Channels, Carriers, and Pumps : An Introduction to Membrane Transport.

By: Stein, Wilfred DContributor(s): Litman, ThomasPublisher: Saint Louis : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2014Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 2nd edDescription: 1 online resource (423 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9780124165830Subject(s): Biological transport -- Regulation -- Software.;Biological transport, Active -- Laboratory manualsGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Channels, Carriers, and Pumps : An Introduction to Membrane TransportDDC classification: 574.875 LOC classification: QH509 -- .S74 2015ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Front Cover -- Channels, Carriers, and Pumps -- Copyright Page -- Dedications -- Contents -- Preface to the First Edition -- Preface to the Second Edition -- List of Symbols -- 1 Structural Basis of Movement Across Cell Membranes -- 1.1 Membrane Structure: Electron Microscopy of Biological Membranes -- 1.2 Chemical Composition of Biological Membranes -- 1.2.1 Membrane Lipids -- 1.2.2 Membrane Proteins -- 1.2.3 Membrane Carbohydrates -- 1.3 Membrane Phospholipid Structures and Their Self-Assembly -- 1.4 Phase Transitions in Biological Membranes -- 1.5 Membrane Proteins: Their Structure and Arrangement -- 1.5.1 Proteins That Span the Membrane Only Once -- 1.5.2 Proteins That Span the Membrane More Than Once -- 1.6 Synthesis of Membrane Proteins -- 1.7 Quantitation of Membrane Dynamics -- 1.8 Traffic Across the Plasma Membrane -- 1.9 The Cell Membrane as a Barrier and as a Passage -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Membrane Structure -- Membrane Lipids -- Liposomes -- Membrane Proteins -- Membrane Dynamics -- Glycophorin -- Lactose Permease -- Hydropathy Plots -- Membrane Protein Structure -- Synthesis of Membrane Proteins -- Endocytosis, Membrane Turnover -- Clathrin-Coated Pits and Caveolae -- Lipid Rafts -- Cytoskeleton -- 2 Simple Diffusion of Nonelectrolytes and Ions -- 2.1 Diffusion as a Random Walk -- 2.2 The Electrical Force Acting on an Ion -- 2.3 Permeability Coefficients and Partition Coefficients -- 2.4 Measurement of Permeability Coefficients -- 2.5 Analysis of Permeability Data -- 2.6 The Membrane as a Hydrophobic Sieve -- 2.7 Osmosis and the Diffusion of Water -- 2.8 Comparison of Osmotic and Diffusive Flow of Water -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Diffusion as a Random Walk -- Chemical Potential -- Electrical Potential -- Flux Ratio Test -- Permeability and Partition Coefficients -- Measurement of Permeability Coefficients.
NMR and ESR -- Unstirred Layers -- Plant Cell Permeabilities -- Membrane as a Hydrophobic Sieve -- Osmosis and the Diffusion of Water -- Water Channels - The Aquaporins -- Electroosmosis and Streaming Potential -- 3 Ion Channels Across Cell Membranes -- 3.1 The Gramicidin Channel -- 3.2 The Acetylcholine Receptor Channel -- 3.3 Conductances and Cross-Sectional Areas of Single Channels -- 3.4 An Experimental Interlude -- 3.4.1 Identification of Channels by Patch-Clamping -- 3.4.2 Measurements of Membrane Potential by Using Intracellular Microelectrodes or by Following Dye Distribution -- 3.5 Diffusion Potentials: Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation -- 3.6 Regulation and Modulation of Channel Opening -- 3.6.1 The Potassium Channel of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum -- 3.6.2 Sodium and Potassium Channels of Excitable Tissue -- 3.6.3 The Cell-to-Cell Channel or Gap Junction -- 3.6.4 Regulation and Modulation of Some Other Channels -- Suggested Readings -- Internet Resources -- General -- Electrostatic (Born) Free Energy -- Gramicidin Channel -- Enzyme Kinetics -- Acetylcholine Receptor -- Cloning and Molecular Biology -- Acetylcholine Receptor Structure -- Ionic Diffusion -- Ligand-gated Ion Channels -- Charge Effects on Channel Conductance -- Patch Clamping -- Fluorescent Dyes -- Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Relation -- Potassium Channels -- Sodium Channels -- Voltage-Gated Channels -- Cell-to-Cell Channel -- Calcium Channel -- 4 Carrier-Mediated Transport: Facilitated Diffusion -- 4.1 Inhibition of Mediated Transport Systems -- 4.2 Kinetics of Carrier Transport -- 4.2.1 The Zero-Trans Experiment -- 4.2.2 Competitive and Noncompetitive Inhibition of Transport -- 4.2.3 The Equilibrium Exchange Experiment -- 4.2.4 Stimulation of Transport by Trans Concentrations of Substrate -- 4.3 The Carrier Model.
