The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps : Biology, Systematics, Evolution and Ecology.

By: Quicke, Donald L. J
Publisher: Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2015Copyright date: ©2015Edition: 1st edDescription: 1 online resource (752 pages)Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118907078Subject(s): Parasitoids.;Parasitic wasps.;Braconidae.;IchneumonidaeGenre/Form: Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps : Biology, Systematics, Evolution and EcologyDDC classification: 595.7 LOC classification: QL496.12 -- .Q55 2015ebOnline resources: Click to View
Contents:
Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- Life history -- Systematics -- Part 1 Morphology and Biology -- Chapter 2 Adult External Morphology -- Head -- Antennal sensilla -- Antennal glands and tyloids -- Palps -- Mesosoma -- Legs -- Wings, wing venation and wing cells -- Confusing and sometimes erroneously applied vein names -- Wing flexion lines -- Metasoma -- Sexual dimorphism -- Male external genitalia -- Chapter 3 The Ovipositor and Ovipositor Sheaths -- The act of oviposition -- Functional morphology of wood-drillers -- Ovipositor stabilisation guides and buckling force -- Ovipositor notches and endoparasitism -- Ovipositor steering mechanisms -- Proposed evolutionary and related ovipositor transitions -- Number, position and possible functions of ovipositor valvilli -- Venom retention and delivery -- Ovipositor secretory pores -- Ovipositor sensilla -- Ovipositor sheaths -- Chapter 4 Internal and Reproductive Anatomy -- Nervous system -- Digestive tract -- Female internal reproductive system -- Ovaries -- Time scale of egg maturation -- Spermatheca -- Common oviduct and vaginal gland -- Venom gland and reservoir -- Dufour's gland -- Cuticular hydrocarbons -- Sex pheromones -- Male internal reproductive system -- Sperm ultrastructure -- Spermatogeny index -- Chapter 5 Immature Stages -- Eggs and OÖgenesis -- Hydropic and anhydropic eggs -- Embryogenesis -- Embryonic membranes -- Larva -- Larval feeding and nutrition -- Larval food consumption and dietary efficiency -- Lipid metabolism -- Respiration in endoparasitoids -- Larval secretions -- The pupal stage -- Cocoons -- Chapter 6 Idiobionts, Koinobionts and Other Life History Traits -- Parasitoidism -- Idiobiont and koinobiont strategies -- Generalists and specialists -- Ecto- and endoparasitism -- Permanent host paralysis.
Gregarious development -- Superparasitism -- Larval combat and physiological suppression -- Adaptive superparasitism -- Multiparasitism -- Obligate and preferential multiparasitism -- Hyperparasitism and pseudohyperparasitism -- Kleptoparasitism -- Evolution of life history strategies -- Chapter 7 Sex, Courtship and Mating -- Sex determination -- Local mate competition and avoidance of inbreeding -- Sex allocation -- Protandry and virginity -- Thelytoky and cytoplasmic incompatibility -- Mate location -- Courtship -- Swarming and lekking -- Mating position -- Multiple mating and sperm competition -- Sex-related scent glands -- Genome size and recombination -- Cytogenetics -- Chapter 8 Host Location, Associative Learning and Host Assessment -- Tritrophic interactions -- Host acceptance -- Associative learning -- Biosensors -- Patch use -- Chapter 9 Overcoming Host Immune Reaction and Physiological Interactions with Host -- Overcoming host immunity in endoparasitoids -- Passive evasion of encapsulation by parasitoid eggs -- Avoiding encapsulation by physical means -- Effect of host age and haemocyte number -- Other host defence mechanisms -- Venoms -- Neurophysiological venom actions -- Venom effects on host immune response -- Polydnaviruses -- Effects of polydnaviruses on hosts -- Other reproductive viruses -- Improving host quality -- Host castration and similar effects -- Teratocytes -- Intraspecific variation in resistance to parasitoids -- Effects on host moulting pattern -- Parasitoid-induced changes in host behaviour -- Chapter 10 Convergent Adaptations -- Antennal hammers and vibrational sounding -- Enlarged mandibles -- Chisel-like mandibles -- Concealed nectar extraction apparatus -- Reduced number of palpal segments -- 'Facial' protruberances -- Frontal depressions -- Dorsal ridges on head or mesosoma -- Brachyptery and aptery.
