Atherosclerosis : Risks, Mechanisms, and Therapies.

By: Wang, Hong
Contributor(s): Patterson, Cam
Publisher: Somerset : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (631 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118828557Subject(s): Atherosclerosis.;Atherosclerosis -- Pathophysiology.;Atherosclerosis -- PreventionGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Atherosclerosis : Risks, Mechanisms, and TherapiesDDC classification: 616.136 LOC classification: RC692 -- .A84 2015ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Intro -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Contributors -- Foreword -- Preface -- Section I Risk Factors: Old and New -- Chapter 1 Lipoproteins -- Brief History of Cholesterol and Atherosclerosis -- Lipoproteins -- LDL and Atherosclerosis -- Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis -- HDL and Atherosclerosis -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 2 Role of Dysglycemia in Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- Molecular Mechanisms by Which Dysglycemia Accelerates Atherosclerosis -- Dysglycemia and Endothelial Cells -- Dysglycemia and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells -- Dysglycemia and Macrophages -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 3 Glycation, Inflammation and RAGE: Mechanisms Contributing to the Accelerated Atherosclerosis of Diabetes -- Introduction -- Animal Models of Diabetic Atherosclerosis -- Glycation of Proteins and Lipids: Potential Impact on Atherosclerosis -- Non-RAGE Glycation Receptors and Implications for Atherosclerosis -- RAGE and Implications for Diabetic Atherosclerosis -- Glycation and Rage-Studies in Human Subjects -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 4 Inflammation -- Introduction -- Monocyte Recruitment to the Vessel Wall -- Chemokines -- Cytokines -- Shear Stress and Inflammation -- Mechanisms of Flow-Induced Inflammation -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 5 Homocysteine: A Controversial Cardiovascular Risk Factor -- Introduction -- Epidemiological Studies: Establishment of Homocysteine as a Risk Factor -- Animal Models of Hyperhomocysteinemia -- Clinical Intervention Trials -- Summary and Perspectives -- References -- Chapter 6 Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- Evidence Linking Atherosclerosis and Hypertension -- Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Linking Hypertension and Atherosclerosis -- Implications for Treatment and Future Directions.
References -- Chapter 7 The Genetics of Atherosclerosis: From Polymorphisms to Populations -- Introduction -- Lessons from Mendelian Diseases-Familial Hypercholesterolemia -- Role for Genetic Diagnosis and Screening -- Genetically Isolated Population Studies: Implications for Atherosclerosis in the General Population -- GWAS to Identify Atherosclerosis Risk Genes in the General Population -- Identification of a Risk Allele Located at 9P21 by GWAS -- Technologic Advances and the Future -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 8 Life Style -- Introduction -- Lifestyle Factors and Cardiovascular Disease -- Lifestyle Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young -- Physical Activity -- Diet and Nutrition -- Environmental Effects -- Ambient Air Pollution -- Other Environmental Factors -- Summary -- References -- Section II Cellular Mechanisms -- Chapter 9 Endothelial Cells -- Introduction -- Endothelial Nitric Oxide -- Flow and Arterial Shear Stress -- Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Nuclear Receptor Family -- Endothelial Progenitor Cells -- Future Directions -- References -- Chapter 10 Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells -- Introduction -- SMCS in Atheroma Progression -- Extrinsic Control of SMC Biology -- Intrinsic Control of SMC Biology -- Autophagy and Cell Death -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 11 Fibroblasts -- Introduction -- Fibroblast-Dependent Wound Healing -- Role of the Adventitia in the Vessel Injury Response -- Developmental Origins of Adventitial Fibroblasts -- Vascular Progenitors in the Vessel Wall -- Signaling Mechanisms that Influence Myofibroblast Differentiation -- Transcription Mechanisms that Regulate Myofibroblast Differentiation -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12 Monocytes and Macrophages in Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- Monocyte and Macrophage in Atherosclerosis.