4.4 Valinomycin: An Artificial Membrane Carrier That Works by a Solubility-Diffusion Mechanism -- 4.5 Two Conformations of the Carrier -- 4.6 A Deeper Analysis of the Kinetics of Carrier Transport -- 4.6.1 Some Relations Between the Transport Parameters for the Different Experimental Procedures -- 4.6.2 Carrier Systems May Behave Asymmetrically -- 4.7 Electrogenic Aspects of Carrier Transport -- 4.8 Some Individual Transport Systems -- 4.8.1 GLUT4: The Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transporter -- 4.8.2 The Amino Acid Carriers -- 4.8.3 The Organic Cation Transporters: The OCTs -- 4.9 An Overall View of the Membrane Carriers -- 4.10 The Full Equation for Carrier Transport -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Molecular Biology of Glucose Transporter -- Kinetics of Carrier Transport -- Valinomycin -- Two Conformations of the Carrier -- Electrogenic Aspects of Carrier Transport -- Amino Acid Transporters -- Organic Cation Transporters -- Insulin Regulation of Glucose Transport -- The Warburg Effect: Glucose Metabolism in Cancer and other Proliferating Cells -- 5 Coupling of Flows of Substrates: Antiporters and Symporters -- 5.1 Countertransport on the Simple Carrier -- 5.2 Exchange-Only Systems: The Antiporters -- 5.2.1 The Kinetics of Antiport -- 5.2.2 Slippage and Leakage in Coupled Transport Systems -- 5.2.3 Asymmetry of Antiporters -- 5.2.4 How the Stoichiometry of Substrate Binding Determines the "Intensity" of Concentration -- 5.2.5 Some Particular Antiporter Systems -- 5.2.5.1 The Na+/H+ Antiporter as a Transducer of Cell-to-Cell Signals -- 5.2.5.2 Role of the Na+/Ca2+ Antiporter in the Regulation of Intracellular Calcium -- 5.2.6 How the Structural Basis of the Antiporters Is Beginning to Be Elucidated -- 5.2.6.1 The Antiporter EmrE -- 5.2.6.2 The Sodium/Proton Antiporters.
5.3 The Symporters, Cotransport Systems Where Two (or More) Substrates Ride Together in Symport on a Simple Carrier -- 5.3.1 Crane's Gradient Hypothesis -- 5.3.2 V and K Kinetics in Cotransport -- 5.3.2.1 K Kinetics -- 5.3.2.2 V and K Kinetics -- 5.3.3 Cis and Trans Inhibition Between Cosubstrates as Tests of the Cotransport (Symport) Model -- 5.3.4 Stoichiometry of Symtransport -- 5.3.5 Electrogenic Aspects of Cotransport: The Equilibrium Potential of a Cotransport System -- 5.3.6 Some Individual Cotransporters Described -- 5.3.6.1 The Lactose and Melibiose Symporters of E. coli -- 5.3.6.2 Accumulation of a Neurotransmitter in Storage Granules -- 5.3.6.3 The Ubiquitous Na+ K+ 2Cl− Cotransporter -- 5.3.7 How the Structural Basis of the Symporters Is Beginning to Be Elucidated -- 5.3.7.1 LacY-The Lactose Permease of E. coli, the Lactose/Proton Symporter -- 5.3.7.2 The Sodium-Sugar Symporters and Their Homologs -- The Rocking Bundle Model -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Countertransport -- Kinetics of Antiport -- ADP/ATP Exchange -- The Bacterial Proton/Multidrug Antiporters -- Na+/H+ Antiporter -- Growth Factors -- Na+-Ca2+ Antiporter -- Electrogenicity -- Cotransport Systems -- Stoichiometry of Cotransport -- Melibiose Transport -- Lactose Permease -- Molecular Biology of the Sodium-Glucose Symporter -- Amino Acid Cotransport -- Na+-K+ - 2Cl− Cotransporter -- Structural Basis of the Symporters -- 6 Primary Active Transport Systems -- 6.1 The Sodium Pump of the Plasma Membrane -- 6.1.1 The Function of the Sodium Pump -- 6.2 The Calcium Pump of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum -- 6.2.1 Structural Studies on the Calcium ATPase (SERCA1a) -- 6.2.2 Structural Studies on the Na+,K+-ATPase -- 6.2.2.1 A Comparison of the E2 and E1 Conformations of the N+,K+-ATPase -- 6.2.2.2 Functional Role of the β-Chain -- 6.2.2.3 FXYD Subunits and Regulation.