Dorso-ventral flattening -- Postpectal carina -- Propodeal spines -- 'Fossorial' legs -- Fore tibial spines -- Fore tibial apical tooth -- Expanded hind basitarsi -- Toothed hind femur -- Distitarsal scraper -- Pectinate claws and claws with angular basal lobes -- Glabrous wing patches and wing membrane scleromes -- Carapacisation -- Petiolate metasomas -- Modifications to the posterior metasomal margin -- Spermathecal colour -- Compression of apical part of metasoma -- The 'ophionoid facies' -- White antennal stripes and tips -- White ovipositor sheath stripes and tips -- Number of larval instars -- Egg-larval parasitism -- Disc-like larval antennae -- Reduction of larval hypostomal spur -- Wide and heavily sclerotised larval epistoma -- Suspended cocoons -- Polyembryony -- Phytophagy and cecidogenesis -- Part 2 Taxonomic and Systematic Treatment -- Chapter 11 Overview of Ichneumonoidea: Relationships and Systematics -- Monophyly of Ichneumonoidea, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae -- Relationship of Ichneumonoidea to other Hymenoptera -- Fossil history and family-level phylogeny -- Brief history of classification -- Ancestral biology of Ichneumonoidea -- Separating ichneumonids from braconids -- Identifying specimens -- Chapter 12 Phylogeny and Systematics of the Braconidae -- Historical perspective -- Morphophylogenetic hypotheses -- Molecular phylogenetics -- Braconid classification -- Eoichneumoninae† -- Trachypetiformes -- Trachypetinae -- Cyclostomes incertae sedis -- Protorhyssalinae et al. -- Apozyginae -- The aphidioid clade or 'Gondwanan' complex -- Aphidiinae -- Maxfischeriinae -- Mesostoinae (including Canberreriini and Hydrangeocolini) -- The remaining cyclostomes -- Doryctinae (including Ypsistocerini) -- Pambolinae -- Rhysipolinae -- Rhyssalinae -- Rogadinae s.l., Hormiinae, Lysiterminae -- Betylobraconinae -- Hormiinae -- Lysiterminae.
Rogadinae sensu stricto -- Alysioid subcomplex, including Braconinae -- Alysiinae and Opiinae -- Alysiinae -- General Alysiinae biology -- Alysiini -- Dacnusini -- Opiinae -- Braconinae -- Exothecinae -- Gnamptodontinae (= Gnaptodontinae) -- Telengaiinae -- The non-cyclostomes -- Sigalphoid complex -- Agathidinae -- Sigalphinae -- Helconoid complex -- Helconinae -- Helconoid group incertae sedis -- Blacinae -- Acampsohelconinae -- Macrocentrine subcomplex -- Macrocentrinae -- Charmontiinae -- Amicrocentrinae -- Xiphozelinae -- Homolobinae -- Microtypinae -- Orgilinae -- Euphoroid complex -- Euphorinae -- Cenocoeliinae -- The microgastroids -- Cardiochilinae -- Cheloninae (including Adeliini) -- Dirrhopinae -- Ichneutinae -- Khoikhoiinae -- Mendesellinae -- Microgastrinae -- Miracinae -- Unplaced subfamilies -- Masoninae -- Meteorideinae -- Chapter 13 Phylogeny and Systematics of the Ichneumonidae -- History of ichneumonid classification -- Henry Townes (1913--90) and his idiosyncratic nomenclature -- The extinct subfamilies -- Tanychorinae -- Palaeoichneumoninae -- Labenopimplinae -- Pherombinae -- Townesitinae -- The xoridiformes -- Xoridinae -- The labeniformes -- Labeninae -- Groteini -- Labenini -- Poecilocryptini -- The pimpliformes -- Acaenitinae -- Collyriinae -- Cylloceriinae -- Diacritinae -- Diplazontinae -- Orthocentrinae (= Helictinae) -- Pimplinae -- Delomeristini -- Ephialtini (= Pimplini of Townes) -- Polysphincta group -- Pimplini -- Poemeniinae (= Neoxoridinae) -- Poemeniini -- Pseudorhyssini -- Rodrigamini -- Rhyssinae -- The ichneumoniformes -- Adelognathinae -- Agriotypinae -- Alomyinae -- Cryptinae -- Aptesini -- Cryptini -- Phygadeuontini -- Ichneumoninae -- The brachycyrtiformes -- Brachycyrtinae -- Claseinae (Clasinae) -- Pedunculinae -- The orthopelmatiformes -- Orthopelmatinae -- The ophioniformes -- Lower ophioniformes.
