Neuroinflammation : New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions.Publisher: Somerset : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (322 pages)Content type:
- online resource
- RC346.5 -- .N48 2015eb
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Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Contributors -- Preface -- Part I Introduction -- Chapter 1 Immune Response in the Human Central Nervous System in Multiple Sclerosis and Stroke -- Introduction -- The Concept of Neuroinflammation -- Basic Principles of Immune Surveillance and Inflammation by Adaptive Immune Responses -- Inflammation in the Central Nervous System of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis -- Inflammation in Stroke Lesions -- Microglia Activation and Macrophage Response -- Granulocyte Infiltration -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 2 In Vivo Imaging of Glial and Immune Cell Responses in Central Nervous System Injury and Disease -- Introduction -- Intravital Microscopy in the CNS and Its Challenges -- In Vivo Imaging of the CNS Following Sterile Injury -- In Vivo Imaging of the CNS in Disorders with an Inflammatory Component -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Part II Detrimental Aspects of Inflammation -- Chapter 3 Roles of CD4 and CD8 T Lymphocytes in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis -- Introduction -- T Lymphocytes: Central Immune Cells -- Autoreactive T Lymphocytes -- From Peripheral Activation to CNS Extravasation -- Role of CD4 T Lymphocytes in MS and EAE: Th1 versus Th17 -- Role of CD8 T Lymphocytes in MS and EAE -- Regulatory T Lymphocytes in MS and EAE -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 4 Microglia and Macrophage Responses and Their Role after Spinal Cord Injury -- Introduction -- Microglial Responses to Injury -- Interactions between Microglia and Other Cell Types in Signaling Responses to Injury -- Entry of Peripheral Macrophages and Differences with Microglia -- Diverse Roles of Macrophages/Microglia in CNS Injury and Disease -- Macrophage Polarization in SCI -- Concluding Remarks -- Acknowledgments -- References.
Chapter 5 The Complexity of the Innate Immune System Activation in Stroke Pathogenesis -- Activation of the Brain Innate Immunity After Stroke -- Myeloid Heterogeneity in Brain Ischemia -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 6 Neuroinflammation in Aging -- Increased CNS Inflammation in Response to Immune Challenge is Adaptive and Beneficial -- The CNS Microenvironment Shifts to a Proinflammatory State with Aging -- Microglial Priming -- Microglial Regulation -- Immune Reactivity of Glia Contributes to Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 7 Peripheral and Central Immune Mechanisms in Neuropathic Pain -- Introduction -- Inflammation in Neuropathic Pain -- Contribution of Peripheral Immune Cells to the Pathogenesis of Neuropathic Pain -- Critical Roles of Spinal Glial Activation in Neuropathic Pain -- Significance of Neural Barriers in Inflammatory Response along Pain Transmission Pathway -- Imbalance of Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Responses in Neuropathic Pain -- Challenges in Translating Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic Strategies for the Relief of~Neuropathic Pain -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Chapter 8 Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies -- Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies -- Subtype-Specific Molecular Patterns of CMT1 -- Molecular Commonalities of CMT1 Subtypes-a Link to Inflammation -- The Impact of Innate Immune Reactions in Mouse Models of CMT1 -- The Impact of Adaptive Immune Reactions in Mouse Models of CMT1 -- Implications for Putative Therapeutic Approaches -- Synopsis -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 9 Obesity- and Neuroinflammation-Associated Mood and Cognitive Disorders -- Introduction -- Neuropsychiatric Comorbidity in Obesity -- Animal Models of Obesity and MetS.