6.3 The Calcium Pump of the Plasma Membrane -- 6.4 The H+, K+-ATPase of Gastric Mucosa: The Proton Pump of the Stomach -- 6.4.1 The P-Type ATPases in the Context of Protein Evolution -- 6.5 The Rotary ATPases -- 6.5.1 Structure of the Rotary ATPases -- 6.5.2 Mechanism of Action of the F0F1-ATPases -- 6.6 The Vacuolar Proton-Activated ATPase -- 6.7 Bacteriorhodopsin: A Light-Driven Proton Pump -- 6.8 MDR-Drug Pumps -- 6.8.1 The Discovery of MDR -- 6.8.2 The ABC Superfamily -- 6.8.3 Topology -- 6.8.4 Function -- 6.8.5 ATPase Activity -- 6.8.6 Substrates and Inhibitors of P-gp-Clarification of Concepts -- 6.8.7 Catalytic Cycle of P-gp -- 6.8.8 Structure -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Thermodynamics of Pumping -- Sodium Pump -- Calcium Pump of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum -- Calcium Pump of Plasma Membrane -- Gastric H+K+-ATPase -- Multidrug Resistance -- F0F1 ATPases -- Vacuolar and Anion Pumps -- Bacteriorhodopsin -- 7 Regulation and Integration of Transport Systems -- 7.1 Regulation of Cell Volume -- 7.1.1 How the Post-Jolly Equation (Relating Cell Volume, Cell Content, and the Pump-Leak Ratio, Together with the Donnan Di... -- 7.1.2 Short-Term Regulation of Cell Volume -- 7.1.2.1 RVD-A Process Activated by Cell Swelling -- 7.1.2.2 RVI-A Process Activated by Cell Shrinkage -- Cotransport of Solutes and Water -- Experimental Data -- Molecular Dynamics Simulations -- 7.2 Integration of Transport Systems -- 7.2.1 Epithelia, with Special Reference to the Kidney -- 7.2.1.1 Morphology of Epithelia -- 7.2.1.2 Tight, Intermediate, and Leaky Epithelia -- 7.2.1.3 The Mammalian Kidney -- 7.2.1.4 The Transport System "Menu" -- 7.2.2 A Tight Epithelium: The Collecting Duct -- 7.2.3 An "Intermediate" Epithelium: The Thick Ascending Limb of the Mammalian Kidney -- 7.2.4 A Leaky Epithelium: The Proximal Tubule -- 7.2.5 Tight, Intermediate, and Leaky Epithelia Compared.
7.2.6 The Control of Glucose Transport Across the Intestine.
Summary: An introduction to the principles of membrane transport: How molecules and ions move across the cell membrane by simple diffusion and by making use of specialized membrane components (channels, carriers, and pumps). The text emphasizes the quantitative aspects of such movement and its interpretation in terms of transport kinetics. Molecular studies of channels, carriers, and pumps are described in detail as well as structural principles and the fundamental similarities between the various transporters and their evolutionary interrelationships. The regulation of transporters and their role in health and disease are also considered. Provides an introduction to the properties of transport proteins: channels, carriers, and pumps Presents up-to-date information on the structure of transport proteins and on their function and regulation Includes introductions to transport kinetics and to the cloning of genes that code transport proteins Furnishes a link between the experimental basis of the subject and theoretical model building.