Banchinae -- Lycorininae -- Sisyrostolinae -- Stilbopinae -- Tryphoninae -- Middle ophioniformes -- Ctenopelmatinae -- Mesochorinae -- Metopiinae -- Oxytorinae -- Tatogastrinae -- Tersilochinae (including Neorhacodinae and Phrudinae s.s.) -- Higher ophioniformes -- Anomaloninae -- Campopleginae -- Cremastinae -- Hybrizontinae -- Nesomesochorinae -- Ophioninae -- Unplaced subfamilies -- Eucerotinae -- Microleptinae -- Part 3 Ecology and Diversity -- Chapter 14 Ecology -- Adult diet -- Host-feeding -- Water, sugar and pollen feeding -- Fecundity -- Voltinism and seasonality -- Daily activity patterns -- Diapause -- Cold hardiness, hibernation and overwintering -- Coloration and thermoregulation -- Biological control -- Effect on host food consumption -- Artificial diets -- Artificial hosts -- Use of alternative hosts -- Hyperparasitism and kleptoparasitism -- Predation -- Pathogens -- Transmission of host pathogens -- Dispersal -- Coloration and mimetic rings -- Palatability and odours -- Competition -- Apparent competition -- Host ranges of parasitoids -- Parasitoid guilds and food webs -- Evolution of host ranges and speciation -- Chapter 15 Local and Global Patterns in Diversity -- Field research in the tropics and anomalous diversity -- Estimation of global ichneumonoid species richness -- Distribution related to climate and latitude -- The nasty host hypothesis -- Biogeography -- Islands and their parasitoid faunas -- Species accumulation curves -- Altitudinal gradients -- Estimating local species diversity -- Ichneumonoidea as biodiversity indicators -- Conservation -- Effect of habitat degradation on ichneumonoid composition -- Significance of cryptic species -- Chapter 16 Collecting and Rearing Ichneumonoidea -- Field collecting adults -- Pan traps -- Sweep netting -- Light trapping -- Canopy fogging -- Malaise traps.
Rearings from wild-collected hosts.
Summary: The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily of parasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimated numbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. The superfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae and Ichneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups of researchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant that understanding of their adaptive features has often been considered in isolation. This book considers both families, highlighting similarities and differences in their adaptations. The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, along with most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology whereby undue importance has been attributed to particular characters in defining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditional taxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have been associated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of the group, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessible identification materials, has been a further impediment to research on all but a handful of 'lab rat' species usually cultured initially because of their potential in biological control. New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shown that many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomical characters associated with basic life history features, specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiont or koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogeny they suggest. This book shows how, with better supported phylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more about the ways natural selection is acting upon them. This new book also focuses on this superfamily with which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailed coverage of each subfamily, emphasising  anatomy, taxonomy andSummary: systematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance and research potential of each group. Fossil taxa are included and it also has sections on biogeography, global species richness, culturing and rearing and preparing specimens for taxonomic study. The book highlights areas where research might be particularly rewarding and suggests systems/groups that need investigation. The author provides a large compendium of references to original research on each group. This book is an essential workmate for all postgraduates and researchers working on ichneumonoid or other parasitic wasps worldwide. It will stand as a reference book for a good number of years, and while rapid advances in various fields such as genomics and host physiological interactions will lead to new information, as an overall synthesis of the current state it will stay relevant for a long time.