Monocyte Origin and Differentiation -- Monocyte Subsets and Transcriptional Regulation -- Inflammatory Monocyte Subsets and Vascular Inflammation -- Monocyte Adhesion and Infiltration -- Vessel Wall Monocyte Origin/Differentiation and Inflammation -- Macrophage and Atherosclerosis -- Macrophage Subsets and Function -- Macrophage Transcriptional Regulation -- Future Directions and Therapeutic Implications -- References -- Chapter 13 Lymphocytes and Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of B and T Cells in Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of Pathogenic Th1 Cells to Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of Type 2 Th Cells to Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of Tregs to Atherosclerosis -- Contributions of Th17 Cells to Atherosclerosis -- Contributions of γδ T Cells to Atherosclerosis -- Contributions of NKT Cells to Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of B Cells to Atherosclerosis -- Contributions of NK Cells to Atherosclerosis -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 14 Stem Cells -- Introduction -- Vascular Progenitors in Development -- Vascular Progenitors in Postnatal Life -- Vascular Progenitors in Vascular Disease and Homeostasis -- Human EPC Therapy -- Mechanisms of Action of Endogenous EPCS in Vascular Repair -- Vascular Progenitors and the Future -- References -- Chapter 15 Platelets -- Overview -- The Platelet Paradigm in Hemostasis and Thrombosis -- The Platelet/Inflammation Axis -- Platelets and the Progression of Atherosclerosis -- Antiplatelet Therapy in Atherosclerosis -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 16 Development and Use of Mouse Models of Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- Diet-Induced Mouse Models -- ApoE Gene KO -- LDLr Gene KO -- Additional apoE Models -- Additional LDL Models -- Technological Advances and the Creation of New Animal Models -- Assessing Mouse Atherosclerosis -- Aortic Root Lesion Analysis.
En Face Analysis of Aortic Intima -- Aortic Cholesterol Mass -- Imaging Techniques -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Section III Molecular Mechanisms -- Chapter 17 Mechanisms of the Renin Angiotensin System Influencing Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- The Renin Angiotensin Components Influence Atherosclerosis -- Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of RAS Influencing Atherosclerosis -- Summary and Perspective -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 18 The Role of Caveolae and Caveolins in Atherogenesis -- Introduction -- Caveolae and Caveolins -- Caveolae/Caveolin-1 in Atherosclerosis -- eNOS -- Transcytosis/Permeability -- Mechanotransduction -- Inflammation and Signaling -- Oxidative Stress -- VSMCS, MACS, and Lymphocytes -- Conclusions/Perspective -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 19 Lysosomal Molecular Derangements in Atherosclerosis -- Lysosomes and Their Functions -- Lysosome-Membrane Cross-Talk in Endothelial Injury -- Lysosomal Cholesterol Metabolism and Transport in Foam Cell Formation -- Lysosome-Centered Autophagy in Atherosclerosis -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 20 C-Reactive Protein and Its Pathophysiological Roles in Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- CRP Biology -- Plasma CRP Level is a Marker of Cardiovascular Disease -- Is CRP a Maker of Atherosclerosis Development? -- Mouse Models are not Feasible for the Study of hCRP -- Rabbit Models are Suitable for the Study of hCRP -- References -- Chapter 21 Paraoxonases -- Introduction -- PON Genes -- Localization -- Activities -- PON Proteins and Atherosclerosis -- New Antiatherogenic Roles for PON Proteins-Based on Infection Models -- New Antiatherogenic Roles for PON Proteins-Based on Intracellular Stress Models -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 22 Prostanoids, Their Receptors,  and Atherogenesis -- Introduction -- Prostanoids.
