive Function -- 1.4.3 Neuroepigenetics and Neurological Disorders -- 1.5 EARLY NUTRITION, BRAIN DEVELOPMENT, AND LATER NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE -- 1.5.1 Programming of Health and Disease -- 1.5.2 Early Nutrition and Later Cognitive Function -- 1.5.3 Nutritional Programming: Epigenetics and Neurology -- 1.6 CONCLUSIONS -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 2 NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN DIET CONSUMPTION ON HUMAN BRAIN -- 2.1 INTRODUCTION -- 2.2 EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM CONSUMPTION OF WESTERN DIET ON THE BRAIN -- 2.2.1 Harmful Effects of Fats in Western Diet -- 2.2.2 Harmful Effects of Carbohydrates in Western Diet -- 2.2.3 Harmful Effects of High Protein Contents in Western Diet -- 2.2.4 Harmful Effects of High Salt in Western Diet -- 2.3 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 3 EFFECT OF MEDITERRANEAN DIET ON HUMAN HEALTH IN SENIORS: RELATIONSHIP WITH TELOMERS -- 3.1 INTRODUCTION -- 3.2 MD AND HUMAN HEALTH: WHAT'S THE EVIDENCE -- 3.3 EXPLANATORY MECHANISMS LINKING MD TO HUMAN HEALTH -- 3.4 CELLULAR SENESCENCE, TELOMERE SHORTENING, AND MD: CONNECTED AGENTS OF AGING?.

3.4.1 Replicative Cellular Senescence: Telomere/Telomerase System -- 3.4.2 MD and Telomere Dynamics -- 3.4.3 MD and Telomere Shortening: Regulatory Mechanisms -- 3.5 CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL REMARKS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 4 EFFECT OF A MEDITERRANEAN DIET ON MENTAL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF LIFE -- 4.1 INTRODUCTION -- 4.2 THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET -- 4.3 HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE -- 4.4 HOW DOES FOOD AFFECT QUALITY OF LIFE? -- 4.4.1 Insights from Observational Studies -- 4.4.2 Changing Diet to Improve Quality of Life: Evidence from Intervention Studies -- 4.5 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 5 KETOGENIC DIETS FOR THE TREATMENT OF NEUROLOGIC DISEASE -- 5.1 INTRODUCTION -- 5.2 HISTORY -- 5.3 PROPOSED MECHANISMS OF THE KD -- 5.4 THE KD IN PRACTICE -- 5.5 ALTERNATIVE KD -- 5.6 THE KD IN EPILEPSY: EVIDENCE FOR USE -- 5.7 THE KD FOR NEUROLOGIC DISEASES OTHER THAN EPILEPSY -- 5.7.1 Alzheimer's Disease -- 5.7.2 Malignant Brain Tumors -- 5.7.3 Autism Spectrum Disorder -- 5.8 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 6 LEVELS OF N-3 FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR METABOLITES IN THE BRAIN: THEIR IMPACT ON BRAIN FUNCTION AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS -- 6.1 INTRODUCTION -- 6.2 EPA-DERIVED LIPID MEDIATORS -- 6.3 DHA-DERIVED LIPID MEDIATORS -- 6.3.1 17s RvDs -- 6.3.2 Protectins and Neuroprotectin -- 6.4 GENERATION OF EPA- AND DHA-DERIVED LIPID MEDIATORS AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS -- 6.5 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 7 HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS -- 7.1 INTRODUCTION -- 7.2 Hcy IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS -- 7.2.1 Hcy and CMI -- 7.2.2 Hcy and AD -- 7.2.3 Hcy and Vascular Dementia -- 7.2.4 Hcy and Multiple Sclerosis -- 7.2.5 Hcy and PD -- 7.2.6 Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome -- 7.3 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 8 TABLE SALT AND DEMENTIA -- 8.1 INTRODUCTION -- 8.2 SALT AND HYPERTENSION -- 8.3 PATHWAYS FROM SALT TO HYPERTENSION AND RAAS.