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Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Chapter 1 Introduction -- Life history -- Systematics -- Part 1 Morphology and Biology -- Chapter 2 Adult External Morphology -- Head -- Antennal sensilla -- Antennal glands and tyloids -- Palps -- Mesosoma -- Legs -- Wings, wing venation and wing cells -- Confusing and sometimes erroneously applied vein names -- Wing flexion lines -- Metasoma -- Sexual dimorphism -- Male external genitalia -- Chapter 3 The Ovipositor and Ovipositor Sheaths -- The act of oviposition -- Functional morphology of wood-drillers -- Ovipositor stabilisation guides and buckling force -- Ovipositor notches and endoparasitism -- Ovipositor steering mechanisms -- Proposed evolutionary and related ovipositor transitions -- Number, position and possible functions of ovipositor valvilli -- Venom retention and delivery -- Ovipositor secretory pores -- Ovipositor sensilla -- Ovipositor sheaths -- Chapter 4 Internal and Reproductive Anatomy -- Nervous system -- Digestive tract -- Female internal reproductive system -- Ovaries -- Time scale of egg maturation -- Spermatheca -- Common oviduct and vaginal gland -- Venom gland and reservoir -- Dufour's gland -- Cuticular hydrocarbons -- Sex pheromones -- Male internal reproductive system -- Sperm ultrastructure -- Spermatogeny index -- Chapter 5 Immature Stages -- Eggs and OÖgenesis -- Hydropic and anhydropic eggs -- Embryogenesis -- Embryonic membranes -- Larva -- Larval feeding and nutrition -- Larval food consumption and dietary efficiency -- Lipid metabolism -- Respiration in endoparasitoids -- Larval secretions -- The pupal stage -- Cocoons -- Chapter 6 Idiobionts, Koinobionts and Other Life History Traits -- Parasitoidism -- Idiobiont and koinobiont strategies -- Generalists and specialists -- Ecto- and endoparasitism -- Permanent host paralysis.

Gregarious development -- Superparasitism -- Larval combat and physiological suppression -- Adaptive superparasitism -- Multiparasitism -- Obligate and preferential multiparasitism -- Hyperparasitism and pseudohyperparasitism -- Kleptoparasitism -- Evolution of life history strategies -- Chapter 7 Sex, Courtship and Mating -- Sex determination -- Local mate competition and avoidance of inbreeding -- Sex allocation -- Protandry and virginity -- Thelytoky and cytoplasmic incompatibility -- Mate location -- Courtship -- Swarming and lekking -- Mating position -- Multiple mating and sperm competition -- Sex-related scent glands -- Genome size and recombination -- Cytogenetics -- Chapter 8 Host Location, Associative Learning and Host Assessment -- Tritrophic interactions -- Host acceptance -- Associative learning -- Biosensors -- Patch use -- Chapter 9 Overcoming Host Immune Reaction and Physiological Interactions with Host -- Overcoming host immunity in endoparasitoids -- Passive evasion of encapsulation by parasitoid eggs -- Avoiding encapsulation by physical means -- Effect of host age and haemocyte number -- Other host defence mechanisms -- Venoms -- Neurophysiological venom actions -- Venom effects on host immune response -- Polydnaviruses -- Effects of polydnaviruses on hosts -- Other reproductive viruses -- Improving host quality -- Host castration and similar effects -- Teratocytes -- Intraspecific variation in resistance to parasitoids -- Effects on host moulting pattern -- Parasitoid-induced changes in host behaviour -- Chapter 10 Convergent Adaptations -- Antennal hammers and vibrational sounding -- Enlarged mandibles -- Chisel-like mandibles -- Concealed nectar extraction apparatus -- Reduced number of palpal segments -- 'Facial' protruberances -- Frontal depressions -- Dorsal ridges on head or mesosoma -- Brachyptery and aptery.