Prostanoids Receptors -- Prostanoids and Atherogenesis -- Cycloxygenase Inhibitors, Thromboxane Modulators, and Atherosclerosis -- Isoprostanoids -- Isoprostanoids and Atherogenesis -- TP Receptor System as Biological Link Between Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Atherogenesis -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 23 Extracellular Phospholipases: Role in Inflammation and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease -- Introduction -- The SN-1 Phospholipase Endothelial Lipase -- The SN-2 Phospholipase Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 -- The SN-2 Phospholipase Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 -- The SN-2 Phospholipase Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 -- Overall Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 24 Apolipoprotein-B: The Crucial Protein of Atherogenic Lipoproteins -- Introduction -- Regulation of The Assembly and Secretion of apoB-Lipoproteins By The Liver and Intestine -- Pathways for The Healthy Removal of apoB-Lipoproteins From the Circulation by the Liver -- Mechanisms for the Retention of apob-Lipoproteins Within the Vessel Wall -- Conclusion: The Evolution of Epidemiologic Risk Factors into Causative Factors, Exacerbating Factors, and Bystander Phenomenon in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease -- References -- Chapter 25 HDL Receptor Scavenger Receptor BI: A Multipurpose Player in Cholesterol and Steroid Metabolism in Mice and Man -- Introduction -- Regulation of SR-BI Expression -- SR-BI Function in Lipoprotein Metabolism -- SR-BI and Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux -- SR-BI and Atherosclerosis -- Atherprotective Functions of SR-BI Beyond Lipid Metabolism -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 26 Pro and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Networks in Atherosclerosis -- Cytokines, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis -- Cytokine Classifications -- Cytokine Signaling and Function -- Proatherogenic Cytokines.
Antiatherogenic Cytokines.
Summary: Comprehensive and in-depth in its coverage, Atherosclerosis: Cellular, Molecular & Biochemical Mechanism and Novel Therapy reviews the recent progress in atherosclerosis research and offers cutting edge perspectives from experts in the field. Written by an international team of authors including leading physician-scientists, research experts and physicians, chapters are divided into four major sections, covering risk factors, cellular and molecular mechanisms, biochemical mechanisms and novel and future therapeutics. Atherosclerosis: Cellular, Molecular & Biochemical Mechanism and Novel Therapy analyses recent progress from both conceptual and technological perspectives, suggesting new directions for atherosclerosis research and treatment for a growing population of researchers and clinicians in cardiovascular and related fields.
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Intro -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Contributors -- Foreword -- Preface -- Section I Risk Factors: Old and New -- Chapter 1 Lipoproteins -- Brief History of Cholesterol and Atherosclerosis -- Lipoproteins -- LDL and Atherosclerosis -- Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerosis -- HDL and Atherosclerosis -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 2 Role of Dysglycemia in Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- Molecular Mechanisms by Which Dysglycemia Accelerates Atherosclerosis -- Dysglycemia and Endothelial Cells -- Dysglycemia and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells -- Dysglycemia and Macrophages -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 3 Glycation, Inflammation and RAGE: Mechanisms Contributing to the Accelerated Atherosclerosis of Diabetes -- Introduction -- Animal Models of Diabetic Atherosclerosis -- Glycation of Proteins and Lipids: Potential Impact on Atherosclerosis -- Non-RAGE Glycation Receptors and Implications for Atherosclerosis -- RAGE and Implications for Diabetic Atherosclerosis -- Glycation and Rage-Studies in Human Subjects -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 4 Inflammation -- Introduction -- Monocyte Recruitment to the Vessel Wall -- Chemokines -- Cytokines -- Shear Stress and Inflammation -- Mechanisms of Flow-Induced Inflammation -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 5 Homocysteine: A Controversial Cardiovascular Risk Factor -- Introduction -- Epidemiological Studies: Establishment of Homocysteine as a Risk Factor -- Animal Models of Hyperhomocysteinemia -- Clinical Intervention Trials -- Summary and Perspectives -- References -- Chapter 6 Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- Evidence Linking Atherosclerosis and Hypertension -- Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Linking Hypertension and Atherosclerosis -- Implications for Treatment and Future Directions.