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Front Cover -- Channels, Carriers, and Pumps -- Copyright Page -- Dedications -- Contents -- Preface to the First Edition -- Preface to the Second Edition -- List of Symbols -- 1 Structural Basis of Movement Across Cell Membranes -- 1.1 Membrane Structure: Electron Microscopy of Biological Membranes -- 1.2 Chemical Composition of Biological Membranes -- 1.2.1 Membrane Lipids -- 1.2.2 Membrane Proteins -- 1.2.3 Membrane Carbohydrates -- 1.3 Membrane Phospholipid Structures and Their Self-Assembly -- 1.4 Phase Transitions in Biological Membranes -- 1.5 Membrane Proteins: Their Structure and Arrangement -- 1.5.1 Proteins That Span the Membrane Only Once -- 1.5.2 Proteins That Span the Membrane More Than Once -- 1.6 Synthesis of Membrane Proteins -- 1.7 Quantitation of Membrane Dynamics -- 1.8 Traffic Across the Plasma Membrane -- 1.9 The Cell Membrane as a Barrier and as a Passage -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Membrane Structure -- Membrane Lipids -- Liposomes -- Membrane Proteins -- Membrane Dynamics -- Glycophorin -- Lactose Permease -- Hydropathy Plots -- Membrane Protein Structure -- Synthesis of Membrane Proteins -- Endocytosis, Membrane Turnover -- Clathrin-Coated Pits and Caveolae -- Lipid Rafts -- Cytoskeleton -- 2 Simple Diffusion of Nonelectrolytes and Ions -- 2.1 Diffusion as a Random Walk -- 2.2 The Electrical Force Acting on an Ion -- 2.3 Permeability Coefficients and Partition Coefficients -- 2.4 Measurement of Permeability Coefficients -- 2.5 Analysis of Permeability Data -- 2.6 The Membrane as a Hydrophobic Sieve -- 2.7 Osmosis and the Diffusion of Water -- 2.8 Comparison of Osmotic and Diffusive Flow of Water -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Diffusion as a Random Walk -- Chemical Potential -- Electrical Potential -- Flux Ratio Test -- Permeability and Partition Coefficients -- Measurement of Permeability Coefficients.

NMR and ESR -- Unstirred Layers -- Plant Cell Permeabilities -- Membrane as a Hydrophobic Sieve -- Osmosis and the Diffusion of Water -- Water Channels - The Aquaporins -- Electroosmosis and Streaming Potential -- 3 Ion Channels Across Cell Membranes -- 3.1 The Gramicidin Channel -- 3.2 The Acetylcholine Receptor Channel -- 3.3 Conductances and Cross-Sectional Areas of Single Channels -- 3.4 An Experimental Interlude -- 3.4.1 Identification of Channels by Patch-Clamping -- 3.4.2 Measurements of Membrane Potential by Using Intracellular Microelectrodes or by Following Dye Distribution -- 3.5 Diffusion Potentials: Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equation -- 3.6 Regulation and Modulation of Channel Opening -- 3.6.1 The Potassium Channel of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum -- 3.6.2 Sodium and Potassium Channels of Excitable Tissue -- 3.6.3 The Cell-to-Cell Channel or Gap Junction -- 3.6.4 Regulation and Modulation of Some Other Channels -- Suggested Readings -- Internet Resources -- General -- Electrostatic (Born) Free Energy -- Gramicidin Channel -- Enzyme Kinetics -- Acetylcholine Receptor -- Cloning and Molecular Biology -- Acetylcholine Receptor Structure -- Ionic Diffusion -- Ligand-gated Ion Channels -- Charge Effects on Channel Conductance -- Patch Clamping -- Fluorescent Dyes -- Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Relation -- Potassium Channels -- Sodium Channels -- Voltage-Gated Channels -- Cell-to-Cell Channel -- Calcium Channel -- 4 Carrier-Mediated Transport: Facilitated Diffusion -- 4.1 Inhibition of Mediated Transport Systems -- 4.2 Kinetics of Carrier Transport -- 4.2.1 The Zero-Trans Experiment -- 4.2.2 Competitive and Noncompetitive Inhibition of Transport -- 4.2.3 The Equilibrium Exchange Experiment -- 4.2.4 Stimulation of Transport by Trans Concentrations of Substrate -- 4.3 The Carrier Model.