Dorso-ventral flattening -- Postpectal carina -- Propodeal spines -- 'Fossorial' legs -- Fore tibial spines -- Fore tibial apical tooth -- Expanded hind basitarsi -- Toothed hind femur -- Distitarsal scraper -- Pectinate claws and claws with angular basal lobes -- Glabrous wing patches and wing membrane scleromes -- Carapacisation -- Petiolate metasomas -- Modifications to the posterior metasomal margin -- Spermathecal colour -- Compression of apical part of metasoma -- The 'ophionoid facies' -- White antennal stripes and tips -- White ovipositor sheath stripes and tips -- Number of larval instars -- Egg-larval parasitism -- Disc-like larval antennae -- Reduction of larval hypostomal spur -- Wide and heavily sclerotised larval epistoma -- Suspended cocoons -- Polyembryony -- Phytophagy and cecidogenesis -- Part 2 Taxonomic and Systematic Treatment -- Chapter 11 Overview of Ichneumonoidea: Relationships and Systematics -- Monophyly of Ichneumonoidea, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae -- Relationship of Ichneumonoidea to other Hymenoptera -- Fossil history and family-level phylogeny -- Brief history of classification -- Ancestral biology of Ichneumonoidea -- Separating ichneumonids from braconids -- Identifying specimens -- Chapter 12 Phylogeny and Systematics of the Braconidae -- Historical perspective -- Morphophylogenetic hypotheses -- Molecular phylogenetics -- Braconid classification -- Eoichneumoninae† -- Trachypetiformes -- Trachypetinae -- Cyclostomes incertae sedis -- Protorhyssalinae et al. -- Apozyginae -- The aphidioid clade or 'Gondwanan' complex -- Aphidiinae -- Maxfischeriinae -- Mesostoinae (including Canberreriini and Hydrangeocolini) -- The remaining cyclostomes -- Doryctinae (including Ypsistocerini) -- Pambolinae -- Rhysipolinae -- Rhyssalinae -- Rogadinae s.l., Hormiinae, Lysiterminae -- Betylobraconinae -- Hormiinae -- Lysiterminae.

Rogadinae sensu stricto -- Alysioid subcomplex, including Braconinae -- Alysiinae and Opiinae -- Alysiinae -- General Alysiinae biology -- Alysiini -- Dacnusini -- Opiinae -- Braconinae -- Exothecinae -- Gnamptodontinae (= Gnaptodontinae) -- Telengaiinae -- The non-cyclostomes -- Sigalphoid complex -- Agathidinae -- Sigalphinae -- Helconoid complex -- Helconinae -- Helconoid group incertae sedis -- Blacinae -- Acampsohelconinae -- Macrocentrine subcomplex -- Macrocentrinae -- Charmontiinae -- Amicrocentrinae -- Xiphozelinae -- Homolobinae -- Microtypinae -- Orgilinae -- Euphoroid complex -- Euphorinae -- Cenocoeliinae -- The microgastroids -- Cardiochilinae -- Cheloninae (including Adeliini) -- Dirrhopinae -- Ichneutinae -- Khoikhoiinae -- Mendesellinae -- Microgastrinae -- Miracinae -- Unplaced subfamilies -- Masoninae -- Meteorideinae -- Chapter 13 Phylogeny and Systematics of the Ichneumonidae -- History of ichneumonid classification -- Henry Townes (1913--90) and his idiosyncratic nomenclature -- The extinct subfamilies -- Tanychorinae -- Palaeoichneumoninae -- Labenopimplinae -- Pherombinae -- Townesitinae -- The xoridiformes -- Xoridinae -- The labeniformes -- Labeninae -- Groteini -- Labenini -- Poecilocryptini -- The pimpliformes -- Acaenitinae -- Collyriinae -- Cylloceriinae -- Diacritinae -- Diplazontinae -- Orthocentrinae (= Helictinae) -- Pimplinae -- Delomeristini -- Ephialtini (= Pimplini of Townes) -- Polysphincta group -- Pimplini -- Poemeniinae (= Neoxoridinae) -- Poemeniini -- Pseudorhyssini -- Rodrigamini -- Rhyssinae -- The ichneumoniformes -- Adelognathinae -- Agriotypinae -- Alomyinae -- Cryptinae -- Aptesini -- Cryptini -- Phygadeuontini -- Ichneumoninae -- The brachycyrtiformes -- Brachycyrtinae -- Claseinae (Clasinae) -- Pedunculinae -- The orthopelmatiformes -- Orthopelmatinae -- The ophioniformes -- Lower ophioniformes.