References -- Chapter 7 The Genetics of Atherosclerosis: From Polymorphisms to Populations -- Introduction -- Lessons from Mendelian Diseases-Familial Hypercholesterolemia -- Role for Genetic Diagnosis and Screening -- Genetically Isolated Population Studies: Implications for Atherosclerosis in the General Population -- GWAS to Identify Atherosclerosis Risk Genes in the General Population -- Identification of a Risk Allele Located at 9P21 by GWAS -- Technologic Advances and the Future -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 8 Life Style -- Introduction -- Lifestyle Factors and Cardiovascular Disease -- Lifestyle Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young -- Physical Activity -- Diet and Nutrition -- Environmental Effects -- Ambient Air Pollution -- Other Environmental Factors -- Summary -- References -- Section II Cellular Mechanisms -- Chapter 9 Endothelial Cells -- Introduction -- Endothelial Nitric Oxide -- Flow and Arterial Shear Stress -- Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Nuclear Receptor Family -- Endothelial Progenitor Cells -- Future Directions -- References -- Chapter 10 Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells -- Introduction -- SMCS in Atheroma Progression -- Extrinsic Control of SMC Biology -- Intrinsic Control of SMC Biology -- Autophagy and Cell Death -- Summary -- References -- Chapter 11 Fibroblasts -- Introduction -- Fibroblast-Dependent Wound Healing -- Role of the Adventitia in the Vessel Injury Response -- Developmental Origins of Adventitial Fibroblasts -- Vascular Progenitors in the Vessel Wall -- Signaling Mechanisms that Influence Myofibroblast Differentiation -- Transcription Mechanisms that Regulate Myofibroblast Differentiation -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 12 Monocytes and Macrophages in Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- Monocyte and Macrophage in Atherosclerosis.

Monocyte Origin and Differentiation -- Monocyte Subsets and Transcriptional Regulation -- Inflammatory Monocyte Subsets and Vascular Inflammation -- Monocyte Adhesion and Infiltration -- Vessel Wall Monocyte Origin/Differentiation and Inflammation -- Macrophage and Atherosclerosis -- Macrophage Subsets and Function -- Macrophage Transcriptional Regulation -- Future Directions and Therapeutic Implications -- References -- Chapter 13 Lymphocytes and Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of B and T Cells in Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of Pathogenic Th1 Cells to Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of Type 2 Th Cells to Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of Tregs to Atherosclerosis -- Contributions of Th17 Cells to Atherosclerosis -- Contributions of γδ T Cells to Atherosclerosis -- Contributions of NKT Cells to Atherosclerosis -- The Contributions of B Cells to Atherosclerosis -- Contributions of NK Cells to Atherosclerosis -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 14 Stem Cells -- Introduction -- Vascular Progenitors in Development -- Vascular Progenitors in Postnatal Life -- Vascular Progenitors in Vascular Disease and Homeostasis -- Human EPC Therapy -- Mechanisms of Action of Endogenous EPCS in Vascular Repair -- Vascular Progenitors and the Future -- References -- Chapter 15 Platelets -- Overview -- The Platelet Paradigm in Hemostasis and Thrombosis -- The Platelet/Inflammation Axis -- Platelets and the Progression of Atherosclerosis -- Antiplatelet Therapy in Atherosclerosis -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 16 Development and Use of Mouse Models of Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- Diet-Induced Mouse Models -- ApoE Gene KO -- LDLr Gene KO -- Additional apoE Models -- Additional LDL Models -- Technological Advances and the Creation of New Animal Models -- Assessing Mouse Atherosclerosis -- Aortic Root Lesion Analysis.