Mechanisms Underlying the Association between Obesity/MetS and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms -- Neuroinflammation, Sickness Behavior, and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms -- Role of Neuroinflammation in Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Associated with Obesity and MetS -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 10 Viral Infections of the Central Nervous System: Pathogenic and Protective Effects of Neuroinflammation -- Introduction -- Nervous System Infection and Inflammation -- HIV-1 Infection: Neurological and Neuropathological Features -- WNV Infection and Neuropathology -- Future Perspectives -- References -- Part III Beneficial Aspects of Inflammation -- Chapter 11 The Interplay between the Peripheral and Local Immune Response in Recovery from Acute Central Nervous System Injuries -- Paradigm of Protective Autoimmunity -- Dichotomy between Microglia and Infiltrating Monocyte-Derived Macrophages -- Infiltrating Macrophages Promote Inflammation Resolution and Axonal Regeneration -- The Two Faces of Tregs in CNS Repair -- Protective Autoimmunity Works at the Specialized Choroid Plexus Gate -- Inflammation, the Old Villain in Spinal Cord Repair -- Comprehensive View of the Protective Autoimmune Network: the Link between Autoimmune T Cells and Inflammation-Resolving Cells -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 12 Inflammation and Optic Nerve Regeneration -- Introduction -- Background -- Effects of inflammation on RGC survival and Optic Nerve Regeneration -- Oncomodulin as a Key Mediator of Inflammation-Induced Regeneration -- Synergistic Effects of Combinatorial Treatments -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 13 Effects of Macrophages and Monocytes in Remyelination of the CNS -- Introduction -- Myelin Debris Inhibits OPC Differentiation and Remyelination -- Monocyte-Derived Macrophages are the Main Actors in Myelin Debris Phagocytosis.
Switching from M1 to M2 Macrophages Promotes CNS Remyelination -- Ageing Impairs Macrophage Function, Myelin Debris Clearance, and Remyelination -- Macrophages Release Growth and Neurotrophic Factors that Promote Remyelination -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 14 Microglia Involvement in Rett Syndrome -- Introduction to Rett Syndrome and MeCP2 -- Experimental Mouse Models Used in the Study of Rett Syndrome -- The Cellular Players in Central Nervous System Pathology of Rett Syndrome -- Microglia: From Footnote to First-Line -- Microglia: the Tissue-Resident Macrophages of the Brain -- Replacement/Augmentation of MICROGLIA as A potential therapy in Rett Syndrome -- Gene Therapy -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 15 The Role of Regulatory T Cells and Microglia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -- Overview of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -- Overview of ALS Animal Models -- Overview of Regulatory T Cells -- Immunologic Aspects of Microglia and Tregs in ALS -- T Cells and ALS -- Tregs and ALS -- Cytokines and ALS -- Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 16 An Adaptive Role for TNFα in Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Function -- Introduction -- Developmental Roles of TNFα -- TNFα in Presynaptic Function -- TNFα effects on postsynaptic receptor trafficking -- TNFα and Synaptic Plasticity -- Glial Release of TNFα During Plasticity -- TNFα-mediated homeostatic plasticity in vivo -- TNFα-Mediated Plasticity in the Striatum -- Implications of TNFα-Mediated Synaptic Regulation -- References -- Chapter 17 Resolution of Inflammation in the Lesioned Central Nervous System -- Introduction -- Mechanisms of Resolution -- Resolution Deficit Following CNS Lesions -- Immunobiology of Resolution in CNS Lesions-Impaired Resolution Contributes to~Neuropathology.
Late Degeneration/"Tertiary" Injury and Autoimmunity as a Consequence of Failed~Resolution of Inflammation in CNS Lesions? -- Evidence for the Effectiveness of Pro-resolution Mediators in CNS Lesions -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgment -- References -- Index -- Supplemental Images -- EULA.
Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at the role of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitive disorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers have also started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases. Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides a comprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation in human health. Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions opens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammation in humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections which examine both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, on various disease states, and in normal aging. These sections provide a broad picture of the role neuroinflammation plays in the physiology and pathology of various neurological disorders. Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions will be an essential volume for neuroimmunologists, neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field. neurobiologists, neurologists, and others interested in the field.Neuroinflammation has long been studied for its connection to the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the field has expanded to look at the role of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological conditions and cognitive disorders including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and autism. Researchers have also started to note the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in
certain diseases. Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions provides a comprehensive view of both the detriments and benefits of neuroinflammation in human health. Neuroinflammation: New Insights into Beneficial and Detrimental Functions opens with two chapters that look at some fundamental aspects of neuroinflammation in humans and rodents. The remainder of the book is divided into two sections which examine both the detrimental and beneficial aspe.
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