Banchinae -- Lycorininae -- Sisyrostolinae -- Stilbopinae -- Tryphoninae -- Middle ophioniformes -- Ctenopelmatinae -- Mesochorinae -- Metopiinae -- Oxytorinae -- Tatogastrinae -- Tersilochinae (including Neorhacodinae and Phrudinae s.s.) -- Higher ophioniformes -- Anomaloninae -- Campopleginae -- Cremastinae -- Hybrizontinae -- Nesomesochorinae -- Ophioninae -- Unplaced subfamilies -- Eucerotinae -- Microleptinae -- Part 3 Ecology and Diversity -- Chapter 14 Ecology -- Adult diet -- Host-feeding -- Water, sugar and pollen feeding -- Fecundity -- Voltinism and seasonality -- Daily activity patterns -- Diapause -- Cold hardiness, hibernation and overwintering -- Coloration and thermoregulation -- Biological control -- Effect on host food consumption -- Artificial diets -- Artificial hosts -- Use of alternative hosts -- Hyperparasitism and kleptoparasitism -- Predation -- Pathogens -- Transmission of host pathogens -- Dispersal -- Coloration and mimetic rings -- Palatability and odours -- Competition -- Apparent competition -- Host ranges of parasitoids -- Parasitoid guilds and food webs -- Evolution of host ranges and speciation -- Chapter 15 Local and Global Patterns in Diversity -- Field research in the tropics and anomalous diversity -- Estimation of global ichneumonoid species richness -- Distribution related to climate and latitude -- The nasty host hypothesis -- Biogeography -- Islands and their parasitoid faunas -- Species accumulation curves -- Altitudinal gradients -- Estimating local species diversity -- Ichneumonoidea as biodiversity indicators -- Conservation -- Effect of habitat degradation on ichneumonoid composition -- Significance of cryptic species -- Chapter 16 Collecting and Rearing Ichneumonoidea -- Field collecting adults -- Pan traps -- Sweep netting -- Light trapping -- Canopy fogging -- Malaise traps.

Rearings from wild-collected hosts.

The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily of parasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimated numbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. The superfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae and Ichneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups of researchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant that understanding of their adaptive features has often been considered in isolation. This book considers both families, highlighting similarities and differences in their adaptations. The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, along with most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology whereby undue importance has been attributed to particular characters in defining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditional taxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have been associated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of the group, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessible identification materials, has been a further impediment to research on all but a handful of 'lab rat' species usually cultured initially because of their potential in biological control. New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shown that many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomical characters associated with basic life history features, specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiont or koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogeny they suggest. This book shows how, with better supported phylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more about the ways natural selection is acting upon them. This new book also focuses on this superfamily with which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailed coverage of each subfamily, emphasising  anatomy, taxonomy and

systematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance and research potential of each group. Fossil taxa are included and it also has sections on biogeography, global species richness, culturing and rearing and preparing specimens for taxonomic study. The book highlights areas where research might be particularly rewarding and suggests systems/groups that need investigation. The author provides a large compendium of references to original research on each group. This book is an essential workmate for all postgraduates and researchers working on ichneumonoid or other parasitic wasps worldwide. It will stand as a reference book for a good number of years, and while rapid advances in various fields such as genomics and host physiological interactions will lead to new information, as an overall synthesis of the current state it will stay relevant for a long time.

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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2019. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.

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