8.3.1 Physiology of Blood Pressure Control: RAAS -- 8.3.2 Hypervolemia, Hypertension Sodium Exchange, and Ouabain -- 8.4 STROKES: MULTI-INFARCT DEMENTIA -- 8.4.1 Hypertension and Vascular Dementia -- 8.4.2 Hypertension-Related Cardiac Causes of Stroke -- 8.5 SALT, AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSES, AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE -- 8.6 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 9 CONTRIBUTION OF DIET AND EXERCISE IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF MAJOR DEPRESSION -- 9.1 INTRODUCTION -- 9.2 DIET AND DEPRESSION -- 9.2.1 Is There a Relationship between Diet and Depression? -- 9.2.2 Are Dietary Interventions Effective for the Treatment of Depression? -- 9.3 POTENTIAL MECHANISMS BEHIND THE ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIONS OF DIET -- 9.3.1 Neurotransmitters Mechanisms -- 9.3.2 Inflammatory Mechanisms -- 9.3.3 Oxidative Stress Mechanisms -- 9.3.4 Neuroprogression -- 9.4 DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH -- 9.5 EXERCISE AND DEPRESSION -- 9.5.1 Is There a Relationship between Exercise and Depression? -- 9.5.2 Are Exercise Interventions Effective for the Treatment of Depression? -- 9.6 POTENTIAL MECHANISMS BEHIND THE ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECT OF EXERCISE -- 9.6.1 Neurotransmitters Mechanisms -- 9.6.2 Inflammatory Mechanisms -- 9.6.3 Oxidative Stress Mechanisms -- 9.6.4 Neuroprogression -- 9.7 Directions for Future Research -- 9.8 Conclusion -- References -- CHAPTER 10 ROLE OF DIET AND EXERCISE IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY -- 10.1 INTRODUCTION -- 10.2 METABOLIC DYSREGULATION IN DR -- 10.3 LIFESTYLE INTERVENTIONS OF DIABETES -- 10.3.1 Physical Activity -- 10.3.2 Role of Diet -- 10.4 CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENT -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 11 THE EFFECT OF WESTERN DIET ON COGNITION IN HUMANS -- 11.1 INTRODUCTION -- 11.2 COGNITIVE FUNCTION: MEMORY, ATTENTION, WORKING MEMORY, AND INHIBITION -- 11.2.1 Saturated Fat -- 11.2.2 Refined Sugar -- 11.2.3 Combined -- 11.2.4 Putative Causal Factors -- 11.3 DEPRESSION.

11.4 NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE -- 11.5 AFFECT/ADDICTION -- 11.6 BREAST-FEEDING -- 11.7 MITIGATING FACTORS -- 11.8 CONCLUSION -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 12 ROLE OF DIET AND EXERCISE IN INTERVENTION OF AGE INDUCED IMPAIRMENTS -- 12.1 INTRODUCTION -- 12.2 ROLE OF DIET IN ANTIAGING INTERVENTIONS -- 12.2.1 Caloric Restriction -- 12.2.2 Dietary Antioxidants -- 12.2.3 Ascorbic Acid and Other Vitamins -- 12.2.4 Plant Polyphenols -- 12.3 EXERCISE AS AN ANTIAGING INTERVENTION STRATEGY -- 12.4 ROLE OF DIET AND EXERCISE ON THE AGING BRAIN -- 12.5 CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 13 HORMESIS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: AN EVOLUTIONARY/ADAPTIVE ARABESQUE LEADING TO LONGEVITY -- 13.1 INTRODUCTION: STRESS FOR OPTIMUM SMARTNESS -- 13.2 LIFE IS AN ENERGY-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEM THAT ACCELERATES ENTROPY -- 13.3 THE CONCEPT OF HORMESIS -- 13.4 HORMESIS, INTELLIGENCE, AND THE MITOCHONDRION: INFLAMMATORY LESSONS -- 13.5 EXPANDING THE HYPOTHESIS: MITOCHONDRIAL PROTECTION OF QUANTUM THINKING -- 13.6 A QUANTUM THEORY OF INFORMATION AND HORMESIS INVOLVING THE MITOCHONDRION -- 13.7 CONCLUSION: HORMESIS DROVE THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE AND MAINTAINS IT TODAY -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 14 POLYPHENOLS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION -- 14.1 INTRODUCTION -- 14.2 AGING AND NEURODEGENERATION -- 14.3 BRAIN/COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, AND AGING -- 14.4 RESVERATROL -- 14.4.1 Resveratrol: Preclinical Studies Implicating Molecular/Cellular/Physiological Function and Link to Neuroprotection -- 14.4.2 Resveratrol: Preclinical Studies Examining Neuroprotection, Neurodegenerative Conditions, Learning and Memory, and Cognitive Function -- 14.5 FACTORS IMPORTANT IN HUMAN COGNITIVE FUNCTION -- 14.6 CLINICAL STUDIES ON POLYPHENOLIC COMPONDS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION -- 14.7 SUMMARY AND PERSPECTIVES -- REFERENCES.