4.4 Valinomycin: An Artificial Membrane Carrier That Works by a Solubility-Diffusion Mechanism -- 4.5 Two Conformations of the Carrier -- 4.6 A Deeper Analysis of the Kinetics of Carrier Transport -- 4.6.1 Some Relations Between the Transport Parameters for the Different Experimental Procedures -- 4.6.2 Carrier Systems May Behave Asymmetrically -- 4.7 Electrogenic Aspects of Carrier Transport -- 4.8 Some Individual Transport Systems -- 4.8.1 GLUT4: The Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transporter -- 4.8.2 The Amino Acid Carriers -- 4.8.3 The Organic Cation Transporters: The OCTs -- 4.9 An Overall View of the Membrane Carriers -- 4.10 The Full Equation for Carrier Transport -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Molecular Biology of Glucose Transporter -- Kinetics of Carrier Transport -- Valinomycin -- Two Conformations of the Carrier -- Electrogenic Aspects of Carrier Transport -- Amino Acid Transporters -- Organic Cation Transporters -- Insulin Regulation of Glucose Transport -- The Warburg Effect: Glucose Metabolism in Cancer and other Proliferating Cells -- 5 Coupling of Flows of Substrates: Antiporters and Symporters -- 5.1 Countertransport on the Simple Carrier -- 5.2 Exchange-Only Systems: The Antiporters -- 5.2.1 The Kinetics of Antiport -- 5.2.2 Slippage and Leakage in Coupled Transport Systems -- 5.2.3 Asymmetry of Antiporters -- 5.2.4 How the Stoichiometry of Substrate Binding Determines the "Intensity" of Concentration -- 5.2.5 Some Particular Antiporter Systems -- 5.2.5.1 The Na+/H+ Antiporter as a Transducer of Cell-to-Cell Signals -- 5.2.5.2 Role of the Na+/Ca2+ Antiporter in the Regulation of Intracellular Calcium -- 5.2.6 How the Structural Basis of the Antiporters Is Beginning to Be Elucidated -- 5.2.6.1 The Antiporter EmrE -- 5.2.6.2 The Sodium/Proton Antiporters.

5.3 The Symporters, Cotransport Systems Where Two (or More) Substrates Ride Together in Symport on a Simple Carrier -- 5.3.1 Crane's Gradient Hypothesis -- 5.3.2 V and K Kinetics in Cotransport -- 5.3.2.1 K Kinetics -- 5.3.2.2 V and K Kinetics -- 5.3.3 Cis and Trans Inhibition Between Cosubstrates as Tests of the Cotransport (Symport) Model -- 5.3.4 Stoichiometry of Symtransport -- 5.3.5 Electrogenic Aspects of Cotransport: The Equilibrium Potential of a Cotransport System -- 5.3.6 Some Individual Cotransporters Described -- 5.3.6.1 The Lactose and Melibiose Symporters of E. coli -- 5.3.6.2 Accumulation of a Neurotransmitter in Storage Granules -- 5.3.6.3 The Ubiquitous Na+ K+ 2Cl− Cotransporter -- 5.3.7 How the Structural Basis of the Symporters Is Beginning to Be Elucidated -- 5.3.7.1 LacY-The Lactose Permease of E. coli, the Lactose/Proton Symporter -- 5.3.7.2 The Sodium-Sugar Symporters and Their Homologs -- The Rocking Bundle Model -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Countertransport -- Kinetics of Antiport -- ADP/ATP Exchange -- The Bacterial Proton/Multidrug Antiporters -- Na+/H+ Antiporter -- Growth Factors -- Na+-Ca2+ Antiporter -- Electrogenicity -- Cotransport Systems -- Stoichiometry of Cotransport -- Melibiose Transport -- Lactose Permease -- Molecular Biology of the Sodium-Glucose Symporter -- Amino Acid Cotransport -- Na+-K+ - 2Cl− Cotransporter -- Structural Basis of the Symporters -- 6 Primary Active Transport Systems -- 6.1 The Sodium Pump of the Plasma Membrane -- 6.1.1 The Function of the Sodium Pump -- 6.2 The Calcium Pump of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum -- 6.2.1 Structural Studies on the Calcium ATPase (SERCA1a) -- 6.2.2 Structural Studies on the Na+,K+-ATPase -- 6.2.2.1 A Comparison of the E2 and E1 Conformations of the N+,K+-ATPase -- 6.2.2.2 Functional Role of the β-Chain -- 6.2.2.3 FXYD Subunits and Regulation.