En Face Analysis of Aortic Intima -- Aortic Cholesterol Mass -- Imaging Techniques -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Section III Molecular Mechanisms -- Chapter 17 Mechanisms of the Renin Angiotensin System Influencing Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- The Renin Angiotensin Components Influence Atherosclerosis -- Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of RAS Influencing Atherosclerosis -- Summary and Perspective -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 18 The Role of Caveolae and Caveolins in Atherogenesis -- Introduction -- Caveolae and Caveolins -- Caveolae/Caveolin-1 in Atherosclerosis -- eNOS -- Transcytosis/Permeability -- Mechanotransduction -- Inflammation and Signaling -- Oxidative Stress -- VSMCS, MACS, and Lymphocytes -- Conclusions/Perspective -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 19 Lysosomal Molecular Derangements in Atherosclerosis -- Lysosomes and Their Functions -- Lysosome-Membrane Cross-Talk in Endothelial Injury -- Lysosomal Cholesterol Metabolism and Transport in Foam Cell Formation -- Lysosome-Centered Autophagy in Atherosclerosis -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 20 C-Reactive Protein and Its Pathophysiological Roles in Atherosclerosis -- Introduction -- CRP Biology -- Plasma CRP Level is a Marker of Cardiovascular Disease -- Is CRP a Maker of Atherosclerosis Development? -- Mouse Models are not Feasible for the Study of hCRP -- Rabbit Models are Suitable for the Study of hCRP -- References -- Chapter 21 Paraoxonases -- Introduction -- PON Genes -- Localization -- Activities -- PON Proteins and Atherosclerosis -- New Antiatherogenic Roles for PON Proteins-Based on Infection Models -- New Antiatherogenic Roles for PON Proteins-Based on Intracellular Stress Models -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 22 Prostanoids, Their Receptors,  and Atherogenesis -- Introduction -- Prostanoids.

Prostanoids Receptors -- Prostanoids and Atherogenesis -- Cycloxygenase Inhibitors, Thromboxane Modulators, and Atherosclerosis -- Isoprostanoids -- Isoprostanoids and Atherogenesis -- TP Receptor System as Biological Link Between Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Atherogenesis -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 23 Extracellular Phospholipases: Role in Inflammation and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease -- Introduction -- The SN-1 Phospholipase Endothelial Lipase -- The SN-2 Phospholipase Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 -- The SN-2 Phospholipase Group V Secretory Phospholipase A2 -- The SN-2 Phospholipase Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 -- Overall Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 24 Apolipoprotein-B: The Crucial Protein of Atherogenic Lipoproteins -- Introduction -- Regulation of The Assembly and Secretion of apoB-Lipoproteins By The Liver and Intestine -- Pathways for The Healthy Removal of apoB-Lipoproteins From the Circulation by the Liver -- Mechanisms for the Retention of apob-Lipoproteins Within the Vessel Wall -- Conclusion: The Evolution of Epidemiologic Risk Factors into Causative Factors, Exacerbating Factors, and Bystander Phenomenon in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease -- References -- Chapter 25 HDL Receptor Scavenger Receptor BI: A Multipurpose Player in Cholesterol and Steroid Metabolism in Mice and Man -- Introduction -- Regulation of SR-BI Expression -- SR-BI Function in Lipoprotein Metabolism -- SR-BI and Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux -- SR-BI and Atherosclerosis -- Atherprotective Functions of SR-BI Beyond Lipid Metabolism -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 26 Pro and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Networks in Atherosclerosis -- Cytokines, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis -- Cytokine Classifications -- Cytokine Signaling and Function -- Proatherogenic Cytokines.

Antiatherogenic Cytokines.

Comprehensive and in-depth in its coverage, Atherosclerosis: Cellular, Molecular & Biochemical Mechanism and Novel Therapy reviews the recent progress in atherosclerosis research and offers cutting edge perspectives from experts in the field. Written by an international team of authors including leading physician-scientists, research experts and physicians, chapters are divided into four major sections, covering risk factors, cellular and molecular mechanisms, biochemical mechanisms and novel and future therapeutics. Atherosclerosis: Cellular, Molecular & Biochemical Mechanism and Novel Therapy analyses recent progress from both conceptual and technological perspectives, suggesting new directions for atherosclerosis research and treatment for a growing population of researchers and clinicians in cardiovascular and related fields.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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