CHAPTER 15 PREVENTION OF DEMENTIA THROUGH MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS -- 15.1 INTRODUCTION -- 15.2 DEMENTIA -- 15.2.1 Overview -- 15.2.2 Risk Factors -- 15.2.3 Prevention -- 15.3 DIET -- 15.3.1 Overview -- 15.3.2 Calories and Fat -- 15.3.3 Fish and Fatty Acids -- 15.3.4 Fruit and Vegetable -- 15.3.5 Mediterranean Diet -- 15.3.6 Tea and Coffee -- 15.3.7 Antioxidant and Nutritional Supplement -- 15.3.8 Food Combination -- 15.4 EXERCISE -- 15.4.1 Overview -- 15.4.2 Cognitive Exercise -- 15.4.3 Physical Exercise -- 15.5 CONCLUSION -- 15.5.1 Diet -- 15.5.2 Exercise -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 16 PHYSICAL EXERCISE IMPROVES COGNITION IN BRAIN DISORDERS: ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE -- 16.1 INTRODUCTION -- 16.2 EXERCISE AND NUTRITION BENEFITS -- 16.3 EXERCISE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN AD -- 16.4 CONCLUSION -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 17 MOLECULAR, BIOCHEMICAL, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BENEFICIAL ACTIONS OF EXERCISE -- 17.1 INTRODUCTION -- 17.2 IL-6 HAS BOTH PRO- AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIONS -- 17.3 INTERACTION(S) BETWEEN CORTISOL AND CYTOKINES AND ITS RELEVANCE TO SEPSIS -- 17.4 EXERCISE, IL-6, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE -- 17.5 MYOSTATIN, FST, AND GDF-11 AND EXERCISE -- 17.6 GDF-11 AND EXERCISE -- 17.7 EXERCISE-INDUCED METABOLIC RESPONSES AND NUR-77 EXPRESSION -- 17.8 EXERCISE ENHANCES BDNF PRODUCTION -- 17.9 EXERCISE AUGMENTS THE FORMATION OF LIPOXINS AND NO -- 17.10 AUTOPHAGY, PGC-1α, AND EXERCISE -- 17.11 CONCLUSIONS -- REFERENCES -- CHAPTER 18 BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND COGNITIVE TRAINING ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN OLDER ADULTS: INTRODUCTION OF SMART AGING STUDIES -- 18.1 INTRODUCTION -- 18.2 SMART AGING STUDIES FOR COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENTS -- 18.3 IMPROVEMENTS OF COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS AFTER INTERVENTIONS -- 18.4 NEW INTERVENTION PROGRAMS FOR SMART AGING -- 18.4.1 Highlights of New Intervention Programs for Smart Aging.

18.4.2 Summary of Results of RCTs Using Our Intervention Programs.

Diet and exercise have long been recognized as important components of a healthy lifestyle, as they have a great impact on improving cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions, lowering the risk of metabolic disorders, and contributing to healthy aging. As a greater proportion of the world's population is living longer, there has been increased interest in understanding the role  of nutrition and exercise  in long-term neurological health and cognitive function. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases  discusses the role and impact that nutrition and activity have on cognitive function and neurological health. The book is divided into two sections. The first section focuses on diet and its impact on neurobiological processes. Chapters focus on the impacts of specific diets, such as the Mediterranean,  ketogenic and vegan diets,  as well as the role of specific nutrients, fats, fatty acids, and calorie restriction  on neurological health and cognitive function. The second section of the book focuses on exercise, and its role in maintaining cognitive function, reducing neuroinflammatory responses, regulating adult neurogenesis, and healthy brain aging. Other chapters look at the impact of exercise  in the management of specific neurological disorders such Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases is a timely reference on the neurobiological interplay between diet and exercise on long-term brain health and cognitive function.

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