6.3 The Calcium Pump of the Plasma Membrane -- 6.4 The H+, K+-ATPase of Gastric Mucosa: The Proton Pump of the Stomach -- 6.4.1 The P-Type ATPases in the Context of Protein Evolution -- 6.5 The Rotary ATPases -- 6.5.1 Structure of the Rotary ATPases -- 6.5.2 Mechanism of Action of the F0F1-ATPases -- 6.6 The Vacuolar Proton-Activated ATPase -- 6.7 Bacteriorhodopsin: A Light-Driven Proton Pump -- 6.8 MDR-Drug Pumps -- 6.8.1 The Discovery of MDR -- 6.8.2 The ABC Superfamily -- 6.8.3 Topology -- 6.8.4 Function -- 6.8.5 ATPase Activity -- 6.8.6 Substrates and Inhibitors of P-gp-Clarification of Concepts -- 6.8.7 Catalytic Cycle of P-gp -- 6.8.8 Structure -- Suggested Readings -- General -- Thermodynamics of Pumping -- Sodium Pump -- Calcium Pump of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum -- Calcium Pump of Plasma Membrane -- Gastric H+K+-ATPase -- Multidrug Resistance -- F0F1 ATPases -- Vacuolar and Anion Pumps -- Bacteriorhodopsin -- 7 Regulation and Integration of Transport Systems -- 7.1 Regulation of Cell Volume -- 7.1.1 How the Post-Jolly Equation (Relating Cell Volume, Cell Content, and the Pump-Leak Ratio, Together with the Donnan Di... -- 7.1.2 Short-Term Regulation of Cell Volume -- 7.1.2.1 RVD-A Process Activated by Cell Swelling -- 7.1.2.2 RVI-A Process Activated by Cell Shrinkage -- Cotransport of Solutes and Water -- Experimental Data -- Molecular Dynamics Simulations -- 7.2 Integration of Transport Systems -- 7.2.1 Epithelia, with Special Reference to the Kidney -- 7.2.1.1 Morphology of Epithelia -- 7.2.1.2 Tight, Intermediate, and Leaky Epithelia -- 7.2.1.3 The Mammalian Kidney -- 7.2.1.4 The Transport System "Menu" -- 7.2.2 A Tight Epithelium: The Collecting Duct -- 7.2.3 An "Intermediate" Epithelium: The Thick Ascending Limb of the Mammalian Kidney -- 7.2.4 A Leaky Epithelium: The Proximal Tubule -- 7.2.5 Tight, Intermediate, and Leaky Epithelia Compared.

7.2.6 The Control of Glucose Transport Across the Intestine.

An introduction to the principles of membrane transport: How molecules and ions move across the cell membrane by simple diffusion and by making use of specialized membrane components (channels, carriers, and pumps). The text emphasizes the quantitative aspects of such movement and its interpretation in terms of transport kinetics. Molecular studies of channels, carriers, and pumps are described in detail as well as structural principles and the fundamental similarities between the various transporters and their evolutionary interrelationships. The regulation of transporters and their role in health and disease are also considered. Provides an introduction to the properties of transport proteins: channels, carriers, and pumps Presents up-to-date information on the structure of transport proteins and on their function and regulation Includes introductions to transport kinetics and to the cloning of genes that code transport proteins Furnishes a link between the experimental basis of the subject and theoretical model